[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Although altered regulation of the Wnt pathway via beta-catenin is a frequent event in several human cancers, its potential implications in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC/OPSCC) are largely unexplored. Work purpose was to define association between beta-catenin expression and clinical-pathological parameters in 374 OSCCs/OP-SCCs by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Materials and Methods. Association between IHC detected patterns of protein expression and clinical-pathological parameters was assessed by statistical analysis and survival rates by Kaplan-Meier curves. Beta-catenin expression was also investigated in OSCC cell lines by Real-Time PCR. An additional analysis of the DNA content was performed on 22 representative OSCCs/OPSCCs by DNA-image-cytometric analysis. Results and Discussion. All carcinomas exhibited significant alterations of beta-catenin expression (P < 0.05). Beta-catenin protein was mainly detected in the cytoplasm of cancerous cells and only focal nuclear positivity was observed. Higher cytoplasmic expression correlated significantly with poor histological differentiation, advanced stage, and worst patient outcome (P < 0.05). By Real-Time PCR significant increase of beta-catenin mRNA was detected in OSCC cell lines and in 45% of surgical specimens. DNA ploidy study demonstrated high levels of aneuploidy in beta-catenin overexpressing carcinomas. Conclusions. This is the largest study reporting significant association between beta-catenin expression and clinical-pathological factors in patients with OSCCs/OPSCCs.
BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:948264.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery that survivin, a small anti-apoptotic protein, is involved in chemoresistance, opens a new scenario to overcome the drug resistance in cancer. It was shown that siRNA can efficiently inhibit the expression of survivin in cancer cells. However, the clinical use of siRNA is still hampered by an unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile. To address this problem, earlier we developed a novel system to deliver siRNA into cancer cells. Namely, we reversibly modified the survivin siRNA with a phosphothioethanol (PE) portion via a reducible disulfide bond and incorporated the resulting siRNA-S-S-PE conjugate into nanosized polyethyelene glycol2000-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG2000-PE)-based polymeric micelles (PM), obtaining survivin siRNA PM. The activity of these nanopreparations was evaluated by survivin protein down-regulation, tumor cell growth inhibition, and chemosensitization of the treated tumor cells to paclitaxel (PXL). We found a significant decrease of cell viability and down-regulation of survivin protein levels after treatment with survivin siRNA PM in several cancer cell lines. In addition, the down-regulation of survivin by treating cells with survivin siRNA PM, elicited a significant sensitization of the cells to PXL, in both sensitive and resistant cancer cell lines. Finally, we demonstrate successful co-delivery of PXL and survivin siRNA in the same PM leading to superior therapeutic activity compared to their sequential administration. Our results support the use of this new platform for the treatment of the most aggressive tumors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrinsic and acquired drug resistance of tumor cells still causes the failure of treatment regimens in advanced human cancers. It may be driven by intrinsic tumor cells features, or may also arise from micro environmental influences. Hypoxia is a microenvironment feature associated with the aggressiveness and metastasizing ability of human solid cancers. Hypoxic cancer cells overexpress Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA IX). CA IX ensures a favorable tumor intracellular pH, while contributing to stromal acidosis, which facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis. The overexpression of CA IX is considered an epiphenomenon of the presence of hypoxic, aggressive tumor cells. Recently, it has been hypothesized the relationship between CA IX overexpression and the cancer stem cells (CSCs) population. CSC, are strictly regulated by tumor hypoxia, and drive a major non-mutational mechanism of cancer drug-resistance. We reviewed the current data concerning the role of CA IX overexpression in human malignancies, extending such information to expression of the stem-cells markers CD44 and nestin in solid cancers, to explore their relationship with the biological behavior of tumors. CA IX is heavily expressed in the advanced tumors. A positive trend of correlation between CA IX overexpression, tumor stage/grade and poor outcome emerged. Moreover, stromal CA IX expression was associated with adverse events occurrence, maybe signaling the direct action of CA IX in directing the mesenchymal changes that favor tumor invasion; in addition, membranous/cytoplasmatic co-overexpression of CA IX and stem cells markers was found in several aggressive tumors. This suggests that CA IX targeting could indirectly deplete CSCs and counteract resistance of solid cancers in the clinical setting.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 08/2013; · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T(1;14) (p22;q32) involving BCL10 and IGH genes is a rare but recurrent chromosomal aberration in MALT-type lymphoma. It is rarely described in ocular adnexa B cell lymphomas, although nuclear BCL10 shuttling seems to be critical for disease progression in this district. We have evaluated the translocations MALT lymphoma-related in a series of 45 ocular adnexa cases, focusing in particular on their relation with BCL10 expression and its cellular topographic distribution. A prognostic tissue microarray (TMA) with ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas was designed. A study of BCL10 expression and its topographic distribution was performed through immunohistochemistry. In addition the assessment of t(14;18) (q32;q21), t(1;14) (p22;q32) and t(11;18) (q21;q21) was determined by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Our series revealed t(14;18) (q32;q21) in 6/43 cases (14,3%). t(1;14) (p22;q32), never described in ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas, was observed in 3/31 (9,7%), two of which exhibited the gain of 3' upstream BCL10 gene signal (4%), whereas no case showed t(11;18) (q21;q21). Moreover, BCL10 expression was observed in 18/45 cases. In particular its nuclear expression was revealed in 12/45 cases, cytoplasmic expression in 5/45 and both cytoplasmic and nuclear expression in 1/45. Statistical analysis demonstrated that while BCL10 cytoplasmic expression is significantly related to the presence of the investigated chromosomal aberrations, in particular with t(14;18) (q32;q21), BCL10 nuclear shuttling does not show any correlation with these translocations. Our data support that BCL10 nuclear distribution is neither related to BCL10 rearrangement nor to other known translocations.
Histology and histopathology 07/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis and avascular necrosis (AVN) are long-lasting and debilitating complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the magnitude of bone loss, AVN and impairment in osteogenic cell compartment following autologous (auto) and allogeneic (allo) HSCT, through the retrospective bone damage revaluation of 100 (50 auto- and 50 allo-HSCT) long-term survivors up to 15 years after transplant. Current treatment options for the management of these complications are also outlined. We found that auto- and allo-HSCT recipients show accelerated bone mineral loss and micro-architectural deterioration during the first years after transplant. Bone mass density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, but not at the femur neck, may improve in some patients after HSCT, suggesting more prolonged bone damage in cortical bone. Phalangeal BMD values remained low for even more years, suggesting persistent bone micro-architectural alterations after transplant. The incidence of AVN was higher in allo-HSCT recipients compared to auto-HSCT recipients. Steroid treatment length, but not its cumulative dose was associated with a higher incidence of bone loss. Allo-HSCT recipients affected by chronic graft versus host disease seem to be at greater risk of continuous bone loss and AVN development. Reduced BMD and higher incidence of AVN was partly related to a reduced regenerating capacity of the normal marrow osteogenic cell compartment. Our results suggest that all patients after auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT should be evaluated for their bone status and treated with anti-resorptive therapy as soon as abnormalities are detected.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate potentialities of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres for the delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) to achieve prolonged and efficient inhibition of TNF-α for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PLGA microspheres were prepared by a modified multiple emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The formulations were characterized in terms of morphology, mean diameter and siRNAs distribution, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release kinetics. The efficiency of this system was then evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using the murine monocytic cell line J774 and a pre-clinical model of RA, respectively. siRNA-encapsulating PLGA microspheres were characterized by a high encapsulation efficiency and a slow and prolonged anti-TNF-α siRNAs. Our results provide evidence that, upon intra-articular administration, PLGA microspheres slowly releasing siRNAs effectively inhibited the expression of TNF-α in arthritic joints. Our system might represent an alternative strategy for the design of novel anti-rheumatic therapies based on the use of RNA interference in RA.
European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 08/2012; · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of lymph node metastases in patients with atypical Spitz nevi (ASN) after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and during follow-up, and to assess the diagnostic value of the surgical procedure.
At the National Cancer Institute of Naples, Italy, 40 patients with ASN underwent SLNB between 2003 and 2011. Medical records were reviewed and all slides of the primary tumours were retrieved, rendered separately, and assessed by four experienced dermatopathologists from two different academic institutions. Each member of the review panel assessed slides separately without recourse to medical notes and blinded to each others' diagnosis. All patients were treated with wide local excision and SLN biopsy according to the standard procedure. All cases were followed up to assess outcomes.
The original diagnosis of ASN was confirmed in all 40 cases. No sentinel node positivity was recorded, and no patients developed nodal involvement during a median follow-up of 46 months (range 16-103). All patients were alive and without evidence of locoregional or distant relapse at time of review.
In our experience, ASN were not associated with metastatic potential. Surgical staging procedures are not justified and careful clinical surveillance is adequate.
European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 06/2012; 38(10):932-5. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mascolo M, Ilardi G, Romano M F, Celetti A, Siano M, Romano S, Luise C, Merolla F, Rocco A, Vecchione M L, De Rosa G & Staibano S (2012) Histopathology Overexpression of chromatin assembly factor-1 p60, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and nestin predicts metastasizing behaviour of oral cancer Aims: The natural history of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) is variable and difficult to predict. This study aimed to assess the value of the expression of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1)/p60 and the stem cell markers CD133, CD166, CD44, CD44v6 and nestin as markers of outcome and progression-free survival in OSCC patients. Methods: Clinical data were collected from 66 patients (41 male and 25 female, aged 29-92 years) who underwent surgery for OSCC of the tongue, floor, lips, and palate. During follow-up (range: 12-131 months), 14 patients experienced relapse/metastasis and/or death. The study was performed by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tumour tissues, western blot analysis of tumour protein lysates and human cell lines, and RNA silencing assays. In addition, the human papillomavirus (HPV) status of primary tumours was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and viral subtyping. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the correlation between these parameters and the clinical and pathological variables of the study population. Results and conclusions: We found that a PARP-1(high) /CAF-1 p60(high) /nestin(high) phenotype characterized the OSCCs with the worst prognosis (all HPV-negative). This may be of benefit in clinical management, since radio-enhancing anti-PARP-1 and/or anti-CAF-1/p60 agents may allow radioresistance to be bypassed in the nestin-overexpressing, metastasizing OSCC cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ocular adnexa MALT-lymphomas represent approximatively 5-15% of all extranodal lymphomas. Almost 75% of OAMLs are localized in orbital fat, while 25% of cases involves conjunctive. MALT-lymphomas often recognize specific environmental factors responsible of lymphoma development and progression. In particular as Helicobacter pylori in gastric MALT lymphomas, other bacterial infections have been recognized related to MALT lymphomas in specific site. Recently Chlamydia psittaci has been identified in Ocular Adnexa MALT lymphomas, with variable frequence dependently from geographic areas. Thus bacterial infection is responsible of clonal selection on induced MALT with subsequent lymphoma development. Moreover Chlamydia psittaci could promote chromosomal aberration either through genetic instability as a consequence of induced proliferation and probably through DNA oxidative damage. The most common translocation described in MALT lymphomas affects NF-kB pathway with a substantial antiapoptotic effect. Several therapeutic approaches are now available, but the use of antibiotic-therapy in specific cases, although with conflicting results, could improve the treatment of ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas. In this review we analyse the most relevant features of Ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas, underlining specific biological characteristics mainly related to the potential role of Chlamydia psittaci in lymphomagenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent emerging evidences identify Human Papillomavirus (HPV) related Head and Neck squamous cell carcinomas (HN-SCCs) as a separate subgroup among Head and Neck Cancers with different epidemiology, histopathological characteristics, therapeutic response to chemo-radiation treatment and clinical outcome. However, there is not a worldwide consensus on the methods to be used in clinical practice. The endpoint of this study was to demonstrate the reliability of a triple method which combines evaluation of: 1. p16 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (p16-IHC); 2. HPV-DNA genotyping by consensus HPV-DNA PCR methods (Consensus PCR); and 3 viral integration into the host by in situ hybridization method (ISH). This triple method has been applied to HN-SCC originated from oral cavity (OSCC) and oropharynx (OPSCC), the two anatomical sites in which high risk (HR) HPVs have been clearly implicated as etiologic factors. Methylation-Specific PCR (MSP) was performed to study inactivation of p16-CDKN2a locus by epigenetic events. Reliability of multiple methods was measured by Kappa statistics.
All the HN-SCCs confirmed HPV positive by PCR and/or ISH were also p16 positive by IHC, with the latter showing a very high level of sensitivity as single test (100% in both OSCC and OPSCC) but lower specificity level (74% in OSCC and 93% in OPSCC).Concordance analysis between ISH and Consensus PCR showed a faint agreement in OPSCC (κ = 0.38) and a moderate agreement in OSCC (κ = 0.44). Furthermore, the addition of double positive score (ISHpositive and Consensus PCR positive) increased significantly the specificity of HR-HPV detection on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples (100% in OSCC and 78.5% in OPSCC), but reduced the sensitivity (33% in OSCC and 60% in OPSCC). The significant reduction of sensitivity by the double method was compensated by a very high sensitivity of p16-IHC detection in the triple approach.
Although HR-HPVs detection is of utmost importance in clinical settings for the Head and Neck Cancer patients, there is no consensus on which to consider the 'golden standard' among the numerous detection methods available either as single test or combinations. Until recently, quantitative E6 RNA PCR has been considered the 'golden standard' since it was demonstrated to have very high accuracy level and very high statistical significance associated with prognostic parameters. In contrast, quantitative E6 DNA PCR has proven to have very high level of accuracy but lesser prognostic association with clinical outcome than the HPV E6 oncoprotein RNA PCR. However, although it is theoretically possible to perform quantitative PCR detection methods also on FFPE samples, they reach the maximum of accuracy on fresh frozen tissue. Furthermore, worldwide diagnostic laboratories have not all the same ability to analyze simultaneously both FFPE and fresh tissues with these quantitative molecular detection methods. Therefore, in the current clinical practice a p16-IHC test is considered as sufficient for HPV diagnostic in accordance with the recently published Head and Neck Cancer international guidelines. Although p16-IHC may serve as a good prognostic indicator, our study clearly demonstrated that it is not satisfactory when used exclusively as the only HPV detecting method. Adding ISH, although known as less sensitive than PCR-based detection methods, has the advantage to preserve the morphological context of HPV-DNA signals in FFPE samples and, thus increase the overall specificity of p16/Consensus PCR combination tests.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology-based drug delivery was born as a chance for pharmaceutical weapons to be delivered in the body sites where drug action is required. Specifically, the incorporation of anti-cancer agents in nanodevices of 100-300 nm allows their delivery in tissues that have a fenestrated vasculature and a reduced lymphatic drainage. These two features are typical of neoplastic tissues and, therefore, allow the accumulation of nanostructured devices in tumours. An important issue of anti-cancer pharmacological strategies is the overcoming of anatomical barriers such as the bloodbrain- barrier (BBB) that protects brain from toxicological injuries but, at the same time, makes impossible for most of the pharmacological agents with anti-cancer activity to reach tumour cells placed in the brain and derived from either primary tumours or metastases. In fact, only highly lipophilic molecules can passively diffuse through BBB to reach central nervous system (CNS). Another possibility is to use nanotechnological approaches as powerful tools to across BBB, by both prolonging the plasma half-life of the drugs and crossing fenestrations of BBB damaged by brain metastases. Moreover, modifications of nanocarrier surface with specific endogenous or exogenous ligands can promote the crossing of intact BBB as in the case of primary brain tumours. This aim can be achieved through the binding of the nanodevices to carriers or receptors expressed by the endothelial cells of BBB and that can favour the internalization of the nanostructured devices delivering anti-cancer drugs. This review summarizes the most meaningful advances in the field of nanotechnologies for brain delivery of drugs.
Current cancer drug targets 01/2012; 12(3):186-96. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The colorectal carcinoma represents one of the most common and aggressive malignancies, still characterized by an unacceptable mortality rate, mainly due to the high metastatic potential and to a late diagnosis. In the last years, the research community focused on the chance of improving the endoscopic screening to detect neoplastic lesions in a very early stage. Several studies proposed aberrant colonic crypt foci as the earliest recognizable step of transformation in colonic multiphase carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated the clinical applicability and predictive power of probe-based confocal laser endoscopy (pCLE) in superficial colorectal neoplastic lesions and also characterized in vivo a case of dysplasia-associated lesional mass (DALM) in ulcerative colitis. Now, we aim to evaluate the accuracy of pCLE in the detection of ACF comparing in double-blind manner the microendoscopic and histopathological features resulting from colonic biopsy. By pCLE, we identified specific crypt architecture modifications associated with changes in cellular infiltration and vessels architecture, highlighting a good correspondence between pCLE features and histology.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice 01/2012; 2012:645173. · 1.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we aimed to confirm the emerging role of Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1 p60) as a new proliferation and prognostic marker for cancer and to test the usefulness of the tissue microarray technique (TMA) for CAF-1 p60 rapid screening in several human malignancies. CAF-1 is a histone chaperone, regulating chromatin dynamics during DNA replication and repair in eukaryotics. TMA is a powerful high-throughput methodology in the study of cancer, allowing simultaneous assessment of different biomarkers within large numbers of tissue specimens. We generated TMA taking 3 mm diameter-core biopsies from oral squamous cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, salivary gland tumours and skin melanoma specimens, which had been previously tested for CAF-1 p60 on routine tissue sections. We also analysed, for the first time, 30 larynx and 30 skin squamous cell carcinomas. CAF-1 p60 resulted over-expressed in both the tissue sections and the TMA specimens, with the highest levels of expression in tumours which were more aggressive and metastasizing. Notably, a high degree of agreement was found between the CAF-1 p60 assessment on TMAs and on routine tissue sections. Our findings confirm the prognostic role of CAF-1 p60 and indicate TMA as a really advantageous method for CAF-1 p60 immunohistochemical screening, allowing savings on both tissue quantity and operator-time.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(9):11044-62. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region (OSCC) is one of the most common and highly aggressive malignancies worldwide, despite the fact that significant results have been achieved during the last decades in its detection, prevention and treatment. Although many efforts have been made to define the molecular signatures that identify the clinical outcome of oral cancers, OSCC still lacks reliable prognostic molecular markers. Scientific evidence indicates that transition from normal epithelium to pre-malignancy, and finally to oral carcinoma, depends on the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a multistep process. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic changes are heritable and potentially reversible. The most common examples of such changes are DNA methylation, histone modification, and small non-coding RNAs. Although several epigenetic changes have been currently linked to OSCC initiation and progression, they have been only partially characterized. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that especially aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in oral cancer. The major goal of the present paper is to review the recent literature about the epigenetic modifications contribution in early and later phases of OSCC malignant transformation; in particular we point out the current evidence of epigenetic marks as novel markers for early diagnosis and prognosis as well as potential therapeutic targets in oral cancer.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(2):2331-53. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polycomb transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) overexpression can be causally implicated in experimental tumor growth and metastasization. To date, there is no clinical evidence of YY1 involvement in outcome of patients with osteosarcoma. Prognosis of osteosarcoma is still severe and only few patients survive beyond five years. We performed a prospective immunohistochemistry analysis to correlate YY1 immunostaining with metastatic development and survival in a selected homogeneous group of patients with osteosarcoma.
We studied 41 patients suffering from osteosarcoma (stage II-IVa). Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard regression to evaluate the correlation between YY1 expression and both metastasis development and mortality.
YY1 protein is not usually present in normal bone; in contrast, a high number of patients (61%) showed a high score of YY1 positive cells (51-100%) and 39% had a low score (10-50% positive cells). No statistical difference was found in histology, anatomic sites, or response to chemotherapy between the two degrees of YY1 expression. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the highest score of YY1 expression was predictive of both low metastasis-free survival (HR = 4.690, 95%CI = 1.079-20.396; p = 0.039) and poor overall survival (HR = 8.353, 95%CI = 1.863-37.451 p = 0.006) regardless of the effects of covariates such as age, gender, histology and chemonecrosis.
Overexpression of YY1 in primary site of osteosarcoma is associated with the occurrence of metastasis and poor clinical outcome.