[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Trametinib is an inhibitor of MEK1/MEK2 activation and kinase activity. In order to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of single-agent trametinib (part 1) and trametinib in combination with gemcitabine (part 2), we undertook the first clinical study of this combination in Japanese patients with cancer and herein report our results. Methods In part 1, 13 patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled into 3 dose cohorts, receiving trametinib once daily at a dose of 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mg. In part 2, 5 patients with pancreatic cancer received trametinib (2.0 mg once daily) in combination with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2)). Results In part 1, a dose-limiting toxicity was observed in a patient in the 2.0-mg dose cohort, but the maximum tolerated dose was not reached at doses up to 3.0 mg daily. The best overall response was a PR in 1 patient, and 6 patients had SD. In part 2, the combination of trametinib and gemcitabine was tolerated for a short period of time. However, serious interstitial lung disease (ILD) was observed in 3 of 5 patients 4 weeks or more after the start of the treatment, including 1 fatal case. Three patients achieved a PR, and 2 patients had SD. The most common adverse event was rash (85 % in part 1 and 100 % in part 2). Conclusions Trametinib monotherapy was tolerable in Japanese patients with cancer. However, the combination of trametinib plus gemcitabine carried a higher risk as compared with monotherapy, during which no ILD was observed. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01324258.).
Investigational New Drugs 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10637-015-0270-2 · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japan Clinical Oncology Group(JCOG)is a largest cooperative group in Japan, funded by the ministry of health, labor and welfare of Japanese government. We just established the Geriatric Study Committee in December 2013. The goal ofthis committee is to make a policy to promote clinical trials for older patients with 3 major tasks: (1)Create a clear and operational definition of vulnerability/frailty applicable to oncology,(2)Develop, test and disseminate geriatric assessments,(3) Improve research in the field of geriatric oncology, in collaboration with SIOG. JCOG1018 is a randomized phase III study of mFOLFOX7 or CAPOX plus bevacizumab versus 5-fluorouracil/Leucovorin or capecitabine plus bevacizumab as first-line treatment in elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. This study includes geriatric assessments(VES-13)before chemotherapy.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 01/2015; 42(1):16-20.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of fixed dose rate infusion of gemcitabine and S-1 combination therapy (FGS) in patients with gemcitabine (GEM)-refractory pancreatic cancer (PC) and to explore independent variables associated with survival.
We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with GEM-refractory PC who received FGS at our institution from March 2009 to December 2013. GEM was administered by fixed dose rate intravenous infusion of 1,200 mg/m(2) as a 120-min infusion on day 1, and S-1 was administered orally twice a day at a dose of 40 mg/m(2) on days 1-7. Cycles were repeated every 14 days.
Sixty-one patients with GEM-refractory PC received FGS. Sixteen patients received FGS as third-line treatment. Twenty-nine patients (48 %) had a history of S-1 administration. The objective response rate was 13 %, and the disease control rate was 49 %. The median progression-free survival time was 2.7 months, and the median overall survival time was 6.0 months. Major Grade 3 or 4 adverse events included neutropenia (15 %), diarrhea (3 %), anorexia (2 %), and fatigue (2 %). A high inflammation-based prognostic score (modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), which incorporates C-reactive protein and albumin), a performance status >0, and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level >2,000 IU/ml were independently associated with a poor outcome.
FGS might be effective and well tolerated as salvage chemotherapy in a practical setting. The inflammation-based prognostic score is a simple and reliable indicator of survival in the setting of salvage chemotherapy.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 12/2014; 75(3). DOI:10.1007/s00280-014-2665-8 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A phase 1 study of pazopanib alone or in combination with lapatinib was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of these oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors in Japanese patients with solid tumors.
In part A (monotherapy), 7 patients initially received pazopanib 800 mg/day, the recommended dose for non-Japanese patients. Then, 3 patients received pazopanib 400 mg/day on day 1 followed by 800 mg/day from day 2 onward. Three other patients received pazopanib 1,000 mg/day. In part B (combination therapy), 17 patients received pazopanib plus lapatinib (pazopanib/lapatinib) at once-daily doses of 400/1,000 mg (4 patients), 800/1,000 mg (3 patients), 400/1,500 mg (3 patients), and then 600/1,250 mg (7 patients).
There was no dose-limiting toxicity during the study. In part A, most drug-related adverse events were grade 2 or lower, including neutropenia/neutrophil count decreased, thrombocytopenia/platelet count decreased, diarrhea, hypertension, aspartate aminotransferase increased, and lipase increased. In part B, rash, decreased appetite, and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone increased also occurred. In all dose groups, the plasma concentrations after multiple doses of pazopanib exceeded the target trough concentration for inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 activity (20 μg/mL).
The pharmacokinetic profiles of pazopanib and lapatinib in Japanese patients were not apparently different from those reported in non-Japanese patients. There were no consistent trends in pharmacokinetic drug interactions between pazopanib and lapatinib. Pazopanib monotherapy at 800 and 1,000 mg once daily and pazopanib plus lapatinib once daily at any doses studied were well tolerated in Japanese patients.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 01/2014; 73(4). DOI:10.1007/s00280-014-2374-3 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib in Japanese patients was assessed in this multicenter, single-arm, phase I trial. Fifteen patients with treatment-refractory advanced solid tumors received regorafenib 160 mg once daily for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or investigator or patient decision to stop. The median duration of treatment was 2.1 months (range, 0.9-20.1 months). At data cutoff, one patient was still receiving regorafenib in cycle 21. Reasons for treatment discontinuation were disease progression (n = 12) and adverse events (liver enzyme elevation n = 1; anemia n = 1). Adverse events necessitated dose reduction in six patients, interruption of daily treatment in seven patients, and cycle delay in four patients. All patients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event, particularly gastrointestinal (87 %), dermatologic (73 %), or hematologic (67 %) events. There was no significant change in time to maximum concentration or terminal half-life of regorafenib and its active metabolites M2 and M5 between single dosing and 21-day continuous dosing. The area under the concentration-time curve was 2.1-fold higher for regorafenib, 5.2-fold higher for M2, and 37.3-fold higher for M5, and the maximum concentration was 2.0-fold, 4.8-fold, and 36.0-fold higher, respectively, after continuous dosing than after single dosing. One patient had a partial response (duration 10.5 months) and seven patients had stable disease. This study indicates that regorafenib 160 mg orally once daily (21 days on/7 days off treatment) can be given to Japanese patients who have solid tumors, without undue toxicity.
Investigational New Drugs 04/2013; 32(1). DOI:10.1007/s10637-013-9953-8 · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here a case of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome(RPLS)induced by modified FOLFOX6(mFOLFOX6). The patient was a 43-year-old woman who had sigmoid colon cancer with multiple liver metastases. Treatment with mFOLFOX6 was started. Early in the morning of day 11, the patient was transported by ambulance to the hospital due to nausea with headache, disturbed consciousness, and visual disturbance. The patient experienced sudden, severe nausea and subsequently presented generalized tonic-chronic seizures. The seizures subsided after treatment. On the evening of day 11, another episode of generalized tonic-chronic seizures occurred. Status epilepticus developed and tracheal intubation was performed for airway protection. Cranial MRI showed increased signal intensity in both occipital lobes, centered on the boundary between the gray and white matter on FLAIR images. Her condition stabilized with no seizure recurrence following intubation. Although hypertension was present on admission to the emergency room, blood pressure gradually fell to within the normal range without antihypertensive treatment. She was extubated on day 18. There were no neurologic sequelae. Cranial MRI on day 40 showed that the increased intensity in both occipital lobes had almost disappeared. Because the patient's condition was characterized by a reversible central nervous system disorder, RPLS was diagnosed.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 08/2012; 39(8):1283-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a serious neurologic disease characterized by visual disturbance, seizures, headache, and altered mental status associated with white matter changes, particularly in the occipital lobes. RPLS has been attributed to chemotherapy, including modified FOLFOX6 regimens consisting of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin. Although the mechanism of development of RPLS remains unclear, impaired cerebral blood flow autoregulation and endothelial dysfunction seem to be involved. In particular, endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of RPLS associated with platinum agents. Platinum-based chemotherapy is thought to have a direct toxic effect on the vascular endothelium, leading to capillary leakage, disruption of the blood–brain barrier, and axonal swelling, triggering vasogenic edema. Much progress has been made in chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and the increasing use of molecular-targeted agents is expected to further improve the outcome of therapy. RPLS has recently been associated with such molecular-targeted therapy, particularly in patients concurrently receiving platinum agents. This finding is consistent with previous reports suggesting that RPLS occurs more often in patients receiving platinum-based therapy than in those receiving molecular-targeted agents. Because platinum agents are the most widely used in cancer chemotherapy, clinicians should strongly suspect RPLS in patients receiving treatment with this class of drug.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin, irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFOXIRI) in Japanese patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
This phase I dose-finding study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended dose (RD) or both of FOLFOXIRI. Patients with UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1*6/*6, *28/*28 and *6/*28 genotypes were excluded, because these UGT1A1 genotypes are linked to severe neutropenia in Japanese.
A total of 10 Japanese patients with advanced colorectal cancer were studied. The MTD of FOLFOXIRI in these Japanese patients was 165 mg/m(2) irinotecan, 85 mg/m(2) oxaliplatin and 2,400 mg/m(2) 5-FU. Accordingly, the RD of FOLFOXIRI was determined to be 150 mg/m(2) irinotecan, 85 mg/m(2) oxaliplatin and 2,400 mg/m(2) 5-FU. Toxic effects, evaluated until the completion of 4 cycles, were manageable. Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 27% of cycles, but there was no febrile neutropenia. Among the 9 assessable patients, the objective response rate was 89%.
We thus determined the RD of FOLFOXIRI in Japanese patients with advanced colorectal cancer who do not have UGT1A1*28/*28, *6/*6 or *6/*28 genotypes. Our results indicate that FOLFOXIRI is a well-tolerated regimen for these Japanese patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of chemotherapy in patients with advanced solid cancers, including biliary tract cancer, is generally to improve the survival and quality of life of the patients. Also, adjuvant chemotherapy is expected to increase the curability of surgery in patients scheduled to undergo surgery. Most patients with unresectable biliary tract cancer develop obstructive jaundice, and biliary drainage is needed before any of the aforementioned treatments. Once jaundice is resolved by stenting of the bile duct or bilio-intestinal bypass, cholangitis often develops, leading to rapid deterioration of the patient's general condition. Therefore, the beneficial effect of chemotherapy in such patients remains controversial. A few randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the survival benefit of chemotherapy as compared with supportive care. In one of these trials, improvement of the quality of life was also confirmed. Recently, since the survival benefit of combined gemcitabine plus cisplatin therapy over gemcitabine alone has been demonstrated in randomized controlled clinical trials, this combined regimen has been recognized as a standard therapy for unresectable biliary tract cancer. A second-line regimen is now expected to be established for patients with gemcitabine-refractory biliary tract cancer, although the significance of second-line therapy remains unclear. One of the next issues in relation to chemotherapy for biliary tract cancer is the development of molecular-targeted agents; however, few large clinical trials of such agents have been conducted for biliary tract cancer. Various issues in chemotherapy for biliary tract cancer remain to be investigated, and global cooperation is necessary to conduct large clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is necessary to establish effective chemotherapy to improve the survival of patients with biliary tract cancer. Although the useful of some molecular-targeted agents as first-line therapies has been investigated, none have been found to exert satisfactory efficacy. In this article, we report the results of a Phase II study of selumetinib in patients with metastatic biliary cancer. Selumetinib is an inhibitor of MEK1/2 targeting the RAS/RAF/MEK/extracellular signal-related kinase pathway. Three out of 28 patients showed a confirmed partial response, representing a response rate of 12%. The median progression-free survival was 3.7 months and the median overall survival was 9.8 months. The most common toxicities were rash, xerostomia and nausea. Most toxicities were grade 1 or 2, and the most common grade 3/4 toxicities were diarrhea and nausea. All toxicities were manageable and reversible. The results warrant further evaluation of the use of selumetinib in patients with metastatic biliary cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jaundice is a yellowish pigmentation of skin and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia, which itself has various causes. Jaundice related to malignant tumors is classified as obstructive jaundice. This disease proceeds from biliary tract obstruction and liver failure by progression of intrahepatic tumors, including metastases from other malignancies. Biliary tract cancer, pancreatic head cancer, or lymph nodes metastases from other sites of cancer are mainly responsible for the obstruction of the bile duct. In patients with obstructive jaundice, biliary drainage is often required in order to give treatments such as chemotherapy. In patients with biliary drainage, various complications arise, such as cholangitis due to obstruction ofa biliary stent, and bleeding from the ulcer due to a dislodged stent to the duodenum. It is crucial to manage those complications as oncologic emergencies. Jaundice of liver failure due to hepatic metastases is often observed in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies such as gastric cancer or colorectal cancer. Although chemotherapy is the usual application for those patients, useful anti-cancer agents are limited. It is crucial to diagnose and decide the best treatments as soon as possible for patients with very advanced hepatic metastases.
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 04/2011; 38(4):540-4.