[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been implicated in glycogen metabolism in skeletal muscle. However, the physiological relevance of increased AMPK activity during exercise has not been fully clarified. This study was performed to determine the direct effects of acute AMPK activation on muscle glycogen regulation. For this purpose, we used an isolated rat muscle preparation and pharmacologically activated AMPK with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR). Tetanic contraction in vitro markedly activated the alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-isoforms of AMPK, with a corresponding increase in the rate of 3-O-methylglucose uptake. Incubation with AICAR elicited similar enhancement of AMPK activity and 3-O-methylglucose uptake in rat epitrochlearis muscle. In contrast, whereas contraction stimulated glycogen synthase (GS), AICAR treatment decreased GS activity. Insulin-stimulated GS activity also decreased after AICAR treatment. Whereas contraction activated glycogen phosphorylase (GP), AICAR did not alter GP activity. The muscle glycogen content decreased in response to contraction but was unchanged by AICAR. Lactate release was markedly increased when muscles were stimulated with AICAR in buffer containing glucose, indicating that the glucose taken up into the muscle was catabolized via glycolysis. Our results suggest that AMPK does not mediate contraction-stimulated glycogen synthesis or glycogenolysis in skeletal muscle and also that acute AMPK activation leads to an increased glycolytic flux by antagonizing contraction-stimulated glycogen synthesis.
Journal of Applied Physiology 04/2007; 102(3):1007-13. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5'Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been implicated in exercise-induced stimulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Although skeletal muscle expresses both the alpha1 and alpha2 isoforms of AMPK, the alpha2 isoform is activated predominantly in response to moderate-intensity endurance exercise in human and animal muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether activation of alpha2 AMPK plays a role in increasing the rate of glucose transport, promoting glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression, and enhancing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. To selectively activate the alpha2 isoform, we used 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribonucleoside (AICAR), which is metabolized in muscle cells and preferentially stimulates the alpha2 isoform. Subcutaneous administration of 250 mg/kg AICAR activated the alpha2 isoform for 90 minutes, but not the alpha1 isoform in hind limb muscles of the C57/B6J mouse. The maximal activation of the alpha2 isoform was observed 30 to 60 minutes after administration of AICAR and was similar to the activation induced by a 30-minute swim in a current pool. The increase in alpha2 activity paralleled the phosphorylation of Thr(172), the essential residue for full kinase activation, and the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta, a known substrate of AMPK in skeletal muscle. Subcutaneous injection of AICAR rapidly increased, by 30%, the rate of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) transport into soleus muscle; 2DG transport increased within 30 minutes and remained elevated for 4 hours after administration of AICAR. Repeated intraperitoneal injection of AICAR, 3 times a day for 4 to 7 days, increased soleus GLUT4 protein by 30% concomitant with a significant 20% increase in insulin-stimulated 2DG transport. These data suggest that moderate endurance exercise promotes glucose transport, GLUT4 expression, and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle at least partially via activation of the alpha2 isoform of AMPK.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, hormonal induction causes adipose conversion and facilitates the expression of insulin-sensitive glucose transporter, GLUT4. Evidence has accumulated that, in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the formation of GLUT4 storage vesicle and its translocation to plasma membrane precede both lipid accumulation and expression of GLUT4 and C/EBPalpha, a key transcription factor for adipose differentiation. On the other hand, 3T3-C2 fibroblastic cells, a subline of 3T3-L1, follow adipogenic process till mitotic clonal expansion stage (2 days after hormonal induction), but do not proceed to terminal differentiation stage (8 days after the induction), resulting in a lack of adipose conversion and GLUT4 expression. Here we show that, when myc-tagged GLUT4 was retrovirally expressed in 3T3-C2 cells, insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation did occur on day 2 after the induction. On day 8 after the induction, however, neither GLUT4 translocation nor the expression of C/EBPalpha was observed. We also created 3T3-C2 cells stably expressing both myc-tagged GLUT4 and C/EBPalpha, demonstrating that co-expressed cells showed insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation on day 8 after the induction, as well as adipose conversion coupling with PPARgamma expression. Our results provide evidence that C/EBPalpha has the potential to maintain the ability of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in C/EBPalpha-deficient 3T3-C2 fibroblastic cells.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2005; 1745(1):38-47. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A commonly occurring nucleotide polymorphism of the insulin-receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) gene at amino acid 1057 from Glycine to Asparaginic acid (G1057D) was recently shown to be a determinant of insulin sensitivity in both glucose-tolerant individuals and those with type 2 diabetes. With respect to the latter, the IRS-2 D1057 allele increase the risk of insulin resistance among obese individuals. After we reconstructed haplotypes from the G1057D variant and the -769C/T replacement that was newly identified, we investigated the possibility that the IRS-2 gene affects insulin sensitivity in Japanese glucose-tolerant subjects (n = 260) and type 2 diabetic patients (n = 123). We did not find that the D1057 allele and haplotype pairs were associated with the risk of diabetes. However, type 2 diabetic patients, particularly obese patients, carrying the D1057 allele and the CA haplotype were associated with insulin resistance. Furthermore, we suggested that the TG and CG haplotypes might have a protective role against insulin resistance. This observation raises the possibility that both the IRS-2 D1057 allele and the CA haplotype are useful genetic markers for identifying obese individuals who are particularly susceptible to insulin resistance.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 05/2005; 68(1):39-48. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed and analyzed two types of transgenic mice: rat insulin II promoter-ghrelin transgenic (RIP-G Tg) and rat glucagon promoter-ghrelin transgenic mice (RGP-G Tg). The pancreatic tissue ghrelin concentration measured by C-terminal radioimmunoassay (RIA) and plasma desacyl ghrelin concentration of RIP-G Tg were about 1000 and 3.4 times higher than those of nontransgenic littermates, respectively. The pancreatic tissue n-octanoylated ghrelin concentration measured by N-terminal RIA and plasma n-octanoylated ghrelin concentration of RIP-G Tg were not distinguishable from those of nontransgenic littermates. RIP-G Tg showed suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, pancreatic insulin mRNA and peptide levels, beta cell mass, islet architecture, and GLUT2 and PDX-1 immunoreactivity in RIP-G Tg pancreas were not significantly different from those of nontransgenic littermates. Islet batch incubation study did not show suppression of insulin secretion of RIP-G Tg in vitro. The insulin tolerance test showed lower tendency of blood glucose levels in RIP-G Tg. Taking lower tendency of triglyceride level of RIP-G Tg into consideration, these results may indicate that the suppression of insulin secretion is likely due to the effect of desacyl ghrelin on insulin sensitivity. RGP-G Tg, in which the pancreatic tissue ghrelin concentration measured by C-RIA was about 50 times higher than that of nontransgenic littermates, showed no significant changes in insulin secretion, glucose metabolism, islet mass, and islet architecture. The present study raises the possibility that desacyl ghrelin may have influence on glucose metabolism.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(15):15247-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here a newly synthesized cyanoimino-oxothiazolidine derivative, FPFS-410, which has properties to ameliorate both hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Treatment of genetically obese-diabetic db/db mice with FPFS-410 markedly ameliorates severe hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Although the oxothiazolidine ring of FPFS-410 shares a structural similarity with other thiazolidinedione derivatives, reporter assays showed that FPFS-410 was much less potent to activate peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) as compared with pioglitazone. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with FPFS-410, intracellular accumulation of lipids was facilitated in a similar fashion to pioglitazone. Moreover, treatment with FPFS-410 throughout the differentiation course resulted in a significant increase in glucose transport. These results suggest that FPFS-410 may provide a useful therapeutic candidate for diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated in response to metabolic stresses, such as contraction, hypoxia, and the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, which leads to insulin-independent glucose transport in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we hypothesized that acute oxidative stress increases the rate of glucose transport via an AMPK-mediated mechanism. When rat epitrochlearis muscles were isolated and incubated in vitro in Krebs buffer containing the oxidative agent H(2)O(2), AMPKalpha1 activity increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas AMPKalpha2 activity remained unchanged. The activation of AMPKalpha1 was associated with phosphorylation of AMPK Thr(172), suggesting that an upstream kinase is involved in the activation process. H(2)O(2)-induced AMPKalpha1 activation was blocked in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), and H(2)O(2) significantly increased the ratio of oxidized glutathione to glutathione (GSSG/GSH) concentrations, a sensitive marker of oxidative stress. H(2)O(2) did not cause an increase in the conventional parameters of AMPK activation, such as AMP and AMP/ATP. H(2)O(2) increased 3-O-methyl-d-glucose transport, and this increase was partially, but significantly, blocked in the presence of NAC. Results were similar when the muscles were incubated in a superoxide-generating system using hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase. Taken together, our data suggest that acute oxidative stress activates AMPKalpha1 in skeletal muscle via an AMP-independent mechanism and leads to an increase in the rate of glucose transport, at least in part, via an AMPKalpha1-mediated mechanism.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2004; 287(1):E166-73. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin and its receptors are known to play a role in glucose metabolism. We succeeded in cloning human Ob-R cDNA and revealed 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (Lys109Arg, Arg223Gln, Ser343Ser, Ser492Thr, Lys656Asn, Ala976Asp, and Pro1019Pro) in the coding region of Ob-Rb. Although these 7 SNPs were not associated with an obese phenotype, several studies have reported that some of them were associated with impaired glucose metabolism. To clarify whether the Arg223Gln and A3057G (Pro1019Pro) polymorphisms influence glucose metabolism in Japanese, 696 Japanese men were genotyped. Individually, the Arg223Gln and the A3057G polymorphisms were not associated with the glucose metabolic parameters. No associations were found between haplotype and clinical parameters. However, in 327 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), the subjects with Arg/Gln or Gln/Gln + A/A haplotype showed significantly higher serum insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index than those with Arg/Arg + A/A haplotype and Arg/Gln or Gln/Gln + A/G or G/G haplotype. The subjects with Arg/Gln or Gln/Gln + A/A haplotype showed a significantly lower fasting glucose to insulin (GI) ratio than those with Arg/Arg + A/A haplotype. These results suggest that the Ob-R gene may serve as a modifier gene for insulin resistance in Japanese men.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether leptin receptor (Ob-R) Arg223Gln polymorphism influences serum lipid levels and whether this polymorphism affects the efficiency of the cholesterol lowering HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, simvastatin [Clin. Cardiol. 16 (1993) 317].
Case-control association study.
We studied 201 Japanese men without medical care, and 78 Japanese who took simvastatin.
Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Serum lipid and leptin levels were determined.
Subjects with the Arg/Arg homozygotes had significantly higher serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than those with the Arg/Gln heterozygotes and Gln/Gln homozygotes (TC: Arg/Arg: 213+/-3, Arg/Gln: 196+/-6, Gln/Gln: 184+/-5, P=0.004 for comparison among three genotypes, P=0.008 for difference between Arg/Arg and Arg/Gln, and P=0.025 for difference between Arg/Arg and Gln/Gln, LDL-C: Arg/Arg: 127+/-3, Arg/Gln: 112+/-6, Gln/Gln: 114+/-8, P=0.027) for comparison among three genotypes and P=0.011 for difference between Arg/Arg and Arg/Gln. Subjects with the Arg/Arg homozygotes had significantly lower serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than those with the Arg/Gln heterozygotes and Gln/Gln homozygotes (Arg/Arg: 55+/-1, Arg/Gln: 62+/-3, Gln/Gln: 57+/-7, P=0.046) for comparison among three genotypes and P=0.013 for difference between Arg/Arg and Arg/Gln. In addition, in 78 patients with hypercholesterolemia who took 5 mg simvastatin, the TC lowering effect by simvastatin in subjects with the Arg/Arg homozygotes was significantly lower than in those with the Arg/Gln heterozygotes and Gln/Gln homozygotes (the reduction in serum TC levels; 62+/-4 vs. 79+/-6, P=0.044).
We demonstrate that Ob-R Arg223Gln polymorphism in Japanese men is associated with significant elevation of serum TC and LDL-C levels. Our data also show that the Arg/Arg homozygotes tend to show lowered level of serum HDL-C. Furthermore, this polymorphism tends to show an attenuated response to an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in terms of the cholesterol lowering effect. These results suggest that the Ob-R gene may serve as a novel modifier gene for hypercholesterolemia in Japanese men.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 01/2004; 62(3):169-75. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide that regulates GH release together with GHRH and somatostatin. The expression of ghrelin has been detected in the stomach, small intestine, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, kidney, placenta, and testis. Recently it was reported that ghrelin is present in pancreatic alpha-cells and that it stimulates insulin secretion. In this study, we examined the ghrelin expression in two cases of glucagonoma and two cases of insulinoma by Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Ghrelin expression was identified in a case of glucagonoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasm type I both by Northern blot analysis using total RNA and by immunohistochemistry, although the plasma ghrelin level was not elevated. This is the first case of tumor in which ghrelin gene expression was detected by Northern blot analysis using total RNA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address the clinical implications of leptin and to re-examine the relationship between leptin and its potential humoral regulators such as insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triiodothyronine (T3) in low-calorie diet (LCD) for obese humans.
University and foundation hospitals.
Ten obese men and 10 premenopausal obese women.
Five men and five women took 800 kcal/day LCD and another five men and five women took 1400 kcal/day balanced deficit diet (BDD) during 4 weeks.
Plasma leptin levels in the LCD group decreased more markedly (46.2+/-14.6 to 13.2+/-3.6 ng/ml) than that expected for the decrement in percentage fat (39.0+/-1.7 to 35.9+/-1.7%) and body mass index (BMI; 35.4+/-2.4 to 33.1+/-2.2 kg/m(2)), while that in the BDD group did not decrease significantly (14.9+/-3.5 to 13.4+/-2.8 ng/ml). The ratio of the decrease in leptin levels to that of BMI during the first week was significantly greater than that during the following 3 weeks (39.5+/-2.7 vs 29.3+/-2.1%, P=0.017). The plasma insulin and T3 levels also fell substantially in the first week and continued to decrease during the entire course. Plasma leptin levels measured weekly in each subject were correlated well with insulin (r=0.586, P=0.0003) and T3 (r=0.785, P=0.0004). Multiple regression analyses after adjustment for the time course and BMI revealed that serum levels of T3 were independently correlated with plasma leptin levels (r=0.928, P<0.0001). The plasma NEFA level was markedly elevated during the first 2 weeks and decreased thereafter.
A rapid fall in leptin during the first week of LCD, coordinated by insulin, T3 and NEFA, should be beneficial for responding to decreased energy intake. Inversely, in view of the powerful effect of leptin on energy dissipation, the present findings suggest the potential usefulness of leptin in combination with caloric restriction for the treatment of obesity.
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2002; 56(7):593-600. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Insulin resistance has been highlighted as a common causal factor for hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity, all of which are recognized to occur simultaneously, and a distinct clinical entity is defined as ‘multiple risk factor syndrome’.2. Recently, a new class of antidiabetic agents, thiazolidinediones (TZD) has been developed and has been shown to improve insulin resistance by binding and activating a nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ.3. cDNA of rat PPARγ1 and γ2 were cloned and gene regulation of PPARγ in rat mature adipocytes was examined. Hydrogen peroxide, an oxygen radical, which is recognized to be the common intracellular signal for multiple risk factors, potently down-regulated PPARγ mRNA expression in rat mature adipocytes.4. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which is considered to play a role in obesity-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and to augment oxidative stress, also suppressed PPARγ expression.5. Thiazolidinediones dose-dependently recovered TNF-α-induced down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression.6. The modulation of PPARγ expression by TZD can be one mechanism for the improvement of insulin resistance by TZD.7. Vascular tone and remodelling are controlled by several vasoactive autocrine/paracrine factors produced by endothelial cells in response to several vascular injury stimuli, including hypertension. The PPARγ gene transcript was detected in cultured endothelial cells.8. The administration of TZD stimulated the endothelial secretion of type-C natriuretic peptide, which is one of the natriuretic peptide family and is demonstrated by us to act as a novel endothelium-derived relaxing peptide.9. Concomitantly, TZD significantly suppressed the secretion of endothelin, a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstricting peptide.10. Thiazolidinediones can affect vascular tone and growth by modulating the production of endothelium-derived vasoactive substances to influence occurrence and progression of hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 02/2002; 26(7):558 - 560. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), which uncouples electron transport from ATP synthesis, is expressed at high levels in the skeletal muscle, an important organ in glucose and lipid metabolism. Because several reports proposed that fatty acids induced UCP3 gene expression in skeletal muscle in vivo, in the present study we examined the regulation of UCP3 gene expression by various fatty acids using L6 myotubes. UCP3 gene expression was increased in L6 myotubes by various fatty acids or by alpha-bromopalmitate, a nonmetabolized derivative of palmitic acid. Because fatty acids are also known as agonists for PPARs, we examined the involvement of PPARs in the regulation of the UCP3 gene expression. L-165041, a PPAR delta agonist, increased UCP3 gene expression in L6 myotubes, whereas neither Wy 14,643, a PPAR alpha agonist, nor Pioglitazone, a PPAR gamma agonist, increased it. Therefore, we conclude that UCP3 gene expression is increased by the activation of PPAR delta in L6 myotubes and postulate that PPAR delta mediates at least some part of the increased UCP3 gene expression by fatty acids in skeletal muscle in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinediones, insulin-sensitizing agents, have been reported to increase glucose uptake along with the expression of glucose transporters in adipocytes and cardiomyocytes. Recently, we have further suggested that the translocation of GLUT4 is stimulated by thiazolidinediones in L6 myocytes. However, the direct effects of thiazolidinediones on translocation of glucose transporters have not yet been determined. In this study, using hemagglutinin epitope-tagged GLUT4 (GLUT4-HA), we provide direct evidence of the effect of troglitazone on the translocation of GLUT4 in rat epididymal adipocytes. Primary cultures of rat adipocytes were transiently transfected with GLUT4-HA and overexpressed eightfold compared with endogenous GLUT4 in transfected cells. A total of 24 h of treatment with troglitazone (10(-4) mol/l) increased the cell surface level of GLUT4-HA by 1.5 +/- 0.03-fold (P < 0.01) without changing the total amount of GLUT4-HA, whereas it increased the protein level of endogenous GLUT4 (1.4-fold) without changing that of GLUT1. Thus, the direct effect on the translocation can be detected apart from the increase in endogenous GLUT4 content using GLUT4-HA. Troglitazone not only increased the translocation of GLUT4-HA on the cell surface in the basal state but also caused a leftward shift in the dose-response relations between GLUT4-HA translocation and insulin concentration in the medium (ED(50): from approximately 0.1 to 0.03 nmol/l). These effects may partly contribute to the antidiabetic activity of troglitazone in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 24-year-old female suffered from acute pancreatitis, followed by simultaneous onset of painless goiter, elevation of thyroid hormones and diabetic ketoacidosis. Two months later, her insulin secreting function was severely decreased and positive for anti-GAD and anti-islet cell antibodies, whereas the serum glucagon level was normal, suggesting an autoimmune-related destruction specifically of beta cells. In addition, the initial hyperthyroid state was followed by a hypothyroid phase which later recovered to an euthyroid state, suggesting an initial destruction of thyroid cells. Because anti-thyroidal antibodies were positive, it is likely that the thyroidal destruction was also autoimmune-related. This case implies common pathogenic mechanisms in the autoimmunity related destruction of beta cells and thyroid cells.
Internal Medicine 07/2001; 40(6):515-8. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoatrophic diabetes is caused by a deficiency of adipose tissue and is characterized by severe insulin resistance, hypoleptinemia, and hyperphagia. The A-ZIP/F-1 mouse (A-ZIPTg/+) is a model of severe lipoatrophic diabetes and is insulin resistant, hypoleptinemic, hyperphagic, and shows severe hepatic steatosis. We have also produced transgenic "skinny" mice that have hepatic overexpression of leptin (LepTg/+) and no adipocyte triglyceride stores, and are hypophagic and show increased insulin sensitivity. To explore the pathophysiological and therapeutic roles of leptin in lipoatrophic diabetes, we crossed LepTg/+ and A-ZIPTg/+ mice, producing doubly transgenic mice (LepTg/+:A-ZIPTg/+) virtually lacking adipose tissue but having greatly elevated leptin levels. The LepTg/+:A-ZIPTg/+ mice were hypophagic and showed improved hepatic steatosis. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests revealed increased insulin sensitivity, comparable to LepTg/+ mice. These effects were stable over at least 6 months of age. Pair-feeding the A-ZIPTg/+ mice to the amount of food consumed by LepTg/+:A-ZIPTg/+ mice did not improve their insulin resistance, diabetes, or hepatic steatosis, demonstrating that the beneficial effects of leptin were not due to the decreased food intake. Continuous leptin administration that elevates plasma leptin concentrations to those of LepTg/+:A-ZIPTg/+ mice also effectively improved hepatic steatosis and the disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism in A-ZIP/F-1 mice. These data demonstrate that leptin can improve the insulin resistance and diabetes of a mouse model of severe lipoatrophic diabetes, suggesting that leptin may be therapeutically useful in the long-term treatment of lipoatrophic diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of studies have demonstrated that insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle plays a pivotal role in the insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A decrease in GLUT4 translocation from the intracellular pool to the plasma membranes in skeletal muscles has been implicated as a possible cause of insulin resistance. Herein, we examined the effects of an insulin-sensitizing drug, troglitazone (TGZ), on glucose uptake and the translocation of GLUT4 in L6 myotubes. The prolonged exposure (24 h) of L6 myotubes to TGZ (10(-5) mol/l) caused a substantial increase in the 2-deoxy-[3H]D-glucose (2-DG) uptake without changing the total amount of the glucose transporters GLUT4, GLUT1, and GLUT3. The TGZ-induced 2-DG uptake was completely abolished by cytochalasin-B (10 micromol/l). The ability of TGZ to translocate GLUT4 from light microsomes to the crude plasma membranes was greater than that of insulin. Both cycloheximide treatment (3.5 x 10(-6) mol/l) and the removal of TGZ by washing reversed the 2-DG uptake to the basal level. Moreover, insulin did not enhance the TGZ-induced 2-DG uptake additively. The TGZ-induced 2-DG uptake was only partially reversed by wortmannin to 80%, and TGZ did not change the expression and the phosphorylation of protein kinase B; the expression of protein kinase C (PKC)-lambda, PKC-beta2, and PKC-zeta; or 5'AMP-activated protein kinase activity. a-Tocopherol, which has a molecular structure similar to that of TGZ, did not increase 2-DG uptake. We conclude that the glucose transport in L6 myotubes exposed to TGZ for 24 h is the result of an increased translocation of GLUT4. The present results imply that the effects of troglitazone on GLUT4 translocation may include a new mechanism for improving glucose transport in skeletal muscle.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor originally isolated from the stomach, occurs in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and may play a role in energy homeostasis. Synthetic GHSs have activated the hypothalamic arcuate neurons containing neuropeptide Y (NPY), suggesting the involvement of NPY in some of ghrelin actions. This study was designed to elucidate the role of ghrelin in the regulation of food intake. A single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ghrelin (5-5,000 ng/rat) caused a significant and dose-related increase in cumulative food intake in rats. Ghrelin (500 ng/rat) was also effective in growth hormone-deficient spontaneous dwarf rats. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression was increased in rats that received a single ICV injection of ghrelin (500 ng/rat) (approximately 160% of that in vehicle-treated groups, P < 0.05). The ghrelin's orexigenic effect was abolished dose-dependently by ICV co-injection of NPY Y1 receptor antagonist (10-30 microg/rat). The leptin-induced inhibition of food intake was reversed by ICV co-injection of ghrelin in a dose-dependent manner (5-500 ng/rat). Leptin reduced hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression by 35% (P < 0.05), which was abolished by ICV co-injection of ghrelin (500 ng/rat). This study provides evidence that ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide that antagonizes leptin action through the activation of hypothalamic NPY/Y1 receptor pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the pathophysiological role of leptin in obesity-related hypertension, we examined cardiovascular phenotypes of transgenic skinny mice whose elevated plasma leptin concentrations are comparable to those seen in obese subjects. We also studied genetically obese KKA(y) mice with hyperleptinemia, in which hypothalamic melanocortin system is antagonized by ectopic expression of the agouti protein. Systolic blood pressure (BP) and urinary catecholamine excretion are elevated in transgenic skinny mice relative to nontransgenic littermates. The BP elevation in transgenic skinny mice is abolished by alpha(1)-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, or ganglionic blockers at doses that do not affect BP in nontransgenic littermates. Central administration of an alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone antagonist causes a marked increase in cumulative food intake but no significant changes in BP. The obese KKA(y) mice develop BP elevation with increased urinary catecholamine excretion relative to control KK mice. After a 2-week caloric restriction, BP elevation is reversed in nontransgenic littermates with the A(y) allele, in parallel with a reduction in plasma leptin concentrations, but is sustained in transgenic mice overexpressing leptin with the A(y) allele, which remain hyperleptinemic. This study demonstrates BP elevation in transgenic skinny mice and obese KKA(y) mice that are both hyperleptinemic, thereby suggesting the pathophysiological role of leptin in some forms of obesity-related hypertension.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/2000; 105(9):1243-52. · 12.81 Impact Factor