François Guillemot

MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (201)1619.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Transcription factors of the nuclear factor one (NFI) family play a pivotal role in the development of the nervous system. One member, NFIX, regulates the development of the neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Postnatal Nfix(-/-) mice also display abnormalities within the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles, a region of the brain comprising a neurogenic niche that provides ongoing neurogenesis throughout life. Specifically, Nfix(-/-) mice exhibit more PAX6-expressing progenitor cells within the SVZ. However, the mechanism underlying the development of this phenotype remains undefined. Here, we reveal that NFIX contributes to multiple facets of SVZ development. Postnatal Nfix(-/-) mice exhibit increased levels of proliferation within the SVZ, both in vivo and in vitro as assessed by a neurosphere assay. Furthermore, we show that the migration of SVZ-derived neuroblasts to the olfactory bulb is impaired, and that the olfactory bulbs of postnatal Nfix(-/-) mice are smaller. We also demonstrate that gliogenesis within the rostral migratory stream is delayed in the absence of Nfix, and reveal that Gdnf (glial-derived neurotrophic factor), a known attractant for SVZ-derived neuroblasts, is a target for transcriptional activation by NFIX. Collectively, these findings suggest that NFIX regulates both proliferation and migration during the development of the SVZ neurogenic niche.
    Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The gene regulatory network (GRN) that supports neural stem cell (NS cell) self-renewal has so far been poorly characterised. Knowledge of the central transcription factors (TFs), the non-coding gene regulatory regions that they bind to and the genes whose expression they modulate will be crucial in unlocking the full therapeutic potential of these cells. Here, we use DNase-seq in combination with analysis of histone modifications to identify multiple classes of epigenetically and functionally distinct cis-regulatory elements (CREs). Through motif analysis and ChIP-seq we identify several of the crucial TF regulators of NS cells. At the core of the network are TFs of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), nuclear factor I (NFI), SOX and FOX families, with CREs often densely bound by several of these different TFs. We use machine learning to highlight several crucial regulatory features of the network that underpin NS cell self-renewal and multipotency. We validate our predictions by functional analysis of the bHLH TF OLIG2. This TF makes an important contribution to NS cell self-renewal by concurrently activating pro-proliferation genes and preventing the untimely activation of genes promoting neuronal differentiation and stem cell quiescence.
    Genome Research. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Glia constitute the majority of cells in the mammalian central nervous system and are crucial for neurological function. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the molecular control of glial cell development. We find that the transcription factor Ascl1 (Mash1), which is best known for its role in neurogenesis, also functions in both astrocyte and oligodendrocyte lineages arising in the mouse spinal cord at late embryonic stages. Clonal fate mapping in vivo reveals heterogeneity in Ascl1-expressing glial progenitors and shows that Ascl1 defines cells that are restricted to either gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) as astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Conditional deletion of Ascl1 post-neurogenesis shows that Ascl1 is required during oligodendrogenesis for generating the correct numbers of WM but not GM oligodendrocyte precursor cells, whereas during astrocytogenesis Ascl1 functions in balancing the number of dorsal GM protoplasmic astrocytes with dorsal WM fibrous astrocytes. Thus, in addition to its function in neurogenesis, Ascl1 marks glial progenitors and controls the number and distribution of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the GM and WM of the spinal cord.
    Development (Cambridge, England). 10/2014; 141(19):3721-31.
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    ABSTRACT: The activity of adult stem cells is regulated by signals emanating from the surrounding tissue. Many niche signals have been identified, but it is unclear how they influence the choice of stem cells to remain quiescent or divide. Here we show that when stem cells of the adult hippocampus receive activating signals, they first induce the expression of the transcription factor Ascl1 and only subsequently exit quiescence. Moreover, lowering Ascl1 expression reduces the proliferation rate of hippocampal stem cells, and inactivating Ascl1 blocks quiescence exit completely, rendering them unresponsive to activating stimuli. Ascl1 promotes the proliferation of hippocampal stem cells by directly regulating the expression of cell-cycle regulatory genes. Ascl1 is similarly required for stem cell activation in the adult subventricular zone. Our results support a model whereby Ascl1 integrates inputs from both stimulatory and inhibitory signals and converts them into a transcriptional program activating adult neural stem cells.
    09/2014; 83(5):1085–1097.
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    ABSTRACT: The proper balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurons is crucial for normal processing of somatosensory information in the dorsal spinal cord. Two neural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs), Ascl1 and Ptf1a, have contrasting functions in specifying these neurons. To understand how Ascl1 and Ptf1a function in this process, we identified their direct transcriptional targets genome-wide in the embryonic mouse neural tube using ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq. We show that Ascl1 and Ptf1a directly regulate distinct homeodomain TFs that specify excitatory or inhibitory neuronal fates. In addition, Ascl1 directly regulates genes with roles in several steps of the neurogenic program, including Notch signaling, neuronal differentiation, axon guidance and synapse formation. By contrast, Ptf1a directly regulates genes encoding components of the neurotransmitter machinery in inhibitory neurons, and other later aspects of neural development distinct from those regulated by Ascl1. Moreover, Ptf1a represses the excitatory neuronal fate by directly repressing several targets of Ascl1. Ascl1 and Ptf1a bind sequences primarily enriched for a specific E-Box motif (CAGCTG) and for secondary motifs used by Sox, Rfx, Pou and homeodomain factors. Ptf1a also binds sequences uniquely enriched in the CAGATG E-box and in the binding motif for its co-factor Rbpj, providing two factors that influence the specificity of Ptf1a binding. The direct transcriptional targets identified for Ascl1 and Ptf1a provide a molecular understanding of how these DNA-binding proteins function in neuronal development, particularly as key regulators of homeodomain TFs required for neuronal subtype specification.
    Development 06/2014; · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many genes important in immunity are found as multigene families. The butyrophilin genes are members of the B7 family, playing diverse roles in co-regulation and perhaps in antigen presentation. In humans, a fixed number of butyrophilin genes are found in and around the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and show striking association with particular autoimmune diseases. In chickens, BG genes encode homologues with somewhat different domain organisation. Only a few BG genes have been characterised, one involved in actin-myosin interaction in the intestinal brush border, and another implicated in resistance to viral diseases. We characterise all BG genes in B12 chickens, finding a multigene family organised as tandem repeats in the BG region outside the MHC, a single gene in the MHC (the BF-BL region), and another single gene on a different chromosome. There is a precise cell and tissue expression for each gene, but overall there are two kinds, those expressed by haemopoietic cells and those expressed in tissues (presumably non-haemopoietic cells), correlating with two different kinds of promoters and 5' untranslated regions (5'UTR). However, the multigene family in the BG region contains many hybrid genes, suggesting recombination and/or deletion as major evolutionary forces. We identify BG genes in the chicken whole genome shotgun sequence, as well as by comparison to other haplotypes by fibre fluorescence in situ hybridisation, confirming dynamic expansion and contraction within the BG region. Thus, the BG genes in chickens are undergoing much more rapid evolution compared to their homologues in mammals, for reasons yet to be understood.
    PLoS Genetics 06/2014; 10(6):e1004417. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A transcriptional programme initiated by the proneural factors Neurog2 and Ascl1 controls successive steps of neurogenesis in the embryonic cerebral cortex. Previous work has shown that proneural factors also confer a migratory behaviour to cortical neurons by inducing the expression of the small GTP-binding proteins such as Rnd2 and Rnd3. However, the directionality of radial migration suggests that migrating neurons also respond to extracellular signal-regulated pathways. Here we show that the Plexin B2 receptor interacts physically and functionally with Rnd3 and stimulates RhoA activity in migrating cortical neurons. Plexin B2 competes with p190RhoGAP for binding to Rnd3, thus blocking the Rnd3-mediated inhibition of RhoA and also recruits RhoGEFs to directly stimulate RhoA activity. Thus, an interaction between the cell-extrinsic Plexin signalling pathway and the cell-intrinsic Ascl1-Rnd3 pathway determines the level of RhoA activity appropriate for cortical neuron migration.
    Nature Communications 01/2014; 5:3405. · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • Emilie Pacary, François Guillemot
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    ABSTRACT: In utero electroporation is a rapid and powerful technique to study the development of many brain regions. This approach presents several advantages over other methods to study specific steps of brain development in vivo, from proliferation to synaptic integration. Here, we describe in detail the individual steps necessary to carry out the technique. We also highlight the variations that can be implemented to target different cerebral structures and to study specific steps of development.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1082:285-93. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    Noelia Urbán, François Guillemot
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    ABSTRACT: Neurogenesis persists in adult mammals in specific brain areas, known as neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis is highly dynamic and is modulated by multiple physiological stimuli and pathological states. There is a strong interest in understanding how this process is regulated, particularly since active neuronal production has been demonstrated in both the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult humans. The molecular mechanisms that control neurogenesis have been extensively studied during embryonic development. Therefore, we have a broad knowledge of the intrinsic factors and extracellular signaling pathways driving proliferation and differentiation of embryonic neural precursors. Many of these factors also play important roles during adult neurogenesis, but essential differences exist in the biological responses of neural precursors in the embryonic and adult contexts. Because adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are normally found in a quiescent state, regulatory pathways can affect adult neurogenesis in ways that have no clear counterpart during embryogenesis. BMP signaling, for instance, regulates NSC behavior both during embryonic and adult neurogenesis. However, this pathway maintains stem cell proliferation in the embryo, while it promotes quiescence to prevent stem cell exhaustion in the adult brain. In this review, we will compare and contrast the functions of transcription factors (TFs) and other regulatory molecules in the embryonic brain and in adult neurogenic regions of the adult brain in the mouse, with a special focus on the hippocampal niche and on the regulation of the balance between quiescence and activation of adult NSCs in this region.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:396. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Direct lineage reprogramming is a promising approach for human disease modeling and regenerative medicine, with poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we reveal a hierarchical mechanism in the direct conversion of fibroblasts into induced neuronal (iN) cells mediated by the transcription factors Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l. Ascl1 acts as an "on-target" pioneer factor by immediately occupying most cognate genomic sites in fibroblasts. In contrast, Brn2 and Myt1l do not access fibroblast chromatin productively on their own; instead, Ascl1 recruits Brn2 to Ascl1 sites genome wide. A unique trivalent chromatin signature in the host cells predicts the permissiveness for Ascl1 pioneering activity among different cell types. Finally, we identified Zfp238 as a key Ascl1 target gene that can partially substitute for Ascl1 during iN cell reprogramming. Thus, a precise match between pioneer factors and the chromatin context at key target genes is determinative for transdifferentiation to neurons and likely other cell types.
    Cell 10/2013; 155(3):621-35. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The zinc finger transcription factor RP58 (also known as ZNF238) regulates neurogenesis of the mouse neocortex and cerebellum (Okado et al. 2009; Xiang et al. 2011; Baubet et al. 2012; Ohtaka-Maruyama et al. 2013), but its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we report a cell-autonomous function for RP58 during the differentiation of embryonic cortical projection neurons via its activities as a transcriptional repressor. Disruption of RP58 expression alters the differentiation of immature neurons and impairs their migration and positioning within the mouse cerebral cortex. Loss of RP58 within the embryonic cortex also leads to elevated mRNA for Rnd2, a member of the Rnd family of atypical RhoA-like GTPase proteins important for cortical neuron migration (Heng et al. 2008). Mechanistically, RP58 represses transcription of Rnd2 via binding to a 3'-regulatory enhancer in a sequence-specific fashion. Using reporter assays, we found that RP58 repression of Rnd2 is competed by proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional activators. Finally, our rescue experiments revealed that negative regulation of Rnd2 by RP58 was important for cortical cell migration in vivo. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that RP58 is a key player in the transcriptional control of cell migration in the developing cerebral cortex.
    Cerebral Cortex 10/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult brain are quiescent, and this fraction increases with aging. Although signaling pathways that promote NSC quiescence have been identified, the transcriptional mechanisms involved are mostly unknown, largely due to lack of a cell culture model. In this study, we first demonstrate that NSC cultures (NS cells) exposed to BMP4 acquire cellular and transcriptional characteristics of quiescent cells. We then use epigenomic profiling to identify enhancers associated with the quiescent NS cell state. Motif enrichment analysis of these enhancers predicts a major role for the nuclear factor one (NFI) family in the gene regulatory network controlling NS cell quiescence. Interestingly, we found that the family member NFIX is robustly induced when NS cells enter quiescence. Using genome-wide location analysis and overexpression and silencing experiments, we demonstrate that NFIX has a major role in the induction of quiescence in cultured NSCs. Transcript profiling of NS cells overexpressing or silenced for Nfix and the phenotypic analysis of the hippocampus of Nfix mutant mice suggest that NFIX controls the quiescent state by regulating the interactions of NSCs with their microenvironment.
    Genes & development 08/2013; 27(16):1769-86. · 12.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FOXO transcription factors are central regulators of longevity from worms to humans. FOXO3, the FOXO isoform associated with exceptional human longevity, preserves adult neural stem cell pools. Here, we identify FOXO3 direct targets genome-wide in primary cultures of adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Interestingly, FOXO3-bound sites are enriched for motifs for bHLH transcription factors, and FOXO3 shares common targets with the proneuronal bHLH transcription factor ASCL1/MASH1 in NPCs. Analysis of the chromatin landscape reveals that FOXO3 and ASCL1 are particularly enriched at the enhancers of genes involved in neurogenic pathways. Intriguingly, FOXO3 inhibits ASCL1-dependent neurogenesis in NPCs and direct neuronal conversion in fibroblasts. FOXO3 also restrains neurogenesis in vivo. Our study identifies a genome-wide interaction between the prolongevity transcription factor FOXO3 and the cell-fate determinant ASCL1 and raises the possibility that FOXO3's ability to restrain ASCL1-dependent neurogenesis may help preserve the neural stem cell pool.
    Cell Reports 07/2013; · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms governing the expansion of neuron number in specific brain regions are still poorly understood. Enlarged neuron numbers in different species are often anticipated by increased numbers of progenitors dividing in the subventricular zone. Here we present live imaging analysis of radial glial cells and their progeny in the ventral telencephalon, the region with the largest subventricular zone in the murine brain during neurogenesis. We observe lineage amplification by a new type of progenitor, including bipolar radial glial cells dividing at subapical positions and generating further proliferating progeny. The frequency of this new type of progenitor is increased not only in larger clones of the mouse lateral ganglionic eminence but also in cerebral cortices of gyrated species, and upon inducing gyrification in the murine cerebral cortex. This implies key roles of this new type of radial glia in ontogeny and phylogeny.
    Nature Communications 07/2013; 4:2125. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the CNS. They differentiate from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that are produced from progenitors throughout life but more actively during the neonatal period and in response to demyelinating insults. An accurate regulation of oligodendrogenesis is required to generate oligodendrocytes during these developmental or repair processes. We hypothesized that this regulation implicates transcription factors, which are expressed by OPCs and/or their progenitors. Ascl1/Mash1 is a proneural transcription factor previously implicated in embryonic oligodendrogenesis and operating in genetic interaction with Olig2, an essential transcriptional regulator in oligodendrocyte development. Herein, we have investigated the contribution of Ascl1 to oligodendrocyte development and remyelination in the postnatal cortex. During the neonatal period, Ascl1 expression was detected in progenitors of the cortical subventricular zone and in cortical OPCs. Different genetic approaches to delete Ascl1 in cortical progenitors or OPCs reduced neonatal oligodendrogenesis, showing that Ascl1 positively regulated both OPC specification from subventricular zone progenitors as well as the balance between OPC differentiation and proliferation. Examination of remyelination processes, both in the mouse model for focal demyelination of the corpus callosum and in multiple sclerosis lesions in humans, indicated that Ascl1 activity was upregulated along with increased oligodendrogenesis observed in remyelinating lesions. Additional genetic evidence indicated that remyelinating oligodendrocytes derived from Ascl1(+) progenitors/OPCs and that Ascl1 was required for proper remyelination. Together, our results show that Ascl1 function modulates multiple steps of OPC development in the postnatal brain and in response to demyelinating insults.
    Journal of Neuroscience 06/2013; 33(23):9752-9768. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to identify cis-regulatory elements that control gene expression in progenitors of the cerebral cortex. A list of 975 putative enhancers were retrieved from a ChIP-Seq experiment performed in NS5 mouse stem cells with antibodies to Sox2, Brn2/Pou3f2, or Brn1/Pou3f3. Through a selection pipeline including gene ontology and expression pattern, we reduced the number of candidate enhancer sequences to 20. Ex vivo electroporation of green fluorescent pProtein (GFP) reporter constructs in the telencephalon of mouse embryos showed that 35% of the 20 selected candidate sequences displayed enhancer activity in the developing cortex at E13.5. In silico transcription factor binding site (TFBS) searches and mutagenesis experiments showed that enhancer activity is related to the presence of Sox/Pou TFBS pairs in the sequence. Comparative genomic analyses showed that enhancer activity is not related to the evolutionary conservation of the sequence. Finally, the combination of in utero electroporation of GFP reporter constructs with immunostaining for Tbr2 (basal progenitor marker) and phospho-histoneH3 (mitotic activity marker) demonstrated that each enhancer is specifically active in precise subpopulations of progenitors in the cortical germinal zone, highlighting the heterogeneity of these progenitors in terms of cis-regulation.
    Cerebral Cortex 05/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurately characterizing transcription factor (TF)-DNA affinity is a central goal of regulatory genomics. Although thermodynamics provides the most natural language for describing the continuous range of TF-DNA affinity, traditional motif discovery algorithms focus instead on classification paradigms that aim to discriminate 'bound' and 'unbound' sequences. Moreover, these algorithms do not directly model the distribution of tags in ChIP-seq data. Here, we present a new algorithm named Thermodynamic Modeling of ChIP-seq (TherMos), which directly estimates a position-specific binding energy matrix (PSEM) from ChIP-seq/exo tag profiles. In cross-validation tests on seven genome-wide TF-DNA binding profiles, one of which we generated via ChIP-seq on a complex developing tissue, TherMos predicted quantitative TF-DNA binding with greater accuracy than five well-known algorithms. We experimentally validated TherMos binding energy models for Klf4 and Esrrb, using a novel protocol to measure PSEMs in vitro. Strikingly, our measurements revealed strong non-additivity at multiple positions within the two PSEMs. Among the algorithms tested, only TherMos was able to model the entire binding energy landscape of Klf4 and Esrrb. Our study reveals new insights into the energetics of TF-DNA binding in vivo and provides an accurate first-principles approach to binding energy inference from ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data.
    Nucleic Acids Research 04/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    Emilie Pacary, Roberta Azzarelli, François Guillemot
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    ABSTRACT: The generation of neurons by neural stem cells is a highly choreographed process that requires extensive and dynamic remodelling of the cytoskeleton at each step of the process. The atypical RhoGTPase Rnd3 is expressed by progenitors in the embryonic brain but its role in early steps of neurogenesis has not been addressed. Here we show that silencing Rnd3 in the embryonic cerebral cortex interferes with the interkinetic nuclear migration of radial glial stem cells, disrupts their apical attachment and modifies the orientation of their cleavage plane. These defects are rescued by co-expression of a constitutively active form of cofilin, demonstrating that Rnd3-mediated disassembly of actin filaments coordinates the cellular behaviour of radial glial. Rnd3 also limits the divisions of basal progenitors via a distinct mechanism involving the suppression of cyclin D1 translation. Interestingly, although Rnd3 expression is controlled transcriptionally by Ascl1, this proneural factor is itself required in radial glial progenitors only for proper orientation of cell divisions.
    Nature Communications 03/2013; 4:1635. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Down Syndrome (DS) is a highly prevalent developmental disorder, affecting 1/700 births. Intellectual disability, which affects learning and memory, is present in all cases and is reflected by below average IQ. We sought to determine whether defective morphology and connectivity in neurons of the cerebral cortex may underlie the cognitive deficits that have been described in two mouse models of DS, the Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse lines. We utilised in utero electroporation to label a cohort of future upper layer projection neurons in the cerebral cortex of developing mouse embryos with GFP, and then examined neuronal positioning and morphology in early adulthood, which revealed no alterations in cortical layer position or morphology in either Tc1 or Ts1Rhr mouse cortex. The number of dendrites, as well as dendrite length and branching was normal in both DS models, compared with wildtype controls. The sites of projection neuron synaptic inputs, dendritic spines, were analysed in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr cortex at three weeks and three months after birth, and significant changes in spine morphology were observed in both mouse lines. Ts1Rhr mice had significantly fewer thin spines at three weeks of age. At three months of age Tc1 mice had significantly fewer mushroom spines - the morphology associated with established synaptic inputs and learning and memory. The decrease in mushroom spines was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of stubby spines. This data suggests that dendritic spine abnormalities may be a more important contributor to cognitive deficits in DS models, rather than overall neuronal architecture defects.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e78561. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 12/2012; 30(8):626. · 2.69 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
1,619.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • MRC National Institute for Medical Research
      • Division of Molecular Neurobiology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000–2014
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      • Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC) U964
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011–2013
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (IGC)
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
    • University of Zurich
      • The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2009–2013
    • Helmholtz Zentrum München
      • Institute of Stem Cell Research
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2004–2012
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • • Molecular Biology and Cell Biology Laboratory
      • • Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2002–2011
    • The University of Calgary
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2007–2009
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • • Department of Physiological Genomics
      • • Institute of Physiology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Brain Repair Centre
      • • Department of Clinical Neurosciences
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Kitasato University
      • Department of Anatomy
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2006
    • Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Neuroscience
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 1996–2004
    • Kyoto University
      • • Institute for Virus Research
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 1989–2004
    • Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
    • City of Hope National Medical Center
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
      Duarte, California, United States
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • University of Louisville
      • Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Strasbourg
      • Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC)
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 1993–1998
    • Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1989–1996
    • Collège de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1995
    • Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada