Gemma Domínguez

Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (71)406.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Phytosterol (PS) intake may be used for hypercholesterolaemia in some groups although the presence of non-responders is well known. Carotenoids and PS/cholesterol may compete for the same transporters during absorption. As part of a randomized, double-blind, crossover, multiple-dose supplementation study with β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cx) and PS, single and combined, polymorphisms of ABCG8 (A632V) and NCPL1 (L272L) were determined in 19 post-menopausal women. Subjects carrying CC polymorphism for NCP1L1 (L272L) showed a net increase in total cholesterol and LDL after PS intake but, interestingly, displayed a decrease in both lipid fractions after consuming PS plus β-Cx. For the ABCG8 (A632V) gene, CT/TT carriers consuming PS also displayed an increase in total cholesterol and LDL, but this increment was much lower after the intake of PS plus β-Cx. Additionally, in CC carriers for ABCG8 (A632V), a greater decrease in total cholesterol and LDL was found after the intake of PS plus β-Cx compared to that observed after PS alone. Overall, our results suggest that β-Cx improves the response to PS in individuals carrying specific genetic polymorphisms (i.e. non-responders), opening the possibility to modulate the response to PS by food technology. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01074723).
    Genes & Nutrition 09/2014; 9(5):428. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-derived exosomes mediate tumorigenesis by facilitating tumor growth, metastasis, development of drug resistance, and immunosuppression. However, little is known about the exosomes isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with lung neoplasm. Exosomes isolated in plasma and BAL from 30 and 75 patients with tumor and nontumor pathology were quantified by acetylcholinesterase activity and characterized by Western Blot, Electron Microscopy, and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis. Differences in exosome cargo were analyzed by miRNA quantitative PCR in pooled samples and validated in a second series of patients. More exosomes were detected in plasma than in BAL in both groups (P < 0.001). The most miRNAs evaluated by PCR array were detected in tumor plasma, tumor BAL, and nontumor BAL pools, but only 56% were detected in the nontumor plasma pool. Comparing the top miRNAs with the highest levels detected in each pool, we found close homology only between the BAL samples of the two pathologies. In tumor plasma, we found a higher percentage of miRNAs with increased levels than in tumor BAL or in nontumor plasma. The data reveal differences between BAL and plasma exosome amount and miRNA content. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 04/2014; · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging as local and systemic cell-to-cell mediators of oncogenic information through the horizontal transfer of mRNAs, microRNAs and proteins during tumorigenesis. The exosomal content has been described as biologically active when taken up by the recipient cell. Identifying the specific molecular cargo of exosomes will help to determine their function in specific steps of the tumorigenic process. Here we evaluate whether ΔNp73 is selectively packaged in tumor-derived exosomes, its function in the acceptor cells in vitro and in vivo and its prognosis potential in cancer. ΔNp73 messenger is enriched in tumor-derived exosomes, suggesting its active sorting in these microvesicles. We observed the transmission of this exosome cargo to different cell types and how it confers proliferation potential and chemoresistance to the acceptor cells in vitro and in animal models. Finally, our data support the potential prognostic value of exosomal ΔNp73 in colon cancer patients.
    Human Molecular Genetics 09/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TP73 is a member of the TP53 family, whose deregulated expression has been reported in a wide variety of cancers and linked to patients' outcome. The fact that TP73 encodes a complex number of isoforms (TAp73 and ΔTAp73) with opposing functions and the cross-talk with other members of the family (TP53 and TP63) make it difficult to determine its clinical relevance. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms driving TAp73 and ΔTAp73 expression and how these variants inhibit or promote carcinogenesis. We also highlight the intricate interplay between TP53 family members. In addition, we comment on current pharmacological approaches targeting the TP73 pathway and those affecting the TAp73/ΔTAp73 ratio. Finally, we discuss the current data available in the literature that provide evidence on the role of TP73 variants in predicting prognosis. To date, most of the studies that evaluate the status levels of TP73 isoforms have been based on limited-size series. Despite this limitation, these publications highlight the correlation between high levels of the oncogenic forms and failure to respond to chemotherapy and/or shorter survival. Finally, we emphasize the need for studies to evaluate the significance of combining the deregulation of various members of the TP53 family in order to define patient outcome or their responsiveness to specific therapies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 08/2013; · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor epithelial cells within a tumor coexist with a complex microenvironment in which a variety of interactions between its various components determine the behavior of the primary tumors. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and M2 macrophages, characterized by a high expression of different markers, including α-SMA, FSP1 and FAP, or CD163 and DCSIGN, respectively, are involved in the malignancy of different tumors. In this study, the expression of the above markers in CAF and M2 macrophages was analyzed by RT-PCR and IHC in the normal mucosa and tumor tissue from a cohort of 289 colorectal cancer patients. Expression of CAF markers and of M2 markers is associated with the clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients. Moreover, the combination of CAF and M2 markers identifies three groups of patients with clear differences in the progression of the disease. This combined variable could be a decisive factor in the survival of advanced-stage patients. Taken together, these analyses demonstrate the prognostic involvement of inter-relationships between DCSIGN, CD163, α-SMA, FSP1 and FAP markers in the survival of colon cancer patients.
    Cancer Science 01/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary factors provide protection against several forms of DNA damage. Additionally, consumer demand for natural products favours the development of bioactive food ingredients with health benefits. Lutein is a promising biologically active component in the food industry. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies considers that protection from oxidative damage may be a beneficial physiological effect but that a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the safety and potential functional effect of a lutein-enriched milk product using the Comet Assay in order to analyze the baseline, the induced DNA-damage and the repair capacity in the lymphocytes of 10 healthy donors before and after the intake of the mentioned product. Our data suggest that the regular consumption of lutein-enriched fermented milk results in a significant increase in serum lutein levels and this change is associated with an improvement in the resistance of DNA to damage and the capacity of DNA repair in lymphocytes. Our results also support the lack of a genotoxic effect at the doses supplied as well as the absence of interactions and side effects on other nutritional and biochemicals markers.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74135. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF/CSF2) is a cytokine produced in the hematological compartment that may enhance anti-tumor immune responses, mainly by activation of dendritic cells. Here we show that more than a third of human colorectal tumors exhibit aberrant DNA demethylation of the GM-CSF promoter and overexpress the cytokine. Mouse engraftment experiments with autologous and homologous colon tumors engineered to repress the ectopic secretion of GM-CSF revealed the tumor-secreted GM-CSF to have an immune-associated antitumor effect. Unexpectedly, an immune-independent anti-tumor effect was observed that depended on the ectopic expression of GM-CSF receptor subunits by tumors. Cancer cells expressing GM-CSF and its receptor did not develop into tumors when autografted into immunocompetent mice. Similarly, 100% of the patients with human colon tumors that overexpressed GM-CSF and its receptor subunits survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. These data suggest that expression of GM-CSF and its receptor subunits by colon tumors may be a useful marker for prognosis as well as for patient stratification in cancer immunotherapy.
    Cancer Research 10/2012; · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • Gemma Domínguez
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    ABSTRACT: The sequential accumulation of genetic alterations has been classically considered responsible for the origin and subsequent progression of colorectal cancer, although recent cumulative data provide strong evidence of the significance of epigenetic changes in the development of this multistep malignancy. Among the epigenetic alterations, miRNAs deregulation has emerged as an exciting and promising field in cancer research. In a recent issue of the Journal of Pathology, Wang and colleagues identify miR-149 as being silenced by methylation in colorectal cancer. The authors also identified Sp1 as a target of miR-149. These intriguing observations have important biological prognostic and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    The Journal of Pathology 09/2012; · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A significant proportion of extracellular nucleic acids in plasma circulate highly protected in tumor-specific exosomes, but it is unclear how the release of exosomes is modulated in carcinogenesis. We quantified by cytometry exosomes in plasma of 91 colorectal cancer patients to evaluate their potential as a tumor indicator and their repercussions on diagnosis and prognosis. We examined the involvement of TSAP6, a TP53-regulated gene involved in the regulation of vesicular secretion, in levels of circulating exosomes in plasma of colorectal patients and in HCT116 TP53-(wild-type and null) human colorectal cancer cell lines. The fraction of exosomes in cancer patients was statistically higher than in healthy controls (mean rank ¼ 53.93 vs. 24.35). High levels of exosomes in plasma of patients correlated with high levels of carcino-embryonic antigen (P ¼ 0.029) and with poorly differentiated tumors (P ¼ 0.039) and tended to have shorter overall survival than patients with low levels (P ¼ 0.056). Release of exosomes did not correlate with TSAP6 expression; and regulation of TSAP6 by TP53 was not shown either in tumor samples or in HCT116 cell lines. Although it was not suggested that the TP53/TSAP6 pathway regulates the release of exosomes into the plasma of colorectal cancer patients, the level of circulating exosomes may be used as a tumor indicator, because it correlates with poor prognosis parameters and shorter survival.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 04/2012; 51(4):409-18. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bromodomain protein BRD4 is involved in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, primarily through its role in acetylated chromatin-dependent regulation of transcription at targeted loci. Here, we show that BRD4 is frequently downregulated by aberrant promoter hypermethylation in human colon cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Ectopic re-expression of BRD4 in these colon cancer cell lines markedly reduced in vivo tumor growth, suggesting a role of BRD4 in human colon cancer.
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 11/2011; 90(5):587-95. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cumulative data support the role of ΔTAp73 variants in tumorigenic processes such as drug resistance. We evaluate the impact of TP73 isoforms and their putative target genes ABCB1, HMGB1, and CASP1 on the survival of colon cancer patients and the correlation between their expressions. We determined in 77 colon cancer patients the expression of ΔEx2p73, ΔEx2/3p73, ΔNp73, TAp73, ABCB1, HMGB1, and CASP1 by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. Tumor characteristics, disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS) were examined in each patient. Functional experiments were carried out to check whether ectopic expression of ΔNp73 modifies the proliferation, drug resistance, migration, and invasion properties of colon tumor cells and the expression of ABCB1, HMGB1, and CASP1. Positive correlations were observed between the expression levels of ΔTAp73 variants and HMGB1. Furthermore, a trend was observed for ABCB1. Overexpression of ΔEx2/3p73 and ΔNp73 isoforms was significantly associated with advanced stages (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively) and predicted shortened OS (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively). High levels of ABCB1 and HMGB1 were associated with shorter OS (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that, in addition to the tumor stage, ABCB1 and HMGB1 had independent relationships with OS (P = 0.008). Ectopic expression of ΔNp73 was associated with an increase in proliferation and drug resistance. The positive correlation between ΔTAp73 variants and HMGB1 and ABCB1 expression supports them as TP73 targets. The fact that upregulation of ΔTAp73 isoforms was associated with shortened OS, increase in proliferation, and drug resistance confirms their oncogenic role and plausible value as prognostic markers. ABCB1 and HMGB1, putative ΔTAp73 target genes, strongly predict OS in an independent manner, making clear the importance of studying downstream TP73 targets that could predict the outcome of colon cancer patients better than ΔTAp73 variants themselves do.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2011; 17(18):6029-39. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of free nucleic acids in plasma has been detected in cancer patients and is associated with poor prognosis. In the present study, the mRNA levels of three genes (EPAS1, KIAA0101 and UBE2D3) in plasma from colorectal cancer patients were analyzed. These genes were selected from a previous study of genomic profiles, discriminating between healthy controls and colorectal cancer patients. mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time PCR in the plasma of 154 patients with colorectal cancer. The association of plasma mRNA levels with clinicopathological parameters and patient survival were analyzed. High levels of EPAS1 in the plasma were associated with patients aged over 50 years, relapse of disease and patient mortality. When patients were divided into two groups, early (I and II) and advanced (III and IV) stages, an association was observed between high levels of EPAS1 mRNA and worse disease-free and overall survival in advanced stages. The expression of KIAA0101 and UBE2D3 was not associated with poor prognosis. Thus, our results suggest that EPAS1 mRNA levels may be an indicator of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients at advanced stages, obtained by a non-invasive method.
    Oncology letters 07/2011; 2(4):719-724. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of tumour biomarkers that detect the presence of disease using noninvasive diagnostic procedures is a key part of cancer research. We determined in plasma the vesicle-related microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and evaluate whether plasma miRNAs can be both discriminating (between patients and healthy controls) and prognostic markers. 365 human miRNAs were analysed by Taqman® low-density arrays (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) in the plasma from 28 NSCLC patients and 20 controls. Five selected miRNAs (let-7f, miR-20b, miR-30e-3p, miR-223 and miR-301) were validated independently by real-time PCR in plasma from 78 NSCLC and 48 controls and correlated with pathologic parameters and survival. Levels of let-7f, miR-20b and miR-30e-3p were decreased in plasma vesicles of NSCLC patients. Moreover, levels of let-7f and miR-30e-3p distinguished between two groups of patients for stage of disease and therefore possibility of surgery. Plasma levels of miR-30e-3p and let-7f were associated with short disease-free survival and overall survival, respectively. NSCLC patients and healthy controls differ in vesicle-related miRNAs in plasma. Levels of let-7f and miR-30e-3p in NSCLC patients are associated with poor outcome. Thus, plasma vesicle-related miRNAs obtained by noninvasive methods could serve as circulating tumour biomarkers of discriminating and prognostic value.
    European Respiratory Journal 03/2011; 37(3):617-23. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TWIST1 is a transcription factor that belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion processes. The TWIST1 protein possesses oncogenic, drug-resistant, angiogenic and invasive properties, and has been related with several human tumors and other pathologies. Colorectal cancer is one of the tumors in which TWIST1 is over-expressed, but its involvement in the clinical outcome of the disease is still unclear. We tested, by RT-PCR, the expression levels of TWIST1 in normal and tumor paired-sample tissues from a series of 151 colorectal cancer patients, in order to investigate its prognostic value as a tumor marker. TWIST1 expression was restricted to tumor tissues (86.1%) and correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM). Adjusted analysis showed that the expression levels of TWIST1 correlated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Importantly, TWIST1 expression levels predicted OS specifically at stages I and II. Moreover, patients with stage II tumors and high TWIST1 levels showed even shorter survival than patients with stage III tumors. These results suggest that TWIST1 expression levels could be a tumor indicator in stage II patients and help select patients at greater risk of poor prognosis who might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(3):e18023. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluate whether 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) downregulates TP73 variants in colon and breast carcinomas, the role of survivin in this context, and the significance of this network in the clinic. Tumor cells were treated/untreated with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and transiently transfected with survivin. Levels of survivin and TP73 variants were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. In 75 colon and 60 breast cancer patients, the expressions of survivin and TP73 isoforms were determined. Tumor characteristics were examined in each patient. Survivin protein levels were also evaluated in a subgroup of patients and cell lines. Decrease in survivin and TAp73 transcripts and protein and ΔNp73 mRNA was detected after 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment. Ectopic survivin expression led to an increase in the TAp73, ΔNp73, ΔEx2p73, and ΔEx2-3p73 transcripts. In cancer patients, direct correlations were observed between TP73 variants and survivin levels. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) negatively regulate survivin and TP73 variants in colon and breast cancer cells. Positive regulation of TP73 isoforms by survivin may exist, which reinforces the possibility that the downregulation of TP73 forms by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is survivin-dependent.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 12/2010; 49(12):1135-42. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SNAI1, ZEB1, E-cadherin (CDH1), and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes regulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that initiates the invasion process of many tumor cells. We hypothesized that this process could also affect the behavior of normal cells adjacent to the tumor. To verify this hypothesis, the expression level of these genes was determined by quantitative RT-PCR in tumor, normal adjacent, and normal distant tissues from 32 colorectal cancer (CC) patients. In addition, we extended the study to human HaCaT normal keratinocytes and SW480-ADH colon cancer cells co-cultured with SW480-ADH cells overexpressing the mouse Snai1 gene. Of 18 CC cases with SNAI1 expression in tumor tissue, five also had SNAI1 in normal adjacent tissue (NAT). Expression of SNAI1 in tumor tissue correlated with downregulation of CDH1 and VDR genes in both tumor (P=0.047 and P=0.014, respectively) and NAT lacking SNAI1 expression (P=0.054 and P=0.003). ZEB1 expression was directly related to VDR expression in tumor tissue (r=0.39; P=0.027) and inversely to CDH1 in NAT (r=-0.46; P=0.010). CDH1 and VDR were also downregulated in SW480-ADH and MaCaT cells, respectively, when they were co-cultured with Snai1-expressing cells. Furthermore, cytokine analysis showed differences in the conditioned media obtained from the two cell types. These results indicate that histologically normal tissue adjacent to tumor tissue expressing the EMT-inducing gene SNAI1 shows alterations in the expression of epithelial differentiation genes such as CDH1 and VDR.
    Oncogene 10/2009; 28(49):4375-85. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms involved in the appearance of a second neoplasia in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) are probably related to the genomic damage induced by the treatments administered and its repair. Here, we searched for some constitutive molecular mechanisms that in a basal manner may influence the behavior of HD patients. We aimed to evaluate with the Comet Assay whether baseline, induced, and unrepaired DNA damage differ between HD patients who did not develop a second neoplasia (HD-NST), HD patients who developed a second tumor (HD-ST), and healthy individuals; and to identify, through cDNA microarray hybridization, an expression signature of genes that could discriminate between the three groups. Baseline, induced, and unrepaired DNA damage was higher in HD-ST than in HD-NST and higher in the second group than in healthy donors. The genomic approach revealed two sets of genes that discriminated between healthy subjects and patients and between the three sets of individuals. Hsp40, RAD50, TPMT, Rap2a, E2F2, EPHX2, TBX21, and BATF were validated by reverse transcription-PCR. Functional and genomic techniques revealed that alterations in cell cycle, repair, detoxification, and stress response pathways could be involved in the development of HD and in the occurrence of a primary second neoplasia in these patients. Both approaches may be useful as biological markers in the clinical setting.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2009; 15(15):4823-8. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The more common approach to comet assay studies with cancer patients involves indirect measurement of the effect of antineoplastic drug or radiation regimen by assessing DNA damage in surrogate cells, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients, to predict how tumor cells may be affected. The aim of the present study was to compare the capability of different cells isolated from a series of 23 colon cancer patients to repair the damage induced by a cancer drug. We adapted the in vitro comet repair assay for nucleotide excision repair to measure the ability of lymphocytes and normal and tumor epithelial colon cells to remove DNA cross-links induced by oxaliplatin. The excision repair rate was measured quantitatively by the tail parameters: tail DNA, tail length, extent tail moment, and olive tail moment. Kruskal-Wallis analysis revealed significant differences in recognition and excision activity between different cell types (P < 0.001) for all the comet parameters studied. Hence, colon cells showed higher recognition and excision activity than lymphocytes and tumor cells displayed the highest repair capability. We found no significant correlation between the repair activity of tumor colon cells and lymphocytes in any of the comet parameters considered. Our data support the view that lymphocyte repair activity is not predictive of the repair ability of the tumor and that lymphocytes cannot act as surrogate cells.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2009; 15(17):5466-72. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied anomalous extracellular mRNAs in plasma from patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and their survival implications. mRNAs studied have been reported in the literature as markers of poor (BCL2, CCND2, MYC) and favorable outcome (LMO2, BCL6, FN1) in tumors. These markers were also analyzed in lymphoma tissues to test possible associations with their presence in plasma. mRNA from 42 plasma samples and 12 tumors from patients with DLBCL was analyzed by real-time PCR. Samples post-treatment were studied. The immunohistochemistry of BCL2 and BCL6 was defined. Presence of circulating tumor cells was determined by analyzing the clonality of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes by PCR. In DLBCL, MYC mRNA was associated with short overall survival. mRNA targets with unfavorable outcome in tumors were associated with characteristics indicative of poor prognosis, with partial treatment response and with short progression-free survival in patients with complete response. In patients with low IPI score, unfavorable mRNA targets were related to shorter overall survival, partial response, high LDH levels and death. mRNA disappeared in post-treatment samples of patients with complete response, and persisted in those with partial response or death. No associations were found between circulating tumor cells and plasma mRNA. Absence of BCL6 protein in tumors was associated with presence of unfavorable plasma mRNA. Through a non-invasive procedure, tumor-derived mRNAs can be obtained in plasma. mRNA detected in plasma did not proceed from circulating tumor cells. In our study, unfavorable targets in plasma were associated with poor prognosis in B-cell lymphomas, mainly MYC mRNA. Moreover, the unfavorable targets in plasma could help us to classify patients with poor outcome within the good prognosis group according to IPI.
    PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(12):e8173. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of dietary antioxidants in human health remains controversial. Fruits and vegetables in the diet are associated with lower rates of chronic disease, and this is often attributed to their content of antioxidants, and a resulting protection against oxidative stress. However, large-scale human trials with antioxidant supplements have shown, if anything, an increase in mortality. We have investigated the biological properties of beta-cryptoxanthin, a common carotenoid, in cell culture model systems, using the comet assay to measure DNA damage. At low concentrations, close to those found in plasma, beta-cryptoxanthin does not itself cause damage, but protects transformed human cells (HeLa and Caco-2) from damage induced by H(2)O(2) or by visible light in the presence of a photosensitizer. In addition, it has a striking effect on DNA repair, measured in different ways. Incubation of H(2)O(2)-treated cells with beta-cryptoxanthin led to a doubling of the rate of rejoining of strand breaks and had a similar effect on the rate of removal of oxidized purines by base excision repair. The latter effect was confirmed with an in vitro assay: cells were incubated with or without beta-cryptoxanthin before preparing an extract, which was then incubated with substrate DNA containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine; incision was more rapid with the extract prepared from carotenoid-preincubated cells. No significant increases were seen in protein content of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 or apurinic endonuclease 1. The apparent cancer-preventive effects of dietary carotenoids may depend on the enhancement of DNA repair as well as antioxidant protection against damage.
    Carcinogenesis 01/2009; 30(2):308-14. · 5.64 Impact Factor