G Ferretti

Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, The Marches, Italy

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Publications (113)292.36 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative-stress is engaged with diabetes and its complications.•Platelets were analyzed to evaluate the effect of Fermented papaya preparation (FPP).•FPP increased Na+/K+ ATPase activity and membrane fluidity.•FPP improved the antioxidant system functionality.•Our data suggest that FPP may protect from the oxidative damage associated with diabetes.
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present paper is to evaluate the post-prandial response to some varieties of gluten free (GF) pasta that are commonly consumed in Italy. The glycaemic responses were compared against a glucose standard in healthy subjects and gluten-free diet celiac subjects. Subjects were served portions of the test foods and a standard food (glucose), on separate occasions, each containing 50 g available carbohydrates. Capillary blood glucose was measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minute after the consumption of each test food. For each type of pasta, glycaemic index (GI) was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose curve as a percentage of each subject's average incremental area under the blood glucose curve (AUC) for the standard food. Gluten free pasta exhibited a range of GI values from 46 to 66. Glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic profile (GP) were also calculated. The higher GI value was observed in pasta containing rice flour as main ingredient. Lower values were observed in pasta obtained using corn or a mixture of corn and rice flour as main ingredients. The results have been confirmed in celiac subjects. The information presented in this paper may be useful in helping celiac people to select low-GI pasta.
    Food Funct. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The bioavailability of carotenoids and the protective effect exerted by Brassica vegetables against lipoprotein peroxidation has not previously been investigated in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of carotenoids in black (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala subvar. Laciniata L) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.f. rubra) and their protective effect against LDL oxidation. Moreover, we studied the effect on plasma lipid profile. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers (23 females and 15 males) participated in the 2-week intervention study which included a daily portion (300 g) of black and red cabbage. Plasma lutein and β-carotene levels and total antioxidant capacity after dietary intervention were significantly increased. The results obtained demonstrated that Brassica supplementation favourably influenced serum lipid profile with a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and oxidized LDL. Moreover, our results strengthen the hypothesis that the effect of dietary intervention could be modulated by baseline conditions of the subjects.
    Journal of Functional Foods 05/2014; 8:129–138. · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite brilliant successes that have been achieved with the applications of genetic engineering in food production to sustain large monocultures and to compete in a global market economy, the chronic crises affecting agriculture have not been resolved. Rather, biotechnologies and an expansion of mechanized, modern agriculture with intensive use of chemicals have contributed to a quasi-collapse of the farming population worldwide thus, destabilizing local economies and food security in the name of progress and modernity. Nevertheless, the emerging bioeconomy is supporting very passionately the cultivation of GM crops with the ambitious promises of improving quality of life for all, while resolving successfully the foreseeable, global challenges of providing adequate food, fiber and renewable energy for a growng human population. The global hectarage grown with GM crops has more than doubled worldwide in the last decade, especially in developing countries, and resulted in a reduction of the cultivated germplasm, generally limited to what was ruled by international companies and directed toward the global market. GMOs’ research foci are purposefully oriented to make crops withstand harsh environmental conditions as the effects of global climate change are rapidly altering the attributes of agricultural landscapes. Also, crops are genetically modified to yield more food, fiber and renewable energy and withstand the effects of pests and disease. These are additional, desirable goals of the GM research agenda, yet they can be meaningless if they are not delivered to local farmers with all the advice and the integration which are the basis for achieving a sustainable agriculture. Therefore, we remain skeptical that the promises emerging from this ambitious vision can be fulfilled successfully, on a global scale and maintained through time by their operators and supporters, without the introduction of a better approach, which looks at creating a more integrated paradigm for sustainable crop management. Without denying the value that genetic engineering in agriculture may possess for certain agrarian contexts, we make a case that superseding the millenarian cultures of practicing agriculture with a homogeneous modus operandi worldwide, at the expense of biodiversity and the ecological services naturally cultivated systems provide can be disastrous for mankind and the whole ecosphere.
    Sustainable Food Production Includes Human and Environmental Health, Edited by Bruce W. Campbell, Silvia Lopez Ortiz, 01/2014; Springer., ISBN: 9400774532
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    ABSTRACT: Methylglyoxal (MG), a reactive carbonyl compound formed primarily from triose phosphates, appears to be involved in the molecular mechanisms of diabetes, end-stage renal disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Methylglyoxal exerts several biological activities. Among these it promotes advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are crucial in pathogenesis of human disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that MG reacts with proteins and compositional modifications reflect loss of biological activity. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of in vitro MG-induced glycation on human high density lipoprotein (HDL) and on the activity of the enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1). HDL was incubated in the absence or in the presence of MG (0.2mmol/L and 1.0mmol/L) (MG-HDL) for different times (3, 6, 24h) at 37° C. We evaluated apoprotein compositional changes, in both control and MG treated HDL, using intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan and monitoring the decrease of free amino groups. Furthermore we evaluated fluorescent advanced glycation end products (Ex=370nm, Em=440nm) and the activity of HDL-paraoxonase. We demonstrated that human HDL is susceptible to glycation by MG (0.2mmol/L and 1mmol/L). The decrease of free amino groups and of intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan demonstrates HDL apoprotein modifications in HDL incubated with MG. The compositional changes are associated with a significant increase in fluorescent advanced glycation end products and with a significant decrease of paraoxonase-1 enzyme activity associated with the HDL surface. HDL-associated paraoxonase is responsible for the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of HDL and detoxification against homocysteine-thiolactone. Therefore, modifications of apoprotein composition and the decrease of paraoxonase-1 activity in MG-treated HDL could affect the protective effect exerted by HDL against oxidative damage and could contribute to complications in patients affected by diseases associated with aging and oxidative stress.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 11/2013; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective Obesity and / or psychopathological disorders of parents represent risk factors for childhood obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate the link between obesity in pregnancy and oxidative stress. Methods. Venous blood was collected from 37 women at the eighth month of gestation (19 obese e 28 normal weight). Cord blood was obtained at birth from newborns of obese mothers and controls. Cord blood and maternal blood was used to separate plasma to be used for the evaluation of leptin, oxidized LDL and paraoxonase (PON1) activity. Results Higher levels of leptin were observed both in maternal blood and cord blood of children of obese women compared to normal weight women. The data showed also lower levels of PON1 activity in plasma of obese women and in the cord blood of their children. Furthermore, a positive correlation was established between levels of PON1 activity in maternal blood and cord blood, suggesting a relationship between PON1 in maternal plasma and fetal cord blood. Conclusions Essential obesity in pregnancy is associated with hyperleptinemia. PON1 exerts an antioxidant role therefore our results demonstrated that obesity exposes to an increased susceptibility to oxidative damage in both mothers and newborns.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 10/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition associated with a high frequency of cardiovascular events. Modifications of plasma lipids, and an increase in the levels of biochemical markers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation have been reported in subjects with psoriasis, suggesting a relationship between psoriasis, inflammation and oxidative damage. Objectives To investigate whether modulation of inflammatory activity by tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors in patients with psoriasis is associated with modification of lipid profiles, oxidative stress and paraoxonase (PON)1 activity. Methods The levels of plasma lipids and lipoprotein(a), and the levels of the markers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in subjects with psoriasis (n = 23) before and after 24 weeks of treatment with etanercept. In the same subjects plasma total antioxidant capacity and the activity of PON1, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory enzyme associated with the high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), were investigated. Results The results showed that clinical improvement in patients with psoriasis treated with etanercept is associated with a reduction in the levels of inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP)] and lipid peroxidation, and also with increased antioxidant capacity in the serum of patients with psoriasis. These modifications are associated with a significant increase in the activity of PON1. A significant increase in the PON1/CRP ratio has also been observed in patients with psoriasis after treatment. The significant inverse correlation between CRP and PON1 activity suggests a relationship between PON1 activity and inflammation. Conclusions Treatment with etanercept is associated with a reduction in lipid peroxidation and an improvement in HDL antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
    British Journal of Dermatology 05/2013; 168(5):984-9. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: reprint SM
    Gianna Ferretti, Tiziana Bacchetti
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    ABSTRACT: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) represents the most common form of genetic obesity. Several studies confirm that obesity is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and impairment of antioxidant systems; however, no data are available concerning PWS subjects. We compared levels of plasma lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 30 subjects of 'normal' weight (18.5-25 kg/m(2)), 15 PWS obese (>30 kg/m(2)) subjects and 13 body mass index (BMI)-matched obese subjects not affected by PWS. In all subjects, we evaluated the levels of lipid hydroperoxides and the activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme involved in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties exerted by high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Furthermore, using the fluorescent molecule of Laurdan, we investigated the physicochemical properties of HDLs isolated from normal weight and obese individuals. Altogether, our results demonstrated, for the first time, higher levels of lipid hydroperoxides and a lower PON1 activity in plasma of obese individuals with PWS with respect to normal-weight controls. These alterations are related to CRP levels, with a lower PON1:CRP ratio in PWS compared with non-PWS obese subjects. The study of Laurdan fluorescence parameters showed significant modifications of physicochemical properties in HDLs from PWS individuals. Whatever the cause of obesity, the increase of adiposity is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and alterations in HDL compositional and functional properties.
    Disease Models and Mechanisms 07/2012; 5(5):698-705. · 4.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD), a common heritable chronic inflammatory condition of the small intestine caused by permanent intolerance to gluten/gliadin (prolamin), is characterized by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of the biochemical and immunological aspects of the disease and the mechanisms involved in toxicity of prolamins. It has been demonstrated that some gliadin peptides resistant to complete proteolytic digestion may directly affect intestinal cell structure and functions by modulating gene expression and oxidative stress. In recent years, the creation of the two research fields Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics, has enabled the elucidation of some interactions between diet, nutrients and genes. Various dietary components including long chain ω-3 fatty acids, plant flavonoids, and carotenoids have been demonstrated to modulate oxidative stress, gene expression and production of inflammatory mediators. Therefore their adoption could preserve intestinal barrier integrity, play a protective role against toxicity of gliadin peptides and have a role in nutritional therapy of celiac disease.
    Nutrients 04/2012; 4(4):243-57. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) plays an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role. Aim of the study was to investigate the alteration of paraoxonase-1 activity in celiac disease (CD), an intestinal disorder characterized by toxic injury exerted by gluten peptides. Activities of PON1, levels of biochemical markers of lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated in serum obtained from 27 celiac patients (11 at diagnosis, 16 treated with gluten free diet) and 25 healthy subjects. Moreover, the serum susceptibility of Cu(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation was investigated in controls and patients. The results showed a lower PON1 activity in serum of both groups of celiac patients with respect to control subjects. PON1 activity in CD was related with markers of disease severity and was negatively correlated with the levels of lipid hydroperoxide and with the susceptibility of serum to lipid peroxidation induced in vitro by metal ions. The alteration of PON1 activity and markers of lipid peroxidation realized at lower extent in patients who were on a gluten-free diet.
    Journal of lipids. 01/2012; 2012:587479.
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    ABSTRACT: Paraoxonase-1 (PON) is an antioxidant enzyme synthesized by liver and mainly associated with high density lipoproteins (HDL). Aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of PON1 activity in plasma (pPON) or bound to HDL (HDL-PON) in relation to inflammatory conditions and physiological stages. Between -30 to +300 days from calving, 9 cows were monitored for metabolic and inflammatory profiles, milk yield, body condition score and feed intake. Cows were divided in 2 groups based on their response to postpartum inflammatory stimulus (high and low Liver Functionality Index: HI-LFI and LO-LFI). pPON decreased after calving (P<0.05) and was directly correlated with milk yield (r=0.48; P<0.01), albumins and other indirect indexes of negative acute phase proteins (-APP: cholesterol and retinol binding protein). On the contrary, pPON was inversely related with the +APP (haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin) and related indexes (bilirubin, ROM). The correlation between pPON and HDL-PON was low. After calving, the HI-LFI vs LO-LFI group had higher –APP and pPON levels, lower HDL-PON level and displayed better performances. Overall results demonstrated that pPON has a similar behavior in comparison to –APP, confirming previous data. The results suggested that pPON activity could represent an useful marker to assess the severity of postpartum inflammatory phenomena and their consequences.
    Progress in Nutrition. 01/2012; 14(1):43-49.
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    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 12/2011; 22(2):e9-e10. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • G Ferretti, T Bacchetti
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of the paper was to summarize the literature about the effect of dietary lipids on activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON1), a multifunctional enzyme associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL). PON1 exerts a protective effect against oxidative damage of cells and lipoproteins and modulates the susceptibility of HDL and LDL to atherogenic modifications such as homocysteinylation. The present review shows evidence that the amount and the composition of dietary lipids are key factors in the modulation of PON1. The effect of dietary lipids is also modulated by PON1 polymorphisms. The molecular mechanisms involved include an effect on PON1 hepatic synthesis or secretion and/or modification of PON1 interactions with HDL. Changes of PON1 activity could also be related to dietary intake of oxidized lipids that behave as PON1 inhibitors. Dietary fatty acids by the modulation of PON1 gene expression and activity could constitute an useful approach for the prevention of human diseases associated with oxidative damage.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 11/2011; 22(2):88-94. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Gianna Ferretti, Tiziana Bacchetti
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    ABSTRACT: Human plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in the transport of lipids, modulate membrane lipid composition and regulate signal transduction. HDL-like lipoproteins have been shown also in human cerebrospinal fluid and it has been hypothesized that they could have a role in lipid transport in central nervous system. After synthesis, lipoproteins are susceptible to lipid peroxidation triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS and RNS) produced by peripheral and brain cells. Aim of the paper has been to review the scientific literature on the role of lipid peroxidation of LDL and HDL in the molecular mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Several studies have demonstrated a significant increase in lipid peroxidation products in brain, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. The increase of antibodies against ox-LDL in plasma and the presence of ox-LDL in demyelinating plaques in MS brain suggests that the disease is associated with oxidative damage of lipoproteins. The impairment of antioxidant systems or an increase in the production of ROS and RNS could contribute to lipoprotein peroxidation in MS. Oxidized lipoproteins show several alterations of their functions, they are neurotoxic and have pro-inflammatory properties. Therefore lipoprotein lipid peroxidation products could be involved in demyelination and axonal injury in MS.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 10/2011; 311(1-2):92-7. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease associated with abnormal plasma lipid metabolism and with a high frequency of cardiovascular events. Modifications of plasma lipids and an increase in the levels of biochemical markers of lipid peroxidation have been reported in subjects with psoriasis, suggesting a relationship between psoriasis, lipoproteins and oxidative damage. To investigate further the relationship between lipoproteins and oxidative stress in psoriasis. The levels of plasma lipids, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and markers of lipid peroxidation were evaluated in subjects with psoriasis (n=23) and in controls (n=25). In the same subjects, the activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an antioxidant and an anti-inflammatory enzyme associated with high-density lipoproteins, was investigated. The results showed higher levels of Lp(a) in the serum of patients with psoriasis compared with controls (P<0·001). Higher levels of lipid hydroperoxides (P<0·001) and lower PON1 activity were observed in the serum of patients compared with healthy subjects, confirming that psoriasis is associated with oxidative stress. The imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes, and the increase of Lp(a) serum levels was related to the extent and severity of psoriasis. Finally, our results demonstrated that Lp(a) levels were positively correlated with markers of lipid peroxidation and negatively related to PON1 activity, suggesting that subjects with higher levels of Lp(a) are more exposed to oxidative damage. Our results provide further evidence that oxidative stress and impairment of the antioxidant system in the plasma of patients may play a role in pathogenesis and progression of psoriasis and related complications.
    British Journal of Dermatology 07/2011; 166(1):204-7. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters are a group of steroid alcohols that occur naturally in plants. As natural constituents of plant structures, phytosterols contribute to the regulation of the fluidity and permeability of cell membranes. They are found mostly in vegetable oils, fruits, nuts, cereals and legumes. The most abundant phytosterols are β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. During the last 15years the market for phytosterols, as dietary supplements, has lead to a rapidly growing worldwide market for functional foods containing phytosterols and stanols. Even though many different clinical trials have clearly demonstrated that phytosterols reduce LDL-cholesterol, it is unclear whether phytosterols have a positive effect on cardiovascular disease. Until now, there are no data related to the effect of phytosterol consumption on the development of cardiovascular diseases. This review focuses on the biochemistry of phytosterols, their metabolism and role in health and in pathological conditions. KeywordsPhytosterols–Phytostanols–Functional foods
    Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2011; 4(3):165-172.
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2011; 12(1):55-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune enteropathy, characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, atrophy of intestinal villi and several clinical manifestations has increased in recent years. Subjects affected by CD cannot tolerate gluten protein, a mixture of storage proteins contained in several cereals (wheat, rye, barley and derivatives). Gluten free-diet remains the cornerstone treatment for celiac patients. Therefore the absence of gluten in natural and processed foods represents a key aspect of food safety of the gluten-free diet. A promising area is the use of minor or pseudo-cereals such as amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff. The paper is focused on the new definition of gluten-free products in food label, the nutritional properties of the gluten-free cereals and their use to prevent nutritional deficiencies of celiac subjects.
    Nutrients 03/2010; 2(1):16-34. · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Gianna Ferretti, Davide Neri, Bruno Borsari
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    ABSTRACT: • Organically grown foods have become increasingly popular with the consumer because of a desire to improve nutrition and prevent environmental contamination. • Fruits and vegetables are cultivated according to different approaches: conventional (chemical-based agriculture), integrated farm management, organic agriculture. • Experimental evidence suggests that higher levels of micronutrients and antioxidants are associated with organically grown fruit and vegetables. • Cultivation systems affect the amount of chemical residues in produce and the risk of its possible biological contamination. • Synthetic pesticide and additive residues can be avoided in properly managed organic systems. • The differences between foods grown under different agricultural methods may not be enough to declare organic produce as superior quality food relative to their conventional or integrated counterparts. Key WordsOrganic food-pesticides-food safety
    01/2010: pages 115-124;

Publication Stats

2k Citations
292.36 Total Impact Points


  • 1988–2014
    • Università Politecnica delle Marche
      • • Department of Odontostomatologic and Specialized Clinical Sciences (DISCO)
      • • Faculty of Medicine and Surgery
      Ancona, The Marches, Italy
  • 1997
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 1994
    • INRCA Istituto Nazionale di Ricovero e Cura per Anziani
      • Department of Diabetology
      Ancona, The Marches, Italy
  • 1993
    • Università degli Studi di Siena
      Siena, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1983
    • University of Bologna
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy