Gang Wang

State Oceanic Administration, Tsingtao, Shandong Sheng, China

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Publications (103)296.82 Total impact

  • Min Lin · Gang Zhao · Gang Wang
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, recurrence plot (RP) and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) techniques are applied to a magnitude time series composed of seismic events occurred in California region. Using bootstrapping techniques, we give the statistical test of the RQA for detecting dynamical transitions. From our results, we find the different patterns of RPs for magnitude time series before and after the M6.1 Joshua Tree Earthquake. RQA measurements of determinism (DET) and laminarity (LAM) quantifying the order with confidence levels also show peculiar behaviors. It is found that DET and LAM values of the recurrence-based complexity measure significantly increase to a large value at the main shock, and then gradually recovers to a small values after it. The main shock and its aftershock sequences trigger a temporary growth in order and complexity of the deterministic structure in the RP of seismic activity. It implies that the onset of the strong earthquake event is reflected in a sharp and great simultaneous change in RQA measures.
    International Journal of Modern Physics C 11/2015; 26(7). DOI:10.1142/S0129183115500771 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel amphiphilic biodegradable cholesterol and poly(ethylene glycol)-folate grafted poly(α,β-malic acid) (PMA-g-Chol/PEG-FA) was synthesized and characterized as self-assembled nanoparticles for targeted delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). The nanoparticles showed extremely low critical aggregation concentrations (CAC), appropriate zeta potential, narrow size distribution, good stability in serum conditions and negligible toxicity. After encapsulation of DOX, PMA-g-Chol/PEG-FA nanoparticles showed significantly reduced cell viability (up to 30% for Hela and 27% for 4T1 cells) compared with the non-targeted ones on carcinoma cells with different levels of folate receptor (FR) expression. While no difference was detected on HEK293 cells (FR receptor negative) between the two nanoparticles. Addition of extra free folate obviously decreased the cellular mortality and inhibited the cellular uptake of targeted nanoparticles. In the Hela/HEK293 co-culture model, folate conjugated nanoparticles showed specific affiliation with Hela cells other than HEK293 cells, indicating good targeting property of the delivery system. As detected from ex vivo fluorescent imaging, PMA-g-Chol/PEG-FA nanoparticles could accumulate at tumor site with higher selectivity compared to PMA-g-Chol/PEG nanoparticles and DOX · HCl. In vivo antitumor studies confirmed the significant tumor inhibition efficacy of drug-loaded PMA-g-Chol/PEG-FA nanoparticles with lower toxicity to normal tissues than DOX · HCl at the same dosage.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 09/2015; 11(9). DOI:10.1166/jbn.2015.2132 · 5.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The wind stresses and their derived wind stress curls, and Sverdrup stream functions over the South China Sea (SCS) in typical winter and summer months from nine datasets are compared. The datasets include CCMP, CERSAT, ASCAT, QSCAT, NCEP, QSCAT-NCEP, HR, ERA-40, and ERA-Interim. Results show that the overall patterns of the wind stresses, wind stress curls, and Sverdrup stream functions from different datasets are similar. However, their magnitudes are remarkably different. Among them, ERA-40 is the smallest while HR is the largest. The former is about 40 % smaller than the mean value, while the latter is about 50 % greater than the mean value. The spatial resolution is important for the presentation of the wind stress features in the SCS. It can be expected that the same numerical ocean model driven by different wind stress would yield remarkably different results.
    Ocean Dynamics 05/2015; 65(5). DOI:10.1007/s10236-015-0832-z · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For efficient transgene delivery and expression, internalized nucleic acids should quickly escape from cellular endosomes and lysosomes to avoid enzymatic destruction and degradation. Here, we report a novel strategy for safe and efficient endosomal/lysosomal escape of transgenes mediated by Pluronic L64, a neutral amphiphilic triblock copolymer. L64 enhanced the permeability of biomembranes by structural disturbance and pore formation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. When applied at optimal concentration, it rapidly reached the endosome/lysosome compartments, where it facilitated escape of the transfection complex from the compartments and dissociation of the complex. Therefore, when applied properly, L64 not only significantly increased polyethyleneimine- and liposome-mediated transgene expression, but also decreased the cytotoxicity occasioned by transfection process. Our studies revealed the function and mechanism of neutral amphiphilic triblock copolymer as potent mediator for safe and efficient gene delivery.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 03/2015; 7(13). DOI:10.1021/acsami.5b00486 · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transfection efficiency was the primary goal for in vitro gene delivery mediated by nonviral gene carriers. Here, we report a modified gene transfection method that could greatly increase the efficiency of, and accelerate the process mediated by, 25 kDa branched polyethyleneimine and Lipofectamine™ 2000 in a broad range of cell strains, including tumor, normal, primary, and embryonic stem cells. In this method, the combination of transfection procedure with optimized complexation volume had a determinant effect on gene delivery result. The superiorities of the method were found to be related to the change of cellular endocytosis pathway and decrease of particle size. The efficient and simple method established in this study can be widely used for in vitro gene delivery into cultured cells. We think it may also be applicable for many more nonviral gene delivery materials than polyethyleneimine and liposome.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 03/2015; 10:1667-1678. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S77527 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several ionic organic compounds have been employed as additives of the V(V) electrolyte for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) to improve its stability and electrochemical activity. Stability of the V(V) electrolyte with and without additives was investigated with ex-situ heating/cooling treatment over a wide temperature range of -5 °C to 60 °C. It was found that cationic organic compounds could significantly improve the stability of the V(V) electrolyte at a wide range of temperature. Their electrochemical behavior in the V(V) electrolyte were further studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and steady state polarization. The results showed that the electrochemical activity, including the reversibility of electrode reaction, the diffusivity of V(V) species, polarization resistance of V(V) species, the polarization resistance and the flexibility of charge transfer for the V(V) electrolyte with these additives was all improved compared with the pristine solution. The VRB employing positive electrolyte with cationic organic compounds as additive exhibited excellent charge-discharge behavior with an average energy efficiency of more than 80% at a current density of 20 mAcm-2. XPS spectra illustrated that the addition of CHPTAC introduced more oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing functional groups, which improved the electrochemical performance and cycling stability of VRB.
    RSC Advances 11/2014; 4(108). DOI:10.1039/C4RA09108F · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to improve the transfection efficiency (TE) as well as biocompatibility, a series of hyperbranched cationic polymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization between diepoxide and several polyamines. These materials can condense plasmid DNA efficiently into nanoparticles, which have much lower cytotoxicity than those derived from bPEI. In vitro transfection experiments showed that polymers prepared form branched or cyclic polyamine (P1 and P5) exhibited several times higher TE than 25KDa bPEI. More significantly, serum seemed to have no negative effect on P1-P5 mediated transfection. On the contrary, the TE of P1 improved even the serum concentration reached 70%. Several assays demonstrated the excellent serum tolerance of such kind of polycationic vectors: Bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption assay revealed considerably lower protein adsorption of P1-P5 than PEI; P1 showed better DNA protection ability from degradation by DNase I than PEI; Flow cytometry results suggested that any concentration of serum may not decrease the cellular uptake of P1/DNA polyplex; Confocal laser scanning microscope also found that serum has little effect on the transfection. By using specific cellular uptake inhibitors, it was found that the polyplexes enter the cells mainly via caveolae and microtubule-mediated pathways. We believe that this ring-opening polymerization may be an effective synthetic approach toward gene delivery materials with high biological activity.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 09/2014; 6(18). DOI:10.1021/am5046185 · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrophilic-hydrophobic-hydrophilic triblock copolymers, such as Pluronic L64, P85 and P105, have attracted more attention due to their enhancement in muscular gene delivery. In the present study, a new kind of electroneutralized triblock copolymer, LPL: dendron G2(L-lysine-Boc)-PEG2k-dendron G2(L-lysine-Boc), was designed and investigated. This hydrophobic-hydrophilic-hydrophobic copolymer is composed of a structure reverse to L64, one of the most effective materials for intramuscular gene delivery so far. Our results showed that LPL exhibited good in vivo biocompatibility after intramuscular and intravenous administration. LPL mediated higher reporter genes expression than L64 in assays of β-galactosidase (LacZ), luciferase and fluorescent protein E2-Crimson. Furthermore, LPL-mediated mouse growth hormone expression significantly accelerated mouse growth within the first 10 days. Altogether, LPL-mediated gene expression in skeletal muscle exhibits the potential of successful gene therapy. The current study also presented an innovative way to design and construct new electroneutralized triblock copolymers for safe and effective intramuscular gene delivery.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 08/2014; 6(17). DOI:10.1021/am503808b · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has proven efficacy in reducing asthma exacerbations, but the effect size of montelukast (a leukotriene receptor antagonist) for varied severity of asthma exacerbations is not systematically assessed. This study was designed to systematically explore the evidence for montelukast, as first-line or add-on therapy, in preventing and treating asthma exacerbations in adult patients with asthma. Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, Embase, and OVID up to March 2013, where montelukast prevented or treated asthma exacerbations in adults. Primary outcomes were the number of patients experiencing exacerbations in chronic asthma and hospitalizations in acute asthma. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), risk difference, and number needed to treat (NNT) were calculated and pooled. Adverse events were also assessed in chronic asthma. Twenty trials for chronic asthma and six for acute asthma were identified. In comparison with placebo, adults with chronic asthma receiving montelukast had significantly reduced number of exacerbations (OR = 0.60 and 95% CI, 0.49, 0.74; NNT = 17 and 95% CI, 12, 29). However, montelukast was inferior to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.29, 2.0) and ICS plus long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA; OR = 3.94; 95% CI, 1.64, 9.48) as the first-line therapies and LABA (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.42) as the add-on therapies in reducing asthma exacerbations. In acute asthma, montelukast could statistically improve peak expiratory flow percent predicted (p = 0.008) and reduce systemic corticosteroid intake (p = 0.005). Montelukast had low risk in hoarseness and insomnia. Our meta-analysis suggests that montelukast significantly reduces mild, moderate, and part of severe exacerbations in chronic mild to moderate asthma, but it has inferior efficacy to ICS or ICS plus LABA.
    Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 08/2014; 35(4). DOI:10.2500/aap.2014.35.3745 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA (pDNA) to express a therapeutic protein is a promising method for the treatment of many diseases. However, the therapeutic applications are usually hindered by gene delivery efficiency and expression level. In this study, critical factors in a pDNA-based gene therapy system, such as gene delivery materials, a therapeutic gene, and its regulatory elements, were optimized to establish an integrated system for the treatment of mouse hindlimb ischemia. The results showed that Pluronic(®) L64 (L64) was an efficient and safe material for gene delivery into mouse skeletal muscle. It also showed intrinsic ability to promote in vivo angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner, which might be through the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB)-regulated angiogenic factors. The combination of 0.1% L64 with a hybrid gene promoter (pSC) increased the gene expression level, elongated the gene expression duration, and enhanced the number of transfected muscle fibers. In mice ischemic limbs, a gene medicine (pSC-HIF1α(tri)/L64) composed of L64 and pSC-based expression plasmid encoding hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha triple mutant (HIF-1α(tri)), improved the expression of stable HIF-1α, and in turn, the expression of multiple angiogenic factors. As a result, the ischemic limbs showed accelerated function recovery, reduced foot necrosis, faster blood reperfusion, and higher capillary density. These results indicated that the pSC-HIF1α(tri)/L64 combination presented a potential and convenient venue for the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, especially critical limb ischemia.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 07/2014; 9:3439-52. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S65353 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective The purpose of asthma management is to achieve a total asthma control that involves current control and future risk. It has proven efficacy in reducing asthma exacerbations, but the effect size of zafirlukast for asthma exacerbations of various severity is not systematically explored. Methods Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed Central, Web of Science, and Embase, where zafirlukast prevented asthma exacerbations in adults. The primary outcome was asthma exacerbations, the secondary outcomes were asthma exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids and emergency visits, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled. Results Twelve trials were identified. As first-line therapy, compared to those having placebo, the patients with chronic asthma receiving zafirlukast experienced statistically lower asthma exacerbations (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = [0.45, 1.00]), but it was not found that zafirlukast was superior to placebo in asthma exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = [0.45, 1.29]). Furthermore, zafirlukast was inferior to ICs in asthma exacerbations (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = [1.35, 3.30]) and requiring systemic corticosteroids (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = [1.82, 7.59]). As add-on therapy, zafirlukast was not superior to placebo in asthma exacerbations (OR =0.99, 95% CI = [0.54, 1.81] and requiring emergency visits (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = [0.18, 2.99]). Intriguingly, there was not a significant difference in asthma exacerbations between zafirlukast and ICs (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = [0.53, 2.34]). Conclusions Our study suggests that zafirlukast, as the first-line therapy, significantly reduces mild to moderate but not severe asthma exacerbations. In the add-on regimen, zafirlukast could not reduce asthma exacerbations, which would perhaps result from small sample size and needs to be further studied.
    Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine 05/2014; 9(1):30. DOI:10.1186/2049-6958-9-30 · 0.15 Impact Factor
  • Jun Cao · Ting Su · Longgui Zhang · Rong Liu · Gang Wang · Bin He · Zhongwei Gu
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    ABSTRACT: A novel pH-sensitive polymeric micelle was reported. Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ϵ-caprolactone) copolymer with citraconic amide as pH-sensitive bond was synthesized (mPEG-pH-PCL). The copolymers self-assembled into micelles to encapsulate anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The morphology, size and size distribution, drug release profile and in vitro anticancer activity of the DOX loaded mPEG-pH-PCL micelles were studied. The results showed that the mean size of the micelles was around 120nm, the drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency of the mPEG-pH-PCL micelles were 6.8% and 54.3%, respectively. The mean diameter and size distribution of the mPEG-pH-PCL micelles increased significantly when soaking in medium with pH 5.5. The drug release of micelles in pH 5.5 was much faster than that in pH 7.4. The confocal laser microscopy and flow cytometry measurements indicated that the weak acidity of endosomes broke the citraconic amide bonds in the copolymer backbones and triggered the fast release of DOX. The in vitro IC50 of the drug loaded mPEG-pH-PCL micelles was lower than that of drug loaded polymeric micelles without pH-sensitivity to both HepG2 and 4T1 cancer cells.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 05/2014; 471(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.05.010 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films were deposited on bare glass and DC sputtered preferential oriented Mo-coated glass by RF sputtering from a single quaternary target. The structural and morphological properties of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Preferred orientation of the Mo back contact was tuned between (110) and (211) plane by controlling the thickness. All the deposited CIGS thin films show (112) preferred oriented chalcopyrite structures. The films prepared on Mo-coated glass show higher quality crystallinity, better stoichiometry composition and more smooth surface morphology. Especially, the film on (211) oriented Mo-coated glass with the best integrated performance is expected to be a candidate absorber for high-efficiency CIGS solar cell device.
    Applied Physics A 02/2014; 116(4). DOI:10.1007/s00339-014-8334-2 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several acid compounds have been employed as additives of the V(V) electrolyte for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) to improve its stability and electrochemical activity. Stability of the V(V) electrolyte with and without additives was investigated with ex-situ heating/cooling treatment at a wide temperature range of -5 degrees C to 60 degrees C. It was observed that methanesulfonic acid, boric acid, hydrochloric acid, trifluoroacetic acid, polyacrylic acid, oxalic acid, methacrylic acid and phosphotungstic acid could improve the stability of the V(V) electrolyte at a certain range of temperature. Their electrochemical behaviors in the V(V) electrolyte were further studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), steady state polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the electrochemical activity, including the reversibility of electrode reaction, the diffusivity of V(V) species, the polarization resistance and the flexibility of charge transfer for the V(V) electrolyte with these additives were all improved compared with the pristine solution.
    01/2014; 23(1):73–81. DOI:10.1016/S2095-4956(14)60120-0
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    ABSTRACT: A control-based asthma assessment is recommended by guidelines, but questions remain about how to assess the level of asthma control, and how current control status relates to future risks and biomarkers of disease pathogenesis. This review summarizes recent published data relating to asthma control and describes the challenges created by currently available instruments. The current literature continues to show the widespread use of various assessment instruments for asthma control, in particular those with composite scores. However, poor correlations exist between the different assessment tools, and these instruments lack diagnostic accuracy to differentiate uncontrolled asthma. Whereas the concept of asthma control has been extended to add an assessment of future risks to the clinical control, clinical asthma control as measured by current available assessment tools does not necessary relate to the intrinsic disease activity which is typically characterized by inflammation in asthma. The application of asthma control assessment represents an improvement in asthma management. The measurement of underlying disease activity potentially by biomarkers to assess disease control will lead to an improved assessment of the overall control of asthma, and further studies addressing this are needed.
    Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 01/2014; 20(1):1-7. DOI:10.1097/MCP.0000000000000003 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It was reported for the first time that the surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes supported PdIr (PdIr/CNT-SCP) catalyst presents remarkable electrocatalytic activity and stability for formic acid electro-oxidation (FAEO). The surface of CNTs was functionalized by a sonochemical process for the deposition of PdIr nanoparticles (NPs). The XRD and TEM characterizations show that the prepared PdIr/CNT-SCP catalyst has small mean size and good dispersion of PdIr NPs on CNTs. The electrochemical measurements show that the onset and anodic peak potentials of FAEO on PdIr/CNT-SCP catalyst are 60 and 50 mV more negative than that on the commercial Pd/C catalyst. The mass-normalized peak current density of PdIr/CNT-SCP is 3365 mA mg-1Pd, which is 4.5, 1.4 and 2.7 times higher than that of PdIr/CNT-Untreated, PdIr/C-SCP and commercial Pd/C, respectively. It demonstrates the promotion of Ir and functionalized CNTs to Pd for FAEO.
    Applied Surface Science 12/2013; 287:457-460. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.09.179 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A core–shell like Ir/C@Pd catalyst with ultrahigh activity toward formic acid electro-oxidation (FAEO) was prepared by decorating Pd shell on the Ir NPs for the first time. The structure has been demonstrated by XRD, XPS, TEM, EDS and electrochemical techniques. The mass-normalized current density at 0.08 V (vs. SCE) of Ir/C@Pd for FAEO is 3756 mA mg− 1Pd, which is about 3.38 and 4.16 times higher than that of the PdIr/C and commercial Pd/C, respectively. The remarkable performance of Ir/C@Pd should be attributed to its unique core–shell like structure and the enhanced electronic coupling between the Ir and Pd, which was confirmed by XPS results.
    Electrochemistry Communications 12/2013; 37:24–27. DOI:10.1016/j.elecom.2013.10.001 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, pyrite thin film has received considerable attentions in energy storage. But rare attentions have been dedicated to its possible application in thermal batteries. In this study, we synthesized pyrite films by sulfuring electrodeposited iron sulfide films at 773 K under dynamic sulfur atmosphere, and analyzed their physical properties for thermal battery use. To determine the sulfuring parameters, we fabricated for the first time a theoretical relationship of sulfur partial pressure, molar weight of sulfur, carrier gas flux and heating rate in dynamic system. The effect of annealing time on topography of films and grain distributions were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The purity and thermal stability were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Several superior physical properties make pyrite thin film an attractive cathode material for thermal batteries.
    Materials Letters 11/2013; 110:144-147. DOI:10.1016/j.matlet.2013.07.107 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several compounds have been employed as additives of the V(V) electrolyte for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) to improve its stability and electrochemical activity. Stability of the V(V) electrolyte with and without additives was investigated with ex-situ heating/cooling treatment over a wide temperature range of -5 degrees C to 60 degrees C. It was observed that methyl orange (MO), Triton X-100 (OP), sodium ligninsulfonate (SL), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) could significantly improve the stability of the V(V) electrolyte at a wide range of temperature. Their electrochemical behavior in the V(V) electrolyte were further studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), steady state polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the electrochemical activity, including the reversibility of electrode reaction, the diffusivity and polarization resistance of V(V) species and the feasibility of charge transfer of V(V)/V(IV) for the V(V) electrolyte with these additives was all improved compared with the pristine solution.
    Journal of electroanalytical chemistry 11/2013; 709:31-38. DOI:10.1016/j.jelechem.2013.09.022 · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • Dong Li · Yan Liang · Yusi Lai · Gang Wang · Bin He · Zhongwei Gu
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a new polymeric micelle delivery system for antitumor drugs. An amphiphile of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-histidine-di(cinnamic acid) (PEGHC) with a small lipophilic moiety instead of a hydrophobic biodegradable polymer chain was synthesized and characterized. The PEGHC self-assembled into micelles. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was tested. 9-Nitro-20(s)-camptothecin (9-NC) was used as a model drug for encapsulation. The size and morphology of both blank and 9-NC loaded micelles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The release profile of 9-NC loaded micelles was studied. HepG2 liver cancer cells were incubated with the drug-loaded micelles to investigate the in vitro anticancer efficiency. The results showed that the 9-NC loaded micelles exhibited high accumulated release rate (>85%) and efficient in vitro anticancer activity.
    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 10/2013; 116. DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.10.032 · 4.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

970 Citations
296.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • State Oceanic Administration
      Tsingtao, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2010–2015
    • First Institute of Oceanography
      Tsingtao, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2006–2015
    • Sichuan University
      • • National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials
      • • College of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Respiratory Medicine
      Hua-yang, Sichuan, China
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Newcastle
      • Sub-discipline of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine
      Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2005–2008
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • Graduate School
      • • Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007
    • Ocean University of China
      • Department of Mathematics
      Tsingtao, Shandong Sheng, China
    • Chengdu University Of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      Hua-yang, Sichuan, China