G Schiffman

National University Hospital of Iceland, Reikiavik, Capital Region, Iceland

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Publications (122)1023.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines how pneumococcal type 6B polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid (Pn6B-TT) compares to a 23 valent pneumococcal vaccine (pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS)-23) with respect to immunogenicity and serum opsonic activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD aged 55-75 yrs were vaccinated with Pn6B-TT (n=10) or with PPS-23 (n=9). Healthy young adults (HA) were vaccinated with Pn6B-TT as controls. Total antibodies to serotype 6B polysaccharide were measured by radioimmunoassay and immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Opsonic activity was measured by a phagocytosis assay using human neutrophils as effector cells. The patient groups were comparable by age, smoking history, lung function and use of steroids. COPD patients vaccinated with Pn6B-TT or PPS-23 showed an increase in IgG antibodies and a nonsignificant increase in opsonic activity. This was similar to the increase in IgG and opsonic activity seen in HA. There was a significant correlation between antibody levels and opsonic activity in COPD patients vaccinated both with Pn6B-TT and PPS-23. Pneumococcal antibodies have been shown to confer protection from infection. The results of the present study indicate that protective immunity can be expected in elderly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients vaccinated with conjugate vaccines.
    European Respiratory Journal 11/2002; 20(4):813-8. DOI:10.1183/09031936.02.00289702 · 7.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike the native protein, a nontoxic peptide (repeating unit of the native toxin designated rARU) from Clostridium difficile toxin A (CDTA) afforded an antigen that could be bound covalently to the surface polysaccharides of pneumococcus type 14, Shigella flexneri type 2a, and Escherichia coli K1. The yields of these polysaccharide-protein conjugates were significantly increased by prior treatment of rARU with succinic anhydride. Conjugates, prepared with rARU or succinylated (rARUsucc), were administered to mice by a clinically relevant dosage and immunization scheme. All conjugates elicited high levels of serum immunoglobulin G both to the polysaccharides and to CDTA. Conjugate-induced anti-CDTA had neutralizing activity in vitro and protected mice challenged with CDTA, similar to the rARU alone. Conjugates prepared with succinylated rARU, therefore, have potential for serving both as effective carrier proteins for polysaccharides and for preventing enteric disease caused by C. difficile.
    Infection and Immunity 05/2000; 68(4):2161-6. DOI:10.1128/IAI.68.4.2161-2166.2000 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major respiratory pathogen of infants, children, and the elderly. Polysaccharide vaccines have been useful in adult populations but do not elicit protective immunity in infants and young children. To enhance their immunogenicity, vaccines of pneumococcal polysaccharides conjugated to proteins are being developed. In this study antibody levels and opsonic activities were compared in sera of infants and adults injected with pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B (Pn6B) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) (Pn6B-TT). Healthy infants were injected with Pn6B-TT; group A was injected at 3, 4, and 6 months of age, and group B was injected at 7 and 9 months of age. A booster injection was given at 18 months. Adults were injected once. Antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay, and their functional activities were measured by opsonophagocytosis of radiolabelled pneumococci. In adults, increases in immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, IgG1, and IgG2 to Pn6B were observed. Infants reached adult levels of IgG1 anti-Pn6B after the primary injections. After the booster injection the infant groups had total IgG- and IgM-Pn6B antibody levels similar to those of adults. After the booster injection, IgG1 was the dominant infant anti-Pn6B isotype and at a level higher than in vaccinated adults, but IgA and IgG2 antibodies remained at very low levels. Opsonic activity increased significantly after Pn6B-TT injections; the highest infant sera showed opsonic activity comparable to that of vaccinated adults. Overall, opsonic activity correlated best with total and IgG anti-Pn6B antibodies (r = 0.741, r = 0.653, respectively; n = 35) and was highest in sera with high levels of all Pn6B antibody isotypes. The results indicate the protective potential of a pneumococcal 6B polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccine for young infants.
    Infection and Immunity 07/1998; 66(6):2866-70. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Howard Silk · John Zora · Joel Goldstein · David Tinkelman · Gerald Schiffman
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    ABSTRACT: Many children with recurrent sinopulmonary infections fail to mount an adequate humoral response following immunization with polysaccharide antigens. At present there are no controlled studies comparing responses to pneumococcal immunization in children with recurrent infections and a healthy, age-matched cohort. Immunological evaluation was performed on 66 children with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, aged 2-5 years (mean 3.06 +/- 0.92). A control group included 28 healthy, age-matched controls (mean 3.14 +/- 0.88 years). Both groups were immunized with 23 valent pneumococcal vaccine, and titers were measured before and 4 weeks after immunization. Antibody levels to 12 pneumococcal serotypes were measured via radioimmunoassay. Geometric preimmunization mean titers in the control group were 215.5 +/- 157 ngAbN/ml rising to 989.5 +/- 745 ngAbN/ml compared to 77.71 +/- 38.4 ngAbN/ml increasing to 446.7 +/- 406 ngAbN/ml in the study group (p < .05). Serotypes 3, 4, 7F, 8, 9N, and 18C were the most immunogenic, while serotypes 6A and 14 were the least. Overall, the control group responded to 7.71 +/- 1.24 serotypes versus 5.1 +/- 2.0 in the study group (p < .05), where postimmunization titers at least doubled and rose to > or = 300 ngAbN/ml. All controls responded to at least five or more serotypes, 26/28 responded to 6 or more. In contrast, only 38/66 (57%) of study patients responded to five or more serotypes, and only 27/66 (41%) responded to at least 6 of 12. Preimmunization titers of greater than 300 ngAbN/ml were present in 30% (102/336) of the control serotypes; however, only 53 of these (52%) doubled post immunization; 22% of the elevated titers decreased post immunization. Markedly elevated titers > or = 500 ngAbN/ml were present in 20% (69/336) of the preimmunization serotypes, only 39% of these doubled post immunization. Twenty-three valent pneumococcal vaccine is immunogenic in young, healthy children. A significant percentage of children with recurrent sinopulmonary infections fail to produce adequate serotype specific antibodies following pneumococcal immunization.
    Journal of Asthma 01/1998; 35(1):101-12. DOI:10.3109/02770909809055411 · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • S P Rao · K Rajkumar · G Schiffman · C Unger
    Journal of Pediatrics 10/1997; 131(3):498-9. · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Pediatrics 09/1997; 131(3):498-498. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3476(97)80090-X · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia and otitis media. Pneumococcal polysaccharides are not immunogenic in infants, but improved immunogenicity of polysaccharide-protein conjugates has been demonstrated. Antibiotic-resistant pneumococci have increased the need for an effective vaccine. To study the safety and immunogenicity of a pneumococcal type 6B polysaccharidetetanus toxoid conjugate (Pn6B-TT) in infants and to assess the function of antibodies. Healthy infants were injected, Group A at 3, 4 and 6 months (n = 21) and Group B at 7 and 9 months (n = 19). Booster injection was given at 18 months. Antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay, and functional activity was measured by opsonization of radiolabeled pneumococci. Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained. No significant adverse reactions were observed. Pn6B-IgG (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) increased to a geometric mean of 0.62 microgram/ml (P = 0.367, compared with prevaccination titers) in Group A at 7 months and 1.22 micrograms/ml (P < 0.001) in Group B at 10 months. Total Pn6B antibodies (radioimmunoassay) were 44 ng of antibody N/ml (P < 0.053) in Group A and 211 ng of antibody N/ml (P < 0.001) in Group B. A smaller increase in IgM and IgA anti-Pn6B was observed. Reinjection at 18 months elicited booster responses in total and IgG anti-Pn6B; 62% of those in Group A and 79% of those in Group B had > 300 ng of antibody N/ml. Opsonic activity, after initial and booster vaccinations, correlated with Pn6B-antibody titers. Three infants with nasopharyngeal cultures repeatedly positive for serogroup 6 had poor serum IgG responses. Our results demonstrate that Pn6B-TT is safe, elicits functional antibodies and memory responses in infants.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 07/1997; 16(7):667-74. DOI:10.1097/00006454-199707000-00009 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measured pneumococcal antibody levels in 55 patients (ages 7 to 20 years) with sickle cell disease 3 to 7 years after the first booster immunization. Only 6 of the children had protective levels of antibodies (> 300 ng/ml) against all 12 serotypes tested. Thirty-two children (58%) had suboptimal levels against 1 to 3 serotypes; 17 had suboptimal levels against 4 to 10 serotypes. Ten patients from the latter group (ages 13 to 17 years) received a second booster 6 to 8 years after the first booster immunization, and had a marked increase in antibody levels against all serotypes with the exception of serotypes 3 and 4 in two patients and serotype 6A in one patient.
    Journal of Pediatrics 10/1995; 127(4):590-2. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3476(95)70119-2 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Steven Smith · Gerald Schiffman · Gungor Karayalcin · Vincent Bonagura
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the immune systems of long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have persistent immune defects after Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) treatment. We evaluated the cellular and humoral immune responses of 13 children with ALL in complete remission and off modified protocol treatment for 2 or more years. All patients had received complete immunizations for measles, mumps, rubella, and poliovirus before ALL developed. They were challenged with Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and Pneumococcus vaccines after baseline serum samples were obtained. We also determined in vivo humoral immune responses to bacteria and viruses that cause common pediatric diseases. Compared with age-matched control subjects, the long-term survivors of ALL had a significant difference in the presence of protective antibodies to measles (p < 0.0001) and polioviruses (p < 0.0001) in their baseline sera; more than half had no protective antibodies to one or more previously administered vaccines or related infections. Most produced protective concentrations of specific antibody after reimmunization, but some were repeatedly unable to make protective antibodies, or mount a normal antibody response, despite natural disease and/or revaccination. Four children had significant infections. Long-term survivors of ALL who had BFM treatment may have persistent immune defects with respect to common childhood bacterial and viral diseases they previously had, or vaccines they received.
    Journal of Pediatrics 08/1995; 127(1):68-75. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3476(95)70259-8 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • M McKinley · S Leibowitz · R Bronzo · I Zanzi · G Weissman · G Schiffman
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    ABSTRACT: Hyposplenism as a complication of celiac sprue confers an increased risk of pneumococcal sepsis, but such patients do not routinely receive pneumococcal vaccine despite reports of overwhelming pneumococcal sepsis. Because antibody response in these patients has not been previously assessed, we measured pre- and postvaccination levels in 10 patients with documented sprue. All demonstrated appropriate acute antibody responses to a polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine. Vaccination of all patients with celiac sprue seems appropriate.
    Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 04/1995; 20(2):113-6. DOI:10.1097/00004836-199503000-00008 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To prevent serious pneumococcal infections, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is recommended for individuals over 24 months of age with chronic predisposing diseases and for healthy older adults. This nonrandomized controlled study in rural Alaska assessed the immunogenicity of revaccination in adults. Twenty-six adults, 33 to 88 years of age, vaccinated a mean of 7.4 years before this study, were matched to 26 previously unvaccinated subjects by age, number of chronic diseases, sex, and ethnicity. One or more chronic diseases were validated in 62% of subjects (32 of 52). All received a first or second intramuscular dose of pneumococcal vaccine. Antibody levels were determined by radioimmunoassay for 12 pneumococcal capsular serotypes immediately before and 20 to 84 days after vaccination. Six to 9 years after primary vaccination, over one third of serotype-specific antibody levels were below 500 ng of antibody nitrogen per milliliter, equal to the percentage in unvaccinated subjects of similar age. Antibody levels against all pneumococcal serotypes rose to similar levels after primary vaccination and revaccination, and 54% and 55%, respectively, of subjects who received primary vaccination and revaccination had at least a 1.4-fold increase in antibody levels. Only the antibody level for serotype 4 remained low. Neither gender nor age affected peak response. For those with chronic diseases, there was a trend toward fewer low antibody levels against three or more serotypes after revaccination (two subjects [13%]) than after primary vaccination (five subjects [31%]). Following the initial immunization of high-risk and elderly patients with pneumococcal polysaccharide, pneumococcal antibody levels appear to wane with time. Primary vaccination and revaccination 6 or more years after a first dose of pneumococcal vaccine stimulate comparable mean antibody levels.
    Archives of Internal Medicine 11/1994; 154(19):2209-14. DOI:10.1001/archinte.154.19.2209 · 17.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone marrow transplant patients have impaired responses to pure polysaccharide (PS) vaccines and are at an increased risk for disease caused by PS encapsulated pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. We immunized 35 BMT patients (21 allogeneic and 14 autologous) ages 2-45 years with pure PS pneumococcal (Pnu-imune 23), HIB-conjugate (HibTITER), and tetanus toxoid vaccines. Patients were assigned to receive vaccines at either 12 and 24 months after transplantation or at 24 months only. Only 19% of all enrolled patients developed protective antibody concentrations (>= 0.300 ug antibody nitrogen/ml) to the 6 pneumococcal serotypes measured after the 24-month immunization. Poor response to pneumococcal vaccine was not different for the 2 study groups and was similar to previous studies. In contrast, HIB-conjugate vaccine elicited protective concentrations of antibody (>= 1.0 ug/ml) in 56% of patients after 1 dose and in 80% after 2 doses. The group that received 2 doses of HIB-conjugate vaccine had a significantly higher geometric mean antibody concentration of 14.5 ug/ml as compared with 1.43 ug/ml for those receiving only 1 dose (P=0.012). Responses to tetanus toxoid vaccine were similar to HIB-conjugate vaccine, with a booster response documented after the second dose. In summary, 2 doses of HIB-conjugate vaccine given at 12 and 24 months after transplantation produced protective antibody concentrations in 80% of patients. While the response to pure PS pneumococcal vaccine was poor, the results with HIB-conjugate vaccine suggest that future pneumococcal conjugate vaccines may also benefit BMT patients. (C) Williams & Wilkins 1994. All Rights Reserved.
    Transplantation 03/1994; 57(5). DOI:10.1097/00007890-199403150-00009 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    R Schneerson · L Levi · J B Robbins · D M Bryla · G Schiffman · T Lagergard
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    ABSTRACT: Type 14 is one of the common types isolated from patients of all ages with infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Its capsular polysaccharide (Pn14) is composed of a neutrally charged tetrasaccharide repeat unit. Pn14 does not elicit protective levels of antibodies in infants and children and is a less than optimal immunogen of the 23-valent vaccine for adults. Pertussis toxin (PT) is both a virulence factor and protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis: it is not soluble at neutral pH and forms insoluble complexes with acidic polysaccharides. Both Pn14 and PT are potential components of vaccines for infants and children. Accordingly, a synthetic scheme was devised to prepare a conjugate of Pn14 and PT. An adipic acid hydrazide derivative of Pn14 was bound to PT at pH 3.9 by carbodiimide-mediated condensation. The conjugation procedure inactivated the PT as assayed by CHO cell and histamine-sensitizing activity. The Pn14-PT conjugate elicited antibodies in mice to Pn14 at levels estimated to be protective in humans and elicited neutralizing antibodies to PT. We plan to evaluate Pn14-PT clinically.
    Infection and Immunity 10/1992; 60(9):3528-32. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concurrent injection of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) in saline or as an oil-in-water emulsion enhanced both the primary and secondary serum antibody responses to the capsular polysaccharide (CP) components of seven conjugates: the enhanced responses were Ag-specific. In contrast, MPL did not enhance the serum antibody response to five of the six unconjugated CP. MPL and trehalose dimycolate injected concurrently with the unconjugated Vi CP of Salmonella typhi (Vi) enhanced the serum antibody response to that Ag. MPL further enhanced the Vi antibody levels when injected with conjugates of this CP. The serum antibody responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A, used as the carrier protein for the Staphylococcus aureus types 5 and 8 conjugates, were also enhanced by MPL. MPL in oil-in-water emulsion was generally more effective than when administered in saline.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/1991; 147(7):2136-40. · 4.92 Impact Factor
  • M A Mufson · D F Hughey · C E Turner · G Schiffman
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    ABSTRACT: We vaccinated 15 persons, age 56 to 79 years, with 14-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and revaccinated them with 23-valent vaccine 6 years later to assess adverse reactions and booster responses of anticapsular antibodies. No systemic reactions occurred after administration of either vaccine. After booster vaccination, five vaccinees developed only mild soreness or tenderness at the site of injection. The (arithmetic) mean antibody level to 12 capsular types measured by radioimmunoassay increased 3.1-fold 1 month after the first vaccine; the range was 1427-5124 ng antibody nitrogen per ml (N ml-1). Six years later, mean antibody levels waned to about half these levels. One month after administration of the second dose of vaccine, the mean antibody level increased 1.5-fold; the range was 1011-3954 ng antibody N ml-1. Revaccination with pneumococcal vaccine of elderly persons can be carried out safely; the levels of anticapsular antibody achieved after revaccination are about half the levels after primary vaccination.
    Vaccine 07/1991; 9(6):403-7. DOI:10.1016/0264-410X(91)90126-Q · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunomodulatory effects of low-level, chronic polychlorinated biphenyl PCB; (Aroclor 1254) exposure were investigated in female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. Five groups of monkeys (initially 16 monkeys/group) were orally administered PCB at levels of 0, 5, 20, 40 or 80 micrograms/kg body wt/day. Tests for immunomodulation were initiated after 55 months of exposure to PCBs. Statistically significant observed immune changes included a dose-related decrease in the anamnestic (IgM and IgG) response to sheep red blood cells. Conversely, the antibody response to pneumococcus antigen did not differ significantly across the test groups. A statistically significant dose-related decrease in lymphoproliferation was noted with increasing doses of PCBs when phytohemagglutinin and Concanavalin A, but not when pokeweed mitogen, were used as mitogens. A trend toward reduced peak chemiluminescence (mV/min) was observed in zymosan-activated peripheral blood monocytes. The time to peak chemiluminescence of phorbol myristate acetate activation was statistically increased in a dose-response fashion. Flow cytometric analysis results of peripheral blood lymphocytes using the markers CD4, CD8, and CD20 were similar across the test groups. The mean percentage levels for the CD2 marker in the treated groups were statistically lower than the mean in the control, while absolute numbers for CD2 were similar across the test groups. Serum hydrocortisone levels did not differ among the test groups. Taken together these results indicate that low-level, chronic PCB exposure alters a number of rhesus monkey immune system components and that these effects may be due to altered T-cell and/or macrophage function. These data may be of use in extrapolating potential human health effects following chronic PCB exposure.
    Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 06/1991; 16(4):773-86. DOI:10.1016/0272-0590(91)90163-X
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugates of an uronic acid-containing capsular polysaccharide (CP), pneumococcous type 12F (Pn12F) bound to diphtheria toxoid (DT), were studied for safety and immunogenicity in adult volunteers. In mice, these conjugates, prepared with the same lot of DT and Pn12F-40234-006, a homogenous CP of high molecular weight, or Pn12-812408, a polydisperse CP with lower-molecular-weight material, were more immunogenic than the Pn12F alone and had T-cell dependent properties (A. Fattom, W. F. Vann, S.C. Szu, A. Sutton, X. Li, B. Bryla, G. Schiffman, J. B. Robbins, and R. Schneerson, Infect. Immun. 56:2292-2298, 1988). Adult volunteers, randomized into three groups, were injected either with one of these two conjugates or with Pnu-Imune, the 23 valent pneumococcus vaccine containing 25 micrograms of Pn12F as one of its components. Volunteers were injected two times, 4 weeks apart, with the Pn12F-DT conjugates and once with the Pnu-Imune. Side reactions following injection of the conjugates of Pnu-Imune were mild and short-lived. At 4 weeks and at 7 months after the first injection, higher levels of Pn12F antibodies were found in the volunteers injected with the conjugates than in the Pnu-Imune group (P less than 0.001). The conjugate prepared with the higher-molecular-weight Pn12F elicited higher levels of antibodies than the conjugate prepared with a lower-molecular-weight Pn12F preparation (P = 0.05). Both conjugates elicited about a 13-fold rise in DT antibodies.
    Infection and Immunity 08/1990; 58(7):2309-12. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Pediatrics 08/1990; 117(1 Pt 1):96-9. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3476(05)82454-0 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    T F Smith · R P Bain · G Schiffman
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    ABSTRACT: We measured IgG-class antibodies to 12 pneumococcal antigens pre- and post-immunization with polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine in 31 children who had experienced chronic chest symptoms. The purpose of the study was to determine the relation of IgG subclasses, especially IgG2, to the subjects' antibody responses to bacterial polysaccharide antigens, to see if measuring IgG subclasses would predict these responses. Twenty-nine children (90%) had low or low-normal levels of one or more IgG subclasses, including 20 out of 31 (65%) with low or low-normal levels of IgG2. Children studied had a relatively poor increase in levels of antibody to 10 of the 12 pneumococcal vaccine antigens investigated. Both pre- and post-immunization antibody levels were related to pre-immune serum concentrations of IgG2. Pre-immunization antibody levels were strongly related to post-immunization levels; when post-immunization antibody levels were adjusted for pre-immunization levels by partial correlation, the correlation between anticapsular antibody level post-immunization and IgG2 was no longer significant. Thus, in children with chronic chest symptoms, levels of antibody measured at a random interval after natural exposure to these bacterial polysaccharide antigens are related to levels of IgG2 subclass, but antibody increases after vaccination appear to be affected more by other factors.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 07/1990; 80(3):339-43. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2249.1990.tb03289.x · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of mixed bacterial vaccine (MBV), a biological response modifier prepared from Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marcescens, on the immune system of mice and on the regression of a transplantable mouse tumor sarcoma 37. The study examined MBV's biological properties and analyzed its chemical composition. The chemical composition varied with the growth media. A typical centrifuged, dialyzed supernate of the serum-containing preparation was found to consist mainly of protein and minimal amounts of carbohydrate and endotoxin, while MBV made with synthetic medium contained similar amounts of all three. MBV was nontoxic for mice, which gained weight following the injection of 0.5-1.0 ml of MBV. MBV caused regression of 20-100% of well-established mouse tumors without appreciable toxicity. MBV also had a striking effect on the immune response of mice to sheep red blood cells. When administered simultaneously with antigen injection, MBV increased the number of antibody-secreting splenocytes measured by the plaque-forming assay threefold. Serum antibody levels also increased two- to threefold. MBV did not enhance the immune response to pneumococcal polysaccharide type III, a B-cell-dependent response. However, the in vivo administration of MBV increased the in vitro response to MBV and the B-cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide. MBV compares favorably with other biological response modifiers because of its enhancing effect on the immune response and its oncolytic properties at nontoxic levels.
    Journal of biological response modifiers 05/1990; 9(2):194-204.

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,023.63 Total Impact Points


  • 1997
    • National University Hospital of Iceland
      • Department of Immunology
      Reikiavik, Capital Region, Iceland
  • 1980–1995
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Rheumatology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1978–1994
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Pediatric Oncology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1968–1991
    • State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1990
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Children's Hospital of Michigan
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 1984–1990
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • Montefiore Medical Center
      • Department of Rheumatology
      New York, New York, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1979–1990
    • State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • SUNY Downstate Medical Center
      Brooklyn, New York, United States
  • 1988
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1979–1986
    • National Institutes of Health
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1985
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
    • Rush Medical College
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1980–1984
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Pediatrics
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1981–1983
    • Brooke Army Medical Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1982
    • Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1978–1981
    • Temple University
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States