G.J. Boland

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

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Publications (50)119.95 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The enhanced liver fibrosis test (ELF-test) has been validated for several hepatic diseases. However, its performance in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients is uncertain.Objective This study investigates the diagnostic value of the ELF test for cirrhosis identified by liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in non-Asian women with CHB.Study designWomen of non-Asian origin with perinatally acquired CHB infection, detected during pregnancy in the period 1990–2003, returned to our center between September 2011 and May 2012 for LSM and blood sampling to perform an ELF test and to calculate, APRI and FIB-4 scores. Fibrosis stages were classified by the METAVIR system.ResultsA total of 119 women were included in this study with a median age of 43 years, all ALT levels being <2× ULN and all being HBeAg negative. The overall median LSM (IQR) stiffness and ELF test were 5.5 kPa (4.0–6.8) and 8.4 (7.8–9.2) respectively. LSM and ELF test classified 14 (12%) and 19 (16%) patients with severe fibrosis to cirrhosis (≥F3, i.e. liver stiffness >8.1 kPa), however in only 4 (3%) patients there was an agreement between LSM and ELF test. With LSM as reference, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for detection of ≥F3 fibrosis was for ELF 0.65 (95% CI 0.51–0.80; p = 0.06), APRI 0.66 (0.50–0.82; p = 0.07) and FIB-4 0.66 (0.49–0.82; p = 0.07).Conclusion The ELF test less accurately discriminates severe fibrosis or cirrhosis when compared to LSM in our cohort of non-Asian women with CHB.
    Journal of Clinical Virology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Worldwide, paracetamol is administered as a remedy for complaints that occur after vaccination. Recently published results indicate that paracetamol inhibits the vaccination response in infants when given prior to vaccination. The goal of this study was to establish whether paracetamol exerts similar effects in young adults. In addition, the effect of timing of paracetamol intake was investigated. In two randomized, controlled, open-label studies 496 healthy young adults were randomly assigned to three groups. The study groups received paracetamol for 24 hours starting at the time of (prophylactic use) - or 6 hours after (therapeutic use) the primary (0 month) and first booster (1 month) hepatitis B vaccination. The control group received no paracetamol. None of the participants used paracetamol around the second booster (6 months) vaccination. Anti-HBs levels were measured prior to and one month after the second booster vaccination on ADVIA Centaur XP. One month after the second booster vaccination, the anti-HBs level in the prophylactic paracetamol group was significantly lower (p = 0.048) than the level in the control group (4257 mIU/mL vs. 5768 mIU/mL). The anti-HBs level in the therapeutic paracetamol group (4958 mIU/mL) was not different (p = 0.34) from the level in the control group. Only prophylactic paracetamol treatment, and not therapeutic treatment, during vaccination has a negative influence on the antibody concentration after hepatitis B vaccination in adults. These findings prompt to consider therapeutic instead of prophylactic treatment to ensure maximal vaccination efficacy and retain the possibility to treat pain and fever after vaccination.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e98175. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty to fifty per cent of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) experience nonresponse to current antiviral therapy, which may relate in part to ribavirin or PEG-interferon pharmacodynamics. We evaluated potential relevance of various factors for nonresponse. Two hundred forty-two naive CHC patients who received in a previous trial at least 24 weeks of antiviral therapy, including PEG-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin, were analysed. Of them, 53% were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1-4, 71% exhibited high viral load and 32% had severe fibrosis/cirrhosis. After 24 weeks of treatment, 39 patients (16%) were nonresponders. In multivariate analysis, lower serum ribavirin concentrations, HCV genotype 1-4 and higher baseline γ-GT predicted nonresponse. Week-24 ribavirin concentrations (2.2 vs 2.8 mg/L, P < 0.001), average ribavirin doses (14.5 vs 15.2 mg/kg per day, P = 0.03) and week-24 haemoglobin decreases (1.7 vs 2.0 mm, P = 0.02) were lower in nonresponders. Nonresponse rates increased progressively at decreasing ribavirin concentrations: 4%, 11%, 13% and 36% in case of serum ribavirin concentrations ≥4, 3-4, 2-3 and ≤2 mg/L, respectively (P = 0.001). Ribavirin concentrations correlated with both week-24 haemoglobin decreases (r = 0.42, P < 0.001) and ribavirin doses (r = 0.17, P = 0.01). Subgroup analysis in HCV genotype 1-4 patients revealed essentially the same results. Nonresponse was exceptional in HCV genotype 2-3 patients and associated with ribavirin concentrations <2 mg/L. Presumed interferon-related factors (average PEG-interferon doses and decreases in leucocytes, granulocytes, platelets and body weight) did not differ between nonresponders and responders. In conclusion, ribavirin- rather than PEG-interferon-related factors are independent and potentially modifiable predictors of nonresponse in treatment-naive CHC patients.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 11/2010; 19(1):39-46. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2007, a new set of guidelines for blood exposure incidents was introduced in The Netherlands to standardize management and reduce use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg). Accidents now have to be assigned into risk categories with the corresponding medical intervention. To study the consequences of the guidelines on overall risk assessment and costs of hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention. Incidents (n = 461) from both hospital as well as non-hospital health care workers and others registered by a call centre from the year 2005 were reassessed and reclassified as 'no-risk', 'high-risk' or 'low-risk' according to the corresponding risk categories of the new guidelines. The differences in classification, use of HBV immunoglobulin, source testing and the costs of the HBV prevention strategy were evaluated. Of all incidents, 86% could be reassigned directly into the new risk categories. However, there was a significant shift from 'low-' to 'high-risk' incidents. Overall, administration of HBV vaccination increased and administration of HBIg decreased significantly, although within the group of high-risk incidents, administration of HBIg increased. There was no effect on the frequency of reference serum taken after an incident. While fewer incidents needed intervention, the total costs of HBV prevention still increased by 50%. Total costs increased by 13%, due to a shift in classification. The use of the new protocol facilitated standardized risk assessment for blood exposure accidents. HBIg administration and source testing decreased. An increased proportion of high-risk classifications resulted in an increase in the associated costs.
    Occupational Medicine 06/2010; 60(4):270-6. · 1.45 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2010; 52. · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2010; 52.
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    ABSTRACT: During peginterferon-alfa-2a/ribavirin therapy, plasma hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA decreases with a rapid first phase and a slower second phase. We compared the viral load decrease and slope in the first 48 h in patients with a rapid viral response (RVR, i.e. HCV-RNA < 50 IU/mL at week 4) with patients not achieving an RVR. From 23 HCV-infected (14 mono-infected and nine HCV/HIV-coinfected) genotype 1 or 4 positive peginterferon-alfa-2a/ribavirin-treated patients, plasma HCV-RNA was determined at baseline, 48 h, weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 48 and 72. The HCV viral load decrease (Delta0-48), the slope (lambda(1)) and the efficiency factor (epsilon) were determined in the first 48 h after the start of therapy. Five (36%) HCV mono-infected patients and three (33%) HIV/HCV-coinfected patients achieved an RVR whereas six (43%) HCV mono-infected patients and five (56%) HIV/HCV-coinfected patients reached a sustained viral response (SVR). In contrast to HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, five HCV mono-infected patients with an RVR showed both a larger Delta0-48 and steeper lambda(1) (-1.77log(10) IU/mL +/- 0.66 and -2.04/day +/- 0.76) compared to nine non-RVR patients (-0.66log(10) IU/mL +/- 0.39; P = 0.019 and -0.76/day +/- 0.41; P = 0.019). When divided by SVR, a greater Delta0-48 and steeper lambda(1) were also seen in both HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Thus, in the first 48 h after the start of therapy, HCV mono-infected patients with an RVR have a larger viral load decrease, steeper viral slope and a higher efficiency factor as compared with non-RVR patients.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 06/2009; 16(12):867-75. · 3.08 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2009; 50.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine how needle-stick injuries are dealt with in the Netherlands. Study using questionnaires. In order to study whether victims of needle-stick injuries have access to proper treatment, we sent questionnaires to hospitals (n = 103) and Municipal Health Services (MHS) (n = 36) in the Netherlands. We enquired after the possibilities of risk-estimation and follow-up, the performance of necessary laboratory tests, direct administration of preventive medication and backup facilities. Questionnaires were returned by 113 (81%) institutions. 74% of the hospitals and 71% of the MHS provided follow-up for needle-stick injuries from outside their own institution. Necessary laboratory tests were not always available or sometimes could not be performed on an immediate basis. In addition, essential medication was not always directly available. MHS recognized the advantage of cooperation during followup of needle-stick injuries more than hospitals. Based on the results there is no guarantee that victims of needle-stick injuries in the Netherlands have access to appropriate care at any location in the Netherlands on a 24/7 basis. We recommend improvement of the infrastructure and cooperation between health care organizations to guarantee improved follow-up in every region.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 10/2008; 152(36):1981-5.
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    ABSTRACT: In The Netherlands an estimated 0.1 to 0.4% of the population are chronic hepatitis C (HCV) carriers (15,000 to 60,000 persons). HCV is characterised by genetic heterogeneity and six different genotypes have been identified. The distribution of HCV genotypes is relevant for the clinician, since there are important genotype-specific differences in response to interferon-alpha based treatment regimens. Between 1993 and 2005 a shift was observed in The Netherlands from a dominant prevalence of genotype 1 to a situation in which genotype non-1 is becoming more important.
    The Netherlands Journal of Medicine 05/2006; 64(4):96-9. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants (SCT) often show active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which may progress to EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. It is not known whether these EBV infections are true reactivations of the endogenous EBV strain or re-infections with an exogenous EBV strain. Fifty-three recipients of matched related or matched unrelated donor grafts were studied. EBV monitoring was based on a realtime TaqMan EBV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in plasma. In 17 patients, EBV DNA PCR monitoring was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well. Mouth washings (MWs) were collected pre-transplant from all patients and family donors. Both pre-transplant EBV DNA from MWs and post-transplant EBV DNA from plasma or PBMCs were successfully obtained in 6 patients. A nested PCR targeting the EBV latent membrane protein-1 C-terminus gene was used to determine sequence variations enabling EBV strain typing. In 3 of 6 patients, the post-transplant EBV sequence pattern differed from the pre-transplant pattern, indicating a re-infection post-transplant with an exogenous strain instead of a reactivation of the original endogenous EBV strain. In the other 3 patients, the endogenous strain was identified. Active EBV infection resulting from re-infection was more severe compared with active EBV infection because of reactivation. In conclusion, active EBV infections after allogeneic SCT frequently result from re-infection with an exogenous EBV strain instead of a true reactivation of the endogenous strain and are potentially more severe.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 04/2005; 7(1):4-10. · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2003; 38:205-205.
  • 01/2003;
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation can modulate immune responses in animal and humans. Remarkably, the ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression is not restricted to the exposed skin but is also found at other body sites, i.e., systemic immunosuppression. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on infections cannot be determined by experimentation on humans, but the effects of ultraviolet on vaccination may serve as a model. Moreover, it is important in its own right to assess whether ultraviolet radiation affects vaccination responses. In this study the effect of ultraviolet B exposure on the development of immune responses after hepatitis B vaccination in human volunteers was investigated. To this end, 191 human volunteers were vaccinated against hepatitis B with the Engerix-B vaccine. Ninety-seven of them were prior to the first vaccination exposed to ultraviolet B on 5 consecutive days with one personal minimal erythema dose per day. At several time-points before and after the ultraviolet B exposure regimen and the vaccination, blood samples were taken. Parameters for specific as well as nonspecific cellular and humoral immunity were analyzed. It was demonstrated that ultraviolet B exposure prior to hepatitis B vaccination did not alter the cellular (lymphocyte stimulation test) nor the humoral (antibody titers) immune response against hepatitis B surface antigen significantly. In contrast, contact hypersensitivity to diphenylcyclopropenone was significantly suppressed after ultraviolet B exposure, as was natural killer cell activity. These latter results confirm earlier findings and demonstrate immunosuppressive effectiveness of the ultraviolet regimen. In summary, although natural killer cell activity and contact hypersensitivity responses were suppressed, the ultraviolet B radiation protocol did not alter the humoral nor the cellular immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen after vaccination.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 12/2001; 117(5):1144-50. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PSC has characteristics of an (auto)immune-mediated disease: however, few studies have evaluated corticosteroid therapy for this disorder. We performed an 8-wk double-blind randomized pilot study to assess the effects of additional treatment with 9 mg budesonide (n = 6) versus 3 mg budesonide (n = 6) versus 10 mg prednisone (n = 6) in patients who had been treated with UDCA (mean dose, 12 mg/kg/day) for at least 5 months without achieving biochemical remission. Pruritus and fatigue were evaluated using visual analog scales. Serum liver biochemistry was measured every 4 wk. At entry and at the end of the trial, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured to assess effects on the pituitary-adrenal axis. Duodenal bile was collected for assessment of biliary corticosteroid activity. Pruritus decreased significantly more in the prednisone group compared to both the 3-mg and the 9-mg budesonide groups (p < 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase (mean: -23.4%; p = 0.03) and IgG (mean: -16.2%; p = 0.04) decreased in the prednisone group, whereas bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase did not change significantly. No significant clinical or liver biochemical changes were observed in the 3-mg and 9-mg budesonide groups. Significantly larger drops in serum ACTH were found in the 10-mg prednisone group (-40.7%; p = 0.04) and 9-mg budesonide group (-36.6%; p = 0.02) compared to the 3-mg budesonide group (+ 19.0%). No significant differences in percentage change in baseline values for DHEA between the three treatment arms were found. Mononuclear cell proliferation assays did not demonstrate corticosteroid activity in bile. Autoimmune hepatitis was observed in one case (9 mg budesonide) when corticosteroids were tapered off. The results of this pilot study suggest only minor beneficial short-term effects of prednisone but not budesonide on symptoms and serum liver tests in UDCA-treated PSC patients.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2000; 95(8):2015-22. · 9.21 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology - EUR J GASTROENTEROL HEPATOL. 01/1999; 11(12).
  • G. J. Boland, J. Tjin a Ton, J. van Hattum
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology - EUR J GASTROENTEROL HEPATOL. 01/1999; 11(12).
  • European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 01/1998; 10(12). · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Immunology Letters - IMMUNOL LETT. 01/1997; 56:301-301.
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major drawbacks in cytomegalovirus (CMV)-antigenaemia detection for diagnosis of active CMV infection is the low number of CMV-antigen positive cells present in peripheral blood. It is therefore necessary to screen large numbers of peripheral blood granulocytes to find only a few antigen-positive cells. We have optimized this detection by testing several monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to CMV-antigens (mAbs C10/C11, C12, BM222, E13 and SL20). In total 550 blood samples from 40 patients were investigated. More blood samples were found positive with mAb C12 than with the other mAbs. Also the average number of positive cells per slide was highest for mAb C12. Furthermore, duplicate slides were examined automatically using an image analysis system (LEYTAS) and compared to visual detection (cytospin slides). The detection sensitivity of both screening methods was compared for mAb C12. In total 360 slides were analysed, from positive as well as negative blood samples. The sensitivity of the automated screening was 93% and for the visual evaluation of the cytospin slides 73%. In conclusion, mAb C12 was the most suitable of the mAbs tested for detection of antigenaemia, and automatic detection of CMV antigenaemia with image analysis of slides is a sensitive method due to the large numbers of cells that can be screened.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/1995; 25(9):639-46. · 3.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

442 Citations
119.95 Total Impact Points


  • 1992–2014
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • • Department of Medical Microbiology
      • • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      • • Department of Hematology
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2010
    • Jeroen Bosch Ziekenhuis
      Hertogenbosch, North Brabant, Netherlands
  • 2005
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1991
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Department of Hematology
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands