[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrauterine balloon aortic valvuloplasty (IUBAV) has been used for critical aortic stenosis. However, it is necessary to determine the fetal impairments such as preterm birth after this approach and to find a way to prevent or reduce them.
In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic value of indomethacin (IDM) and dexamethasone (DXS) on reducing the preterm birth rate in experimental goats after IUBAV.
Our results indicated that the administration of IDM/DXS significantly reduced the rate of premature birth. IDM/DXS treatment led to preservation of myocardial ultrastructure with less damage, and amelioration of the fetal and placental circulation. Furthermore, we found that norepinephrine (NE) level was positively associated with the degree of myocardial damage. IDM/DXS administration led to a significant decrease of operation-induced increase of NE levels, which may be associated with the protective effects of IDM/DXS. Lastly, we found that the administration of IDM/DXS did not induce the risk of ductus arteriosus closure or slow down fetal growth.
Our results indicate that IDM/DXS promotes a better gestational outcome at least partially by reducing stress response during and after the operation of IUBAV in the goat model. IDM/DXS may be a useful application in human patients during IUBAV intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a common cardiac disorder in humans. Despite many advances in the understanding of CHD and the identification of many associated genes, the fundamental etiology for the majority of cases remains unclear. The planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, responsible for tissue polarity in Drosophila and gastrulation movements and cardiogenesis in vertebrates, has been shown to play multiple roles during cardiac differentiation and development. The disrupted function of PCP signaling is connected to some CHDs. Here, we summarize our current understanding of how PCP factors affect the pathogenesis of CHD.
BioMed Research International 10/2011; 2011:589414. DOI:10.1155/2011/589414 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common birth defect in humans. Despite many advances in the understanding of NTDs and the identification of many genes related to NTDs, the fundamental etiology for the majority of cases of NTDs remains unclear. Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, which is important for polarized cell movement (such as cell migration) and organ morphogenesis through the activation of cytoskeletal pathways, has been shown to play multiple roles during neural tube closure. The disrupted function of PCP pathway is connected with some NTDs. Here, we summarize our current understanding of how PCP factors affect the pathogenesis of NTDs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several cardiac troponin I (cTnI) mutations are associated with restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) in humans. We have created transgenic mice (cTnI(193His) mice) that express the corresponding human RCM R192H mutation. Phenotype of this RCM animal model includes restrictive ventricles, biatrial enlargement and sudden cardiac death, which are similar to those observed in RCM patients carrying the same cTnI mutation. In the present study, we modified the overall cTnI in cardiac muscle by crossing cTnI(193His) mice with transgenic mice expressing an N-terminal truncated cTnI (cTnI-ND) that enhances relaxation. Protein analyses determined that wild type cTnI was replaced by cTnI-ND in the heart of double transgenic mice (Double TG), which express only cTnI-ND and cTnI R193H in cardiac myocytes. The presence of cTnI-ND effectively rescued the lethal phenotype of RCM mice by reducing the mortality rate. Cardiac function was significantly improved in Double TG mice when measured by echocardiography. The hypersensitivity to Ca(2+) and the prolonged relaxation of RCM cTnI(193His) cardiac myocytes were completely reversed by the presence of cTnI-ND in RCM hearts. The results demonstrate that myofibril hypersensitivity to Ca(2+) is a key mechanism that causes impaired relaxation in RCM cTnI mutant hearts and Ca(2+) desensitization by cTnI-ND can correct diastolic dysfunction and rescue the RCM phenotypes, suggesting that Ca(2+) desensitization in myofibrils is a therapeutic option for treatment of diastolic dysfunction without interventions directed at the systemic beta-adrenergic-PKA pathways.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 09/2010; 49(3):402-11. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.04.017 · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valproic acid, a widely used anticonvulsant drug, is a potent teratogen resulting in various congenital abnormalities. However, the mechanisms underlying valproic acid induced teratogenesis are nor clear. Recent studies indicate that histone deacetylase is a direct target of valproic acid.
In the present study, we have used histological analysis and RT-PCR assays to examine the cardiac abnormalities in mice treated with sodium valproate (NaVP) and determined the effects of NaVP on histone deacetylase activity and the expression of heart development-related genes in mouse myocardial cells.
The experimental data show that NaVP can induce cardiac abnormalities in fetal mice in a dose-dependent manner. NaVP causes a dose-dependent inhibition of hitone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in mouse myocardial cells. However, the expression levels of HDAC (both HDAC1 and HDAC2) are not significantly changed in fetal mouse hearts after administration of NaVP in pregnant mice. The transcriptional levels of other heart development-related genes, such as CHF1, Tbx5 and MEF2, are significantly increased in fetal mouse hearts treated with NaVP.
The study indicates that administration of NaVP in pregnant mice can result in various cardiac abnormalities in fetal hearts, which is associated with an inhibition of histone deacetylase without altering the transcription of this enzyme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), p300 and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) are two structurally related transcriptional co-activators that activate expression of many eukaryotic genes involved in cellular growth and signaling, muscle differentiation and embryogenesis. However, whether these proteins play important and different roles in mouse cardiogenesis is not clear. Here, we investigate the protein distributions and mRNA expression of the two HATs in embryonic and adult mouse heart during normal heart development by using immunohistochemical and RT-PCR techniques. The data from immunohistochemical experiments revealed that p300 was extensively present in nearly every region of the hearts from embryonic stages to the adulthood. However, no CBP expression was detected in embryonic hearts at day E7.5. CBP expression appeared at the later stages, and the distribution of CBP was less than that of p300. In the developmental hearts after E10.5, both for p300 and CBP, the mRNA expression levels reached a peak on day E10.5, and then were gradually decreased afterwards. These results reveal that both p300 and CBP are related to embryonic heart development. The dynamic expression patterns of these two enzymes during mouse heart development indicate that they may play an important role on heart development. However, there is a difference in spatiotemporal expression patterns between these two enzymes during heart development. The expression of p300 is earlier and more predominate, suggesting that p300 may play a more important role in embryonic heart development especially during cardiac precursor cell induction and interventricular septum formation.