G Bennett

New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (7)9.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The piezoelectric coefficient (d(31)) and Young's modulus (E) were investigated as a function of degree of hydration for bovine cornea. The piezoelectric and mechanical responses observed were anisotropic, and d(31) decreased, whereas E increased with decreasing the degree of hydration. The anisotropic mechanical and electromechanical properties observed seem to be caused by oriented crystalline collagen fibrils. In addition, the loss of water molecules appears to decrease crystallinity (of the collagen) in the cornea. With dehydration of the cornea, a reduction in crystallinity and changes in hydrogen bonding were observed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared measurements. The decrease of piezoelectricity in cornea during dehydration is most likely caused by the increase in modulus and the loss of order to a nonpiezoelectric phase in the collagen.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 09/2003; 66(2):260-5. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The piezoelectric and dynamic mechanical properties of human cornea have been investigated as a function of drying time. As expected, the piezoelectric coefficient, d(31), and the Young's modulus, Y, were found to be extremely sensitive to water content. d(31) decreased with dehydration of the corneal tissue and Y increased with dehydration. While these results are significant, the discovery of the unprecedented mechanical and electromechanical anisotropy exhibited by the cornea are the major findings of this study and indicate that the collagen fibrils comprising the cornea are highly oriented. The piezoelectric responses of corneas observed in this study are: diagonally cut samples starting at an average piezoelectric coefficient value of 2250 pC/N, followed by the vertically cut samples, with an average starting value of about 600 pC/N and finally the horizontally cut samples with an average starting value of about 200 pC/N.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 05/2003; 18(4):381-7. · 6.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knapp's Law, which states that anisometropias due to varying abnormal axial lengths between eyes would not result in inequality in relative retinal image size, provided the correcting spectacle lens was placed at the far point of the eye, has been shown to fall short in clinical practice in several studies using "direct comparison eikonometry". To test these findings using space eikonometry and to further elucidate this Law's clinical applicability, the following study was conducted. Thirteen patients with suspected axial anisometropia of at least 4 Diopters were identified, selected and examined. Cycloplegic refraction, A-scan ultrasonic ocular biometry and Essilor Projection Space Eikonometry were performed. Ten of the thirteen patients had their anisometropia due primarily to ocular axial length differences. Of these ten, seven (70%) had detectable levels of aniseikonia and 3 (30%) demonstrated no aniseikonia. The other three patients whose aniso-metropia was due to combined axial and refractive components, all had aniseikonia. As a geometric optics theory, Knapp's Law stands on its own merits. However, in clinical practice, reduction in retinal element density in high myopia limits its applicability. Such patients often do have significant aniseikonia which can produce ocular referable complaints and/or interfere with binocular vision.
    Binocular vision & strabismus quarterly 02/1999; 14(3):197-201.
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    ABSTRACT: To find the error rate in quantifying aniseikonia by using "Rule of Thumb" estimation in comparison with proven space eikonometry. Study 1: 24 adult pseudophakic individuals were measured for anisometropia, and astigmatic interocular difference. Rule of Thumb quantification for prescription was calculated and compared with aniseikonia measurement by the classical Essilor Projection Space Eikonometer. Study 2: parallel analysis was performed on 62 consecutive phakic patients from our strabismus clinic group. Frequency of error: For Group 1 (24 cases): 5 ( or 21 %) were equal (i.e., 1% or less difference); 16 (or 67% ) were greater (more than 1% different); and 3 (13%) were less by Rule of Thumb calculation in comparison to aniseikonia determined on the Essilor eikonometer. For Group 2 (62 cases): 45 (or 73%) were equal (1% or less); 10 (or 16%) were greater; and 7 (or 11%) were lower in the Rule of Thumb calculations in comparison to Essilor eikonometry. Magnitude of error: In Group 1, in 10/24 (29%) aniseikonia by Rule of Thumb estimation was 100% or more greater than by space eikonometry, and in 6 of those ten by 200% or more. In Group 2, in 4/62 (6%) aniseikonia by Rule of Thumb estimation was 200% or more greater than by space eikonometry. The frequency and magnitude of apparent clinical errors of Rule of Thumb estimation is disturbingly large. This problem is greatly magnified by the time and effort and cost of prescribing and executing an aniseikonic correction for a patient. The higher the refractive error, the greater the anisometropia, and the worse the errors in Rule of Thumb estimation of aniseikonia. Accurate eikonometric methods and devices should be employed in all cases where such measurements can be made. Rule of thumb estimations should be limited to cases where such subjective testing and measurement cannot be performed, as in infants after unilateral cataract surgery.
    Binocular vision & strabismus quarterly 02/1999; 14(3):191-6.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the interrelationships among these four entities which are critical to binocular vision and its precision. 102 selected patients (for their ability to have stereoscopic depth perception, a requisite for space eikonometry) were evaluated. Patient testing included stereoscopic testing, Essilor Projection Space Eikonometry, ultrasonic echographic axial length measurements and orthoptic evaluation. Aniseikonia was measured on the Essilor Projection Space Eikonometer. 1. Anisometropia alone was correlated with a marked increase in amblyopia, a moderate increase in aniseikonia and no noteworthy increase in strabismus. Statistical analysis (chi square ratio) showed that persons with elevated anisometropic values had a 4.4 fold increased risk of aniseikonia (p=.003). 2. Aniseikonia alone was not responsible for marked variations in strabismus. 3. Amblyopia was correlated with increases in anisometropia and aniseikonia. 4. Adding aniseikonia to anisometropia produced a possible increase in strabismus and a great increase in amblyopia (using Fisher's Exact Test, 2-tailed). 5. Spearman correlations of the "absolute values" (the mean of the mathematical difference between the two eyes of anisometropia and amblyopia) were as follows: anisometropia (abs) vs. aniseikonia r=.294, p=.006; anisometropia (abs) vs. amblyopia (abs) 4=.555, p=<.001; amblyopia (abs) vs. aniseikonia r=.234, p=.02. Aniseikonia per se does not appear to have a major causal role in amblyopia or strabismus, but anisometropia does for amblyopia. This role is greatly augmented by aniseikonia and this combination may then produce strabismus.
    Binocular vision & strabismus quarterly 01/1999; 14(3):203-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The Young's Modulus (E) and piezoelectric coefficient (d31) have been investigated as a function of dehydration time for bovine cornea at room temperature. The piezoelectric and mechanical responses observed were anisotropic for bovine cornea and d31 decreased, while E increased with dehydration. In addition, water molecules appear to increase the crystallinity (of collagen) in the cornea. With dehydration of the cornea, reduction of crystallinity and changes in hydrogen bonding were observed by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Wide Angle X-ray Diffracion (WAXD) measurements.
    MRS Proceedings. 12/1998; 600.
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    ABSTRACT: The piezoelectric coefficients (d31) for a number of bovine and human scleral collagen samples were determined as a function of drying time at room temperature. The measured values of d31 decreased with drying time. There were significant differences in the values of the d-coefficient between the human and bovine eyes as well as in the values obtained from different regions of the eye.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 04/1998; 39(3):453-7.