G Rölla

University of Oslo, Oslo, Oslo, Norway

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Publications (179)206.75 Total impact

  • Gunnar Rölla, Grazyna Jonski, Erik Saxegaard
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. To examine the erosion-inhibiting effect of different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid. Materials and methods. Thirty-six human molars were individually treated with 10 ml of 0.1 M citric acid for 30 min (Etch 1), acid was collected and stored until analysis. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups and then individually treated with 10 ml of one of six dilutions (from 0.1-1%) of hydrofluoric acid. The teeth were then again treated with citric acid (Etch 2). The individual acid samples from Etch 1 and 2 were analyzed for calcium by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and difference in calcium loss was calculated. Results. The highest erosion inhibiting effect was obtained in groups with the highest concentrations of hydrofluoric acid, where the pH was lowest, below pKa of 3.17, thus the hydrofluoric acids being mainly in an undissociated state. Discussion. Diluted hydrofluoric acid is present in aqueous solution of SnF2 and TiF4 (which are known to inhibit dental erosion): SnF2 + 3H2O = Sn(OH)2 + 2HF + H2O and TiF4 + 5H2O = Ti(OH)4 + 4HF + H2O. It is also known that pure, diluted hydrofluoric acid can inhibit dental erosion. Teeth treated with hydrofluoric acid are covered by a layer of CaF2-like mineral. This mineral is acid resistant at pH < 3, because it was formed at this pH. Conclusion. The erosion-inhibiting effect is due to formation of an acid resistant mineral, initiated by tooth enamel treatment with hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid is different in having fluoride as a conjugated base, which provides this acid with unique properties.
    Acta odontologica Scandinavica 07/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract – In this paper a combined microradiography and SEM study is presented on human enamel after a caries attack in vivo for a 4-wk period. The initial enamel caries is induced under a specially designed orthodontic band; plaque accumulation takes place under a niche in the band. The microradiography and SEM were done on the same sections. A special manipulation and breaking technique of the thin sections makes it possible to observe with the SEM, demineralized enamel areas with a mineral content known from microradiography. The results show that with a mineral content of about 50 vol. %, the observable porosity is noticeable at the prism level (interprismatically) but barely noticeable at the crystallite level. The surface morphology of the demineralized enamel is at low magnifications not very different from sound enamel. At high magnifications, however, the surface porosity becomes visible. The results indicate that the mineral in vivo losses in enamel after an initial caries attack can be explained mainly by mineral losses from interprismatic areas and from the prism peripheries.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 09/2007; 95(3):193 - 201. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract – In this paper the results are presented on the action of glutardialdehyde (GDA) on the in vitro demineralization of human dentin and on the in vivo demineralization of dentin using the Ögaard orthodontic banding system. The results show that a 2 min application of a 2% GDA solution at pH = 3.6 reduces dentin demineralization in vitro and in vivo substantially. Microradiography shows a percentage reduction of lesion depth and mineral loss in vitro of 20 and 36%, respectively. After 2 wk in vivo demineralization the same percentage reductions are 60 and 44%, respectively. The mechanism of action of GDA on dentin is not certain yet. Presumably the in vitro action is due to surface cross-linking of the dentin matrix causing reduced Ca and phosphate transport out of the dentin. In vivo an additional effect may be a rather short term influence of GDA on plaque or on plaque accumulation. The results of this paper indicate that glutardialdehyde is an interesting agent to consider in the reduction of root caries.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 09/2007; 97(4):297 - 300. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • SONNI METTE WALER, GUNNAR RÖLLA
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract – Rinsing experiments with chlorhexidine, copper and silver solutions were performed in a group of volunteers. The plaque score ws measured after rinsing with the test solutions for 4 d and no mechanical oral hygiene allowed. Chlorhexidine and copper, both 1.1 mM solutions, gave reduced plaque scores, chlorhexidine being slightly more effective than copper, but the difference was difference was not statistically significant. A 1.1 mM solution of silver mitrate also showed a plaque inhibiting effect, statistically significant from the placcbo, but the effect was also significantly less than when chlorhexidine or copper were used. Copper ions may be of dimical interest because this is an essential metal in human nutrition with low loxicity
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 09/2007; 90(2):131 - 133. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is probably the most widely used and the most potent chemical plaque inhibitory agent, whereas fluoride (F−) is the only truly accepted anticaries agent available at present. As they have discrete mechanisms of action, a combination effect of these agents on human dental caries may exist. The inhibitory effect of CHX on the formation of, and acid production in, plaque may reduce a relatively extreme cariogenic challenge sufficiently for it to be overcome by the local F− concentrations achieved by brushing or rinses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible caries inhibitory effect of combining 2.2 mM CHX mouthrinses used twice daily with daily 11.9 mM NaF rinses in an in vivo human caries model using plaque-retaining bands on premolars scheduled for extraction. Nine subjects (a total of 28 teeth) were fitted with the bands for 4 wk. Saliva and plaque samples were collected before and after the study period for bacterial cultures, and the tooth surfaces were analyzed by microradiography after careful tooth extractions. The combination of CHX and F− rinses resulted in enamel mineral loss only slightly higher than that observed in “sound” enamel and clearly less than with F− rinses alone. Both total plaque bacteria and Streptococcus mutans were reduced by CHX rinses, confirming the discrete mechanisms of action.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 09/2007; 102(2):109 - 112. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • E. KIRKEGAARD, F. FEHR, G. RÖLLA
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT – Chlorhexidine gluconate and sodium fluoride were found to be compatible in the concentration range of interest in clinical use. Admixture of chlorhexidine to sodium fluoride solutions did not interfere with the fluoride uptake in clinically intact premolars in vitro.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 09/2007; 82(8):566 - 569. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), mainly derived from bacteria located in deep crypts at the back of the tongue and from periodontal pockets, are responsible for approximately 90% of halitosis (bad breath, malodor). The objective of this double blind clinical study was to assess the clinical efficacy of a new formulation for halitosis containing a combination of zinc (0.3% Zn) and chlorhexidine (0.025% CHX) in low concentrations. The new formulation was compared to some widely used and commercially available formulations containing various enzymes and antibacterial agents in a clinical setting under controlled conditions. Ten healthy volunteers participated in this study (5 female, 5 male, mean age: 46.6, range: 26-79). Each participant served as their own control, and neither the investigator nor the ten test subjects knew which formulation they were testing at any given time (double-blind design). Baseline H2S data were obtained by cysteine rinsing for 30 seconds, 90 seconds mouth closure, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of mouth air. On separate days, each participant then rinsed for 60 seconds with 10 ml of each of the eight various formulations. Cysteine rinses were repeated at 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours, and GC measurements of oral H2S levels were again recorded. The test rinse (0.3% Zn + 0.025% CHX) reduced the intraoral H2S levels to 0.16% of control (range: 0.01-0.54%) after 1 hour, 0.4% after 2 hours, and 0.75% after 3 hours, providing superior efficacy in reducing H2S compared to the other formulations tested (p < 0.05). A combination of Zn and CHX in low concentrations seems to be the most efficient way to remove the VSC that causes bad breath at present. Studies are underway to further explore the extraordinary efficacy of this combination (close to 100%), suggesting a specific mode of action and a synergistic effect of these two components.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2007; 18(3):82-6.
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    ABSTRACT: It has recently been shown that stannous fluoride (SnF(2)), in the form of aqueous solutions and as toothpaste, can reduce the dissolution of enamel in erosive acids in vitro and in situ. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of toothpastes containing SnF(2) or NaF on enamel dissolution using an in vivo model. Four healthy anterior teeth in each subject (n = 20) were exposed to diluted citric acid (100 mmol l(-1) or 10 mmol l(-1)) applied using a peristaltic pump (5 ml @7 ml min(-1)) and the acid was collected in a test tube before and after application of the respective toothpastes (etch I and etch II). Toothpaste was applied to the labial surfaces with a soft brush (four applications, each of 1-min duration), with gentle water rinsing between applications. Each subject had one pair of teeth treated with each of the test toothpastes. Enamel dissolution was examined by assessment of calcium content in the citric acid applied before and after the treatment with toothpaste. The results indicate that the SnF(2) toothpaste markedly reduced the dissolution of teeth in vivo (etch II < etch I), whereas the NaF toothpaste provided no protection (etch II > etch I). Toothpaste appears to be an acceptable vehicle for SnF(2) and maintains the dissolution-reducing effect exhibited by aqueous solutions of this fluoride salt.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 06/2006; 114(3):180-3. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oral malodour is mainly a result of the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC). The present study was concerned with investigating the anti-VSC effect of insoluble pyrophosphates (PP) of zinc, copper(II) and tin(II). The hypothesis to be tested was that the sulphide anions produced when VSC are solubilized in water have a higher affinity for the respective metal ions than the PP anion. The anti-VSC effects of insoluble PP were compared with the corresponding soluble metal salts using three in vitro methods: saliva putrefaction; dialysis of a suspension of PP and saliva against water; and analysis of water containing hydrogen sulphide and methyl mercaptan gases, and gases in the headspace. The levels of VSC were analysed by gas chromatography in the first and third methods, and released metal ions were analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the second. The results showed that: the insoluble metal PP inhibited VSC formation in saliva by 99-100%; under dialysis, only minute amounts of metal ions are released from the combination of PP and saliva; and the PP lost their metal cations in water containing dissolved gases and inhibited VSC formation. Hence, the results support the experimental hypothesis. Sulphide ions are obviously very strong ligands for these metal ions.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 11/2004; 112(5):429-32. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    Alix Young, Grazyna Jonski, Gunnar Rölla
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc ions, chlorhexidine (CHX) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) are all known to inhibit production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The objective was to examine the anti-VSC dose-response effects of each of the above agents. Oral malodor was induced in 13 test subjects using the cysteine challenge method. The oral VSC response to rinses with 6 mm l-cysteine (pH 7.2) before and 1, 2 and 3 h after rinsing with zinc ions (Zn2+: 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0%), CHX and CPC (0.025 and 0.2%) was measured. Mouth air was analysed for VSC by gas chromatography (GC) according to current methodology. Zinc had a marked dose- and time-dependent anti-VSC effect. Zinc at 1% concentration had a somewhat unpleasant taste, whereas the lowest concentration was found acceptable. Chlorhexidine maintained a moderate anti-VSC effect over time. At 3 h, 0.2% CHX was the most effective agent but tasted relatively unpleasant. Cetylpyridinium at a concentration of 0.2% was only marginally more effective than 0.025% CHX over the 3 h, while 0.025% CPC had no better anti-VSC effect than water at both 2 h and 3 h. It was concluded that the three test agents demonstrated different anti-VSC kinetics. Although Zn had the best anti-VSC effect at 1 h, 0.2% CHX was at least as effective as 1% Zn at 3 h, most likely as a result of its unique substantivity.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 11/2003; 111(5):400-4. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • A Young, G Jonski, G Rölla
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    ABSTRACT: Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) are major components of oral malodour. As both zinc ions and cationic antibacterial agents inhibit the formation of oral VSC, this study aimed to determine whether these agents combined have synergistic anti-VSC actions. Baseline oral VSC measurements of mouth air from 10 volunteers following cysteine rinsing (6mM, pH 7.2) were obtained using gas chromatography (GC). Subjects rinsed for 1 min with 10ml of the test solutions, 0.3% zinc acetate (Zn), 0.025% chlorhexidine (CHX), 0.025% cetyl pyridinium (CPC), and the combinations Zn+CHX and Zn+CPC. Cysteine rinses were repeated at 1h, 2h and 3h and VSC measurements recorded. Three subjects rinsed with the Zn+CHX combination and fasted for 9h, undergoing cysteine rinses and VSC measurements at 3h intervals. 10 microl of the test solutions were also added to 1ml aliquots of human whole saliva (n=8). Following incubation at 37 degrees C for 24h VSC levels in the saliva headspace were measured by GC. Inhibition of VSC formation and the fractional inhibitory index indicating synergy were calculated. Zn+CHX mouthrinse had a synergistic anti-VSC effect, and was effective for at least 9h. Zn+CPC mouthrinse was less effective. Both combinations showed a synergistic inhibiting effect in-vitro. Synergy between Zn and the antibacterial agents confirms different mechanisms of operation.
    International Dental Journal 09/2003; 53(4):237-42. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Alix Young, Grazyna Jonski, Gunnar Rölla
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the level of orally produced volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) can be of use when monitoring oral malodour or in determining patients at risk of periodontal disease in longitudinal studies. It is not known, however, to what extent the level of VSC in mouth air is a stable, individual characteristic over time. The hypothesis to be tested was that the level of VSC in mouth air is an individual trait that is stable over time. Two groups of dental students participated in the study (n = 30 and n = 11). The amount of available substrate for VSC formation was standardized by rinses with 6 mM aqueous solutions of cysteine (pH 7.2). Part 1 used a Haliineter to measure 'morning breath' and response to cysteine rinses. Part 2 measured response to cysteine rinsing using a gas chromatograph. Repeated measurements provided information concerning the longitudinal intra-individual variations in level of oral VSC formation. Both groups showed large intra-individual variations in oral VSC. The differences were enhanced by cysteine rinses. The hypothesis was not supported. Oral VSC levels cannot be taken as diagnostic criteria in a normal population because of marked intra-individual variations over time.
    Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 01/2003; 60(6):321-4. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Alix Young, Grazyna Jonski, Gunnar Rölla
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that the detergents or organic solvents used to solubilize lipid-soluble triclosan can affect the biological activities exhibited by this molecule, such as its antibacterial, antiplaque, and anti-inflammatory effects. To examine whether solubilizing agents influence the effect of triclosan against formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC), as these are known to be a major component of oral malodour. Part A: one ml of human whole saliva (n = 10) was incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C in a closed test tube with addition of 10 micro l triclosan solubilized in alcohol. Part B: in a clinical experiment, VSC formation enhanced by mouth-rinses with cysteine was followed by subjects (n = 9) rinsing with triclosan solubilized in different detergents and organic solvents. The amount and nature of VSC in the saliva headspace and in the mouth air of the test subjects were determined by gas chromatography. Triclosan had a marked dose-dependent effect against VSC in vitro when solubilized in alcohol, independent of the alcohol per se. In vivo, triclosan lost its anti-VSC effect when solubilized in oil, in an uncharged detergent or in a chromophor, whereas it maintained its effect when solubilized in a combination of sodium lauryl sulphate, propylene glycol and water. The solubilizing agent influences the anti-VSC effect of triclosan.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 01/2003; 29(12):1078-81. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    G Rölla, G Jonski, A Young
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    ABSTRACT: The anti-VSC (volatile sulphur compounds) effect of zinc is known to be associated with free zinc ions. To examine whether zinc salts with low stability constants were more suitable as sources of zinc in zinc lozenges than zinc salts with high stability constants. The former provide free zinc ions upon dissolution in water, whereas the latter provide few such ions. Identical lozenges were produced which contained either zinc acetate, zinc gluconate (low stability constants), zinc citrate or amino-acid chelated zinc (extremely high stability constants). All the lozenges contained 0.1 per cent of zinc. A test panel of 10 volunteers used the different lozenges randomly. VSC were measured by GC. The lozenge with the highest stability constant was as effective as those with very low stability constants. The anti-VSC effect was thus not related to this constant. These findings may be explained by the possibility that alternative ligands with stronger affinity for zinc than the original ligands in the lozenges may be present in the oral cavity. An in vitro experiment indicated that the sulphide ion (S2-) may be such a ligand.
    International Dental Journal 07/2002; 52 Suppl 3:233-5. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Alix Young, Grazyna Jonski, Gunnar Rölla
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    ABSTRACT: Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) produced in the oral cavity, are a major cause of oral malodour. Zinc (Zn) ions inhibit VSC formation. The objective of this study was to examine whether Zn salts with low stability constants were more suitable as sources of Zn in lozenges than salts with high stability constants. The former provide free Zn ions upon dissolution in water, whereas the latter provide almost no free Zn. Identical lozenges containing Zn-acetate and -gluconate, which have low stability constants, and Zn citrate and amino acid-chelated Zn, which have extremely high stability constants, were tested. All the lozenges contained 0.9% w/w Zn. Ten volunteers sucked the lozenges until dissolved, and oral VSC were measured by gas chromatography. Zn-acetate, -gluconate and -chelate had an impressive anti-VSC effect even 3 h after the lozenges were taken. Zn citrate had significantly less effect than the other lozenges except Zn acetate after 2 and 3 h. It was concluded that the anti-VSC effect was not related to the stability constants of the Zn compounds tested. Alternative ligands. with stronger affinity for Zn than the ligands in the lozenges, must be present in the oral cavity to explain these results. It is suggested that the sulphide ion may serve this function.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 03/2002; 110(1):31-4. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Halitosis, mainly caused by bacteria located on the posterior dorsum of the tongue and in periodontal pockets, is due to formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). The hypothesis to be tested was that the affinity of a metal for sulfur determines its anti-VSC activity. Clinical tests were carried out on 12 subjects who rinsed with cysteine to induce halitosis (baseline) before rinsing with 7.34 mM ZnCl2, SnF2 and CuCl2. Mouth air VSC analyses were repeated following cysteine rinses at 1 h, 2 h and 3 h using a gas chromatograph. In vitro experiments tested toxic metals Hg2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+. 10-microl aliquots of metal salts were added to 1-ml aliquots of human whole saliva from 30 subjects. Samples were incubated overnight at 37oC and saliva headspace was analyzed for VSC in a gas chromatograph. Cu2+>Sn2+>Zn2+ (supports hypothesis). Zn2+ had significantly less anti-VSC effect compared with Cu2+ and Sn2+ at 1, 2 and 3 h. In vitro results indicated that Hg2+, Cu2+ and Cd2+ had close to 100% anti-VSC effect, and that Pb2+ was less effective and Cd2+ more effective than expected in inhibiting VSC. Apart from Hg2+ and Cu2+, the metals had a significantly greater effect on H2S than on CH3SH. Cu2+ and Hg2+ have well-known antibacterial activity and may presumably also operate by this mechanism.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 09/2001; 28(8):776-81. · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • A Young, M Rykke, G Rölla
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study we examined the protein proportion and amino acid profile of the salivary micelle-like globules (SMGs) of human whole saliva and parotid saliva (HWS, HPS). Saliva and SMG samples from each subject (clarified HWS and HPS from 6 subjects, and unclarified HWS from 3 subjects) were analysed for amino acids using standard acid hydrolysis procedures. HPS, clarified HWS and the respective supernatant samples (remaining after removal of the SMGs) were also measured for protein using the micro-Kjeldahl method. SMGs from clarified and unclarified HWS made up 4.7% and 19.7%, respectively, of the total salivary protein based on amino acid analyses. With the micro-Kjeldahl method SMGs from clarified HWS made up 7.3% of the total saliva protein. SMGs isolated from HPS were found in only small amounts. The amino acid profile for the SMGs was strikingly similar to that known for the 2-h pellicle, and differed significantly from HWS or HPS. The results support previous morphological studies indicating that the SMGs represent a major component of the newly formed pellicle.
    Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 05/1999; 57(2):105-10. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The zeta potential of human enamel is of physiological importance for interactions between enamel surfaces and the surrounding aqueous medium of saliva. The zeta potentials of both enamel and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been examined previously by various techniques. In this study, we examined the zeta potential of human enamel and HA using the Coulter DELSA 440, which, by a laser, makes independent Doppler shift measurements of moving particles in an electric field at 4 different angles, providing advantages over previous techniques. The enamel and HA particles were suspended directly in different phosphate buffers, or first incubated for 2 hrs in parotid (PS) or whole saliva (HWS) and then suspended in the same buffers. The enamel and HA particles exhibited an overall net surface potential of -15 to -30 mV, depending on the buffer content. Incubation in PS and HWS gave less negative potentials of -8 to -14 mV. In our previous studies, the salivary micelle-like structures (SMSs), seen in TEM of parotid saliva, were observed to have a zeta potential of -9 mV (Rykke et al., 1996). The zeta potential determinations in this study support the concept of an adsorption of mostly SMSs to the enamel surfaces, with a change of the zeta potential of the enamel and HA toward that of the SMSs.
    Advances in Dental Research 12/1997; 11(4):560-5.
  • A B Skaare, G Rölla, P Barkvoll
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies on triclosan treatment of skin exposed to sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) indicated a protective rôle of zinc and an irritant effect of propylene glycol (PG). The aim was hence to examine whether zinc or PG also may affect SLS-induced oral mucosal reactions, and also to test the influence of zinc in combination with triclosan. 15 healthy dental students participated in this double-blind crossover study performed in 2 experimental series. They were rinsing 2x daily with solutions containing (A) 1.5% SLS, (B) 1.5% SLS/0.5% zinc citrate and (C) 1.5% SLS/PG (1:8) in experiment 1, and (D) 1.5% SLS/0.15% triclosan/0.3% zinc citrate and (E) 1.5% SLS/0.15% triclosan in experiment 2. Clinical evaluation by 2 examiners of degree of erythema and oral mucosal desquamations was then performed. The critical micellar concentration was also determined. SLS and SLS/PG, which were not different in effect, evoked significantly more erythematous reactions than SLS/Tri/Zn. This solution was numerically but not statistically better than SLS/Tri, and the latter also did lead to significantly less erythema than SLS/PG. In conclusion, the present study revealed no irritation of the oral mucosa due to PG, whereas a protective effect of zinc as well as the anti-inflammatory effect of triclosan were confirmed.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 11/1997; 105(5 Pt 2):527-33. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Globular structures have been demonstrated in human parotid saliva by transmission electron microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The aim of this study was to fractionate these salivary globular structures for analytical and preparative purposes using a gel-filtration material capable of separating spherical particles up to 300-400 nm in diameter. Freshly obtained parotid saliva was applied to a Sephacryl S-1000 column. Peak fractions were collected and prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or for amino acid analysis. Bovine milk was included as the casein micelles by TEM appear to be similar to the salivary aggregates and their elution profiles are known. The salivary globular structures were eluted in one major peak. TEM of negatively stained samples from the peak fractions demonstrated globular protein aggregates consistent with the salivary structures in parotid saliva. Amino acid analysis showed characteristic amino acid profiles with unusual high levels of proline, 40-45%. The casein micelles were eluted in one major peak and separated from the whey proteins. This study indicates that the salivary globular structures can be isolated by gel chromatography. The amino acid analysis indicates that proline-rich proteins may be an important fraction of the salivary globular structures.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 11/1997; 105(5 Pt 2):495-501. · 1.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
206.75 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970–2013
    • University of Oslo
      • • Institute of Clinical Dentistry
      • • Faculty of Dentistry
      • • Department of Microbiology (MIC)
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 1989–2007
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1988–1996
    • Karolinska Institutet
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1992
    • Rio de Janeiro State University
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 1991
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      • Faculdade de Odontologia (FO)
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 1987
    • Unilever
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1978
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 1975–1977
    • Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons
      Денмарк, Western Australia, Australia