[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Although altered regulation of the Wnt pathway via beta-catenin is a frequent event in several human cancers, its potential implications in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC/OPSCC) are largely unexplored. Work purpose was to define association between beta-catenin expression and clinical-pathological parameters in 374 OSCCs/OP-SCCs by immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Materials and methods:
Association between IHC detected patterns of protein expression and clinical-pathological parameters was assessed by statistical analysis and survival rates by Kaplan-Meier curves. Beta-catenin expression was also investigated in OSCC cell lines by Real-Time PCR. An additional analysis of the DNA content was performed on 22 representative OSCCs/OPSCCs by DNA-image-cytometric analysis.
Results and discussion:
All carcinomas exhibited significant alterations of beta-catenin expression (P < 0.05). Beta-catenin protein was mainly detected in the cytoplasm of cancerous cells and only focal nuclear positivity was observed. Higher cytoplasmic expression correlated significantly with poor histological differentiation, advanced stage, and worst patient outcome (P < 0.05). By Real-Time PCR significant increase of beta-catenin mRNA was detected in OSCC cell lines and in 45% of surgical specimens. DNA ploidy study demonstrated high levels of aneuploidy in beta-catenin overexpressing carcinomas.
This is the largest study reporting significant association between beta-catenin expression and clinical-pathological factors in patients with OSCCs/OPSCCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery that survivin, a small anti-apoptotic protein, is involved in chemoresistance, opens a new scenario to overcome the drug resistance in cancer. It was shown that siRNA can efficiently inhibit the expression of survivin in cancer cells. However, the clinical use of siRNA is still hampered by an unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile. To address this problem, earlier we developed a novel system to deliver siRNA into cancer cells. Namely, we reversibly modified the survivin siRNA with a phosphothioethanol (PE) portion via a reducible disulfide bond and incorporated the resulting siRNA-S-S-PE conjugate into nanosized polyethyelene glycol2000-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG2000-PE)-based polymeric micelles (PM), obtaining survivin siRNA PM. The activity of these nanopreparations was evaluated by survivin protein down-regulation, tumor cell growth inhibition, and chemosensitization of the treated tumor cells to paclitaxel (PXL). We found a significant decrease of cell viability and down-regulation of survivin protein levels after treatment with survivin siRNA PM in several cancer cell lines. In addition, the down-regulation of survivin by treating cells with survivin siRNA PM, elicited a significant sensitization of the cells to PXL, in both sensitive and resistant cancer cell lines. Finally, we demonstrate successful co-delivery of PXL and survivin siRNA in the same PM leading to superior therapeutic activity compared to their sequential administration. Our results support the use of this new platform for the treatment of the most aggressive tumors.
Cancer letters 10/2013; 343(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.09.037 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrinsic and acquired drug resistance of tumor cells still causes the failure of treatment regimens in advanced human cancers. It may be driven by intrinsic tumor cells features, or may also arise from micro environmental influences. Hypoxia is a microenvironment feature associated with the aggressiveness and metastasizing ability of human solid cancers. Hypoxic cancer cells overexpress Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA IX). CA IX ensures a favorable tumor intracellular pH, while contributing to stromal acidosis, which facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis. The overexpression of CA IX is considered an epiphenomenon of the presence of hypoxic, aggressive tumor cells. Recently, it has been hypothesized the relationship between CA IX overexpression and the cancer stem cells (CSCs) population. CSC, are strictly regulated by tumor hypoxia, and drive a major non-mutational mechanism of cancer drug-resistance. We reviewed the current data concerning the role of CA IX overexpression in human malignancies, extending such information to expression of the stem-cells markers CD44 and nestin in solid cancers, to explore their relationship with the biological behavior of tumors. CA IX is heavily expressed in the advanced tumors. A positive trend of correlation between CA IX overexpression, tumor stage/grade and poor outcome emerged. Moreover, stromal CA IX expression was associated with adverse events occurrence, maybe signaling the direct action of CA IX in directing the mesenchymal changes that favor tumor invasion; in addition, membranous/cytoplasmatic co-overexpression of CA IX and stem cells markers was found in several aggressive tumors. This suggests that CA IX targeting could indirectly deplete CSCs and counteract resistance of solid cancers in the clinical setting.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 08/2013; 21(14). DOI:10.2174/09298673113209990227 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis and avascular necrosis (AVN) are long-lasting and debilitating complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
We describe the magnitude of bone loss, AVN and impairment in osteogenic cell compartment following autologous (auto) and allogeneic (allo) HSCT, through the retrospective bone damage revaluation of 100 (50 auto- and 50 allo-HSCT) long-term survivors up to 15 years after transplant. Current treatment options for the management of these complications are also outlined.
We found that auto- and allo-HSCT recipients show accelerated bone mineral loss and micro-architectural deterioration during the first years after transplant. Bone mass density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, but not at the femur neck, may improve in some patients after HSCT, suggesting more prolonged bone damage in cortical bone. Phalangeal BMD values remained low for even more years, suggesting persistent bone micro-architectural alterations after transplant. The incidence of AVN was higher in allo-HSCT recipients compared to auto-HSCT recipients. Steroid treatment length, but not its cumulative dose was associated with a higher incidence of bone loss. Allo-HSCT recipients affected by chronic graft versus host disease seem to be at greater risk of continuous bone loss and AVN development. Reduced BMD and higher incidence of AVN was partly related to a reduced regenerating capacity of the normal marrow osteogenic cell compartment.
Our results suggest that all patients after auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT should be evaluated for their bone status and treated with anti-resorptive therapy as soon as abnormalities are detected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T(1;14) (p22;q32) involving BCL10 and IGH genes is a rare but recurrent chromosomal aberration in MALT-type lymphoma. It is rarely described in ocular adnexa B cell lymphomas, although nuclear BCL10 shuttling seems to be critical for disease progression in this district. We have evaluated the translocations MALT lymphoma-related in a series of 45 ocular adnexa cases, focusing in particular on their relation with BCL10 expression and its cellular topographic distribution. A prognostic tissue microarray (TMA) with ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas was designed. A study of BCL10 expression and its topographic distribution was performed through immunohistochemistry. In addition the assessment of t(14;18) (q32;q21), t(1;14) (p22;q32) and t(11;18) (q21;q21) was determined by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Our series revealed t(14;18) (q32;q21) in 6/43 cases (14,3%). t(1;14) (p22;q32), never described in ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas, was observed in 3/31 (9,7%), two of which exhibited the gain of 3' upstream BCL10 gene signal (4%), whereas no case showed t(11;18) (q21;q21). Moreover, BCL10 expression was observed in 18/45 cases. In particular its nuclear expression was revealed in 12/45 cases, cytoplasmic expression in 5/45 and both cytoplasmic and nuclear expression in 1/45. Statistical analysis demonstrated that while BCL10 cytoplasmic expression is significantly related to the presence of the investigated chromosomal aberrations, in particular with t(14;18) (q32;q21), BCL10 nuclear shuttling does not show any correlation with these translocations. Our data support that BCL10 nuclear distribution is neither related to BCL10 rearrangement nor to other known translocations.
Histology and histopathology 07/2013; 29(1). · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region (OSCC) is one of the most common and highly aggressive malignancies worldwide, despite the fact that significant results have been achieved during the last decades in its detection, prevention and treatment. Although many efforts have been made to define the molecular signatures that identify the clinical outcome of oral cancers, OSCC still lacks reliable prognostic molecular markers. Scientific evidence indicates that transition from normal epithelium to pre-malignancy, and finally to oral carcinoma, depends on the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a multistep process. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic changes are heritable and potentially reversible. The most common examples of such changes are DNA methylation, histone modification, and small non-coding RNAs. Although several epigenetic changes have been currently linked to OSCC initiation and progression, they have been only partially characterized. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that especially aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in oral cancer. The major goal of the present paper is to review the recent literature about the epigenetic modifications contribution in early and later phases of OSCC malignant transformation; in particular we point out the current evidence of epigenetic marks as novel markers for early diagnosis and prognosis as well as potential therapeutic targets in oral cancer.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(2):2331-53. DOI:10.3390/ijms13022331 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we aimed to confirm the emerging role of Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1 p60) as a new proliferation and prognostic marker for cancer and to test the usefulness of the tissue microarray technique (TMA) for CAF-1 p60 rapid screening in several human malignancies. CAF-1 is a histone chaperone, regulating chromatin dynamics during DNA replication and repair in eukaryotics. TMA is a powerful high-throughput methodology in the study of cancer, allowing simultaneous assessment of different biomarkers within large numbers of tissue specimens. We generated TMA taking 3 mm diameter-core biopsies from oral squamous cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, salivary gland tumours and skin melanoma specimens, which had been previously tested for CAF-1 p60 on routine tissue sections. We also analysed, for the first time, 30 larynx and 30 skin squamous cell carcinomas. CAF-1 p60 resulted over-expressed in both the tissue sections and the TMA specimens, with the highest levels of expression in tumours which were more aggressive and metastasizing. Notably, a high degree of agreement was found between the CAF-1 p60 assessment on TMAs and on routine tissue sections. Our findings confirm the prognostic role of CAF-1 p60 and indicate TMA as a really advantageous method for CAF-1 p60 immunohistochemical screening, allowing savings on both tissue quantity and operator-time.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(9):11044-62. DOI:10.3390/ijms130911044 · 2.86 Impact Factor