[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Coxsackievirus infection leads to a rapid reduction of the filling state of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi Ca2+ stores. The coxsackievirus 2B protein, a small membrane protein that localizes to the Golgi and to a lesser extent to the ER, has been proposed to play an important role in this effect by forming membrane-integral pores, thereby increasing the efflux of Ca2+ from the stores. Here, evidence is presented that supports this idea and that excludes the possibility that 2B reduces the uptake of Ca2+ into the stores. Measurement of intra-organelle-free Ca2+ in permeabilized cells revealed that the ability of 2B to reduce the Ca2+ filling state of the stores was preserved at steady ATP. Biochemical analysis in a cell-free system further showed that 2B had no adverse effect on the activity of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase, the Ca2+-ATPase that transports Ca2+ from the cytosol into the stores. To investigate whether 2B specifically affects Ca2+ homeostasis or other ion gradients, we measured the lumenal Golgi pH. Expression of 2B resulted in an increased Golgi pH, indicative for the efflux of H+ from the Golgi lumen. Together, these data support a model that 2B increases the efflux of ions from the ER and Golgi by forming membrane-integral pores. We have demonstrated that a major consequence of this activity is the inhibition of protein trafficking through the Golgi complex.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2006; 281(20):14144-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor