[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses is a rare, high grade malignant soft tissue tumor resem-bling melanoma and soft tissue sarcomas. Clinical and Imaging Presentation: The median age at presentation is 27 years and the most common location are the foot and the ankle. MR imaging typically shows a benign looking, well defined, homogenous mass; on T1-weighted MR images, it is usually homogeneous and isointense or slight hyperintense to muscle, whereas on T2-weighted MR images, it is usually more heterogeneous with variable signal intensity. Pathology: Microscopically, the clear cell appearance is due to the accumulation of glycogen. The cells show no or minimal pleomorphism, and paucity of mitotic figures that is in concordance with the slow-growing behavior of the tumor. Scattered multinucleated giant cells are commonly present; areas of necrosis and melanin pigment may be identified. The reciprocal translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) is observed in more than 90% of clear cell sarcoma cases. In addition, polysomy of chro-mosome 8 has been observed as a secondary abnormality in many cases of clear cell sarcoma. The differential diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma should include melanoma, epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, melanotic schwannoma, paraganglioma-like dermal melanocytic tumor, perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas), cellular blue naevus, synovial sarcoma (monophasic type), alveolar soft part sarcoma, paraganglioma, epithelioid sarcoma and carcinomas. Treatment and Prognosis: The treatment of choice for clear cell sarcoma is wide surgical resection. If complete excision is achieved, adjuvant treatments are not unnecessary. Chemotherapy is predominantly employed in patients with metastatic dis-ease. The 5 to 20 year survival of the patients with clear cell sarcoma range from 67% to 10%. The rates of local recurrence ranges up to 84%, late metastases up to 63%, and metastases at presentation up to 30%. Hippokratia 2013; 17 (4): 298-302. Introduction Clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses was first described in 1965, as a rare malignant tumor origi-nating from tendons and aponeurosis, with histological clear cell appearance due to the accumulation of glyco-gen
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrochemotherapy, a combination of high voltage electric pulses and of an anticancer drug, has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors. Unique properties of electrochemotherapy (e.g., high specificity for targeting cancer cells, high degree of localization of treatment effect, capacity for preserving the innate immune response and the structure of the extracellular matrix) are facilitating its wide spread in the clinics. Due to high effectiveness of electrochemotherapy in treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors regardless of histological origin, there are now attempts to extend its use to treatment of internal tumors. To advance the applicability of electrochemotherapy to treatment of internal solid tumors, new technological developments are needed that will enable treatment of these tumors in daily clinical practice. New electrodes through which electric pulses are delivered to target tissue need to be designed with the aim to access target tissue anywhere in the body. To increase the probability of complete tumor eradication, the electrodes have to be accurately positioned, first to provide an adequate extent of electroporation of all tumor cells and second not to damage critical healthy tissue or organs in its vicinity. This can be achieved by image guided insertion of electrodes that will enable accurate positioning of the electrodes in combination with patient-specific numerical treatment planning or using a predefined geometry of electrodes. In order to be able to use electrochemotherapy safely for treatment of internal tumors located in relative proximity of the heart (e.g., in case of liver metastases), the treatment must be performed without interfering with the heart's electrical activity. We describe recent technological advances, which allow treatment of liver and bone metastases, soft tissue sarcomas, brain tumors, and colorectal and esophageal tumors. The first clinical experiences in these novel application areas of electrochemotherapy are also described.
Medical & Biological Engineering 11/2012; · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patellar tumors are rare; only a few series have been described in the literature and radiographic diagnosis can be challenging. We reviewed all patellar tumors at one institution and reviewed the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an evaluation of the database at one institution from 1916 to 2009, 23,000 bone tumors were found. Of these, 41 involved the patella. All had imaging studies and microscopic diagnostic confirmation. All medical records, imaging studies, and pathology were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 15 females and 26 males, ranging from 8 to 68 years old (average 30). There were 30 benign tumors; eight giant cell tumors, eight chondroblastomas, seven osteoid osteomas, two aneurysmal bone cysts, two ganglions, one each of chondroma, exostosis, and hemangioma. There were 11 malignant tumors: five hemangioendotheliomas, three metastases, one lymphoma, one plasmacytoma, and one angiosarcoma. CONCLUSION: Patellar tumors are rare and usually benign. As the patella is an apophysis, the most frequent lesions are giant cell tumor in the adult and chondroblastoma in children. Osteoid osteomas were frequent in our series and easily diagnosed. Metastases are the most frequent malignant diagnoses in the literature; in our series malignant vascular tumors were more common. These lesions are often easily analyzed on radiographs. CT and MR define better the cortex, soft tissue extension, and fluid levels. This study presents the imaging patterns of the more common patellar tumors in order to help the radiologist when confronted with a lesion in this location.
European journal of radiology 08/2012; · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Existing classifications for heterotopic ossification (HO) do not include all HO types; nor do they consider the anatomy of the involved joint or the neurological injury. Therefore, we performed this study to propose and evaluate a classification according to the location of neurogenic HO and the neurological injury.
We studied the files of 24 patients/33 hips with brain or spinal cord injury and neurogenic HO of the hip treated with excision, indomethacin, and radiation therapy. We classified patients according to the Brooker classification scheme as well as ours. Four types of neurogenic HO were distinguished according to the anatomical location of HO: type 1, anterior; type 2, posterior; type 3, anteromedial; type 4, circumferential. Subtypes of each type were added based on the neurological injury: a, spinal cord; b, brain injury. Mean follow-up was 2.5 years (1-8 years).
The Brooker classification scheme was misleading-all hips were class III or IV, corresponding to ankylosis, even though only 14 hips had ankylosis. On the other hand, our classification was straightforward and easy to assign in all cases. It corresponded better to the location of the heterotopic bone, and allowed for preoperative planning of the appropriate surgical approach and evaluation of the prognosis; recurrence of neurogenic HO was significantly higher in patients with brain injury (subtype b), while blood loss was higher for patients with anteromedial (type 3) and circumferential (type 4) neurogenic HO.
Our proposed classification may improve the management and evaluation of the prognosis for patients with neurogenic HO.
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology 04/2012; 13(2):69-78.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study was done to evaluate embolisation for palliative and/or adjuvant treatment of bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma and discuss the clinical and imaging results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 107 patients with bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma treated from December 2002 to January 2011 with 163 embolisations using N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Mean tumour diameter before embolisation was 8.8 cm and mean follow-up 4 years. Clinical and imaging effects of treatment were evaluated at follow-up examinations with a pain score scale, analgesic use, hypoattenuating areas, tumour size and ossification. RESULTS: A clinical response was achieved in 157 (96%) and no response in six embolisations of sacroiliac metastases. Mean duration of clinical response was 10 (range 1-12) months. Hypoattenuating areas resembling tumour necrosis were observed in all patients. Variable ossification appeared in 41 patients. Mean maximal tumour diameter after embolisation was 4.0 cm. One patient had intraprocedural tear of the left L3 artery and iliopsoas haemorrhage and was treated with occlusion of the bleeding vessel with NBCA. All patients had variable ischaemic pain that recovered completely within 2-4 days. Postembolisation syndrome was diagnosed after 15 embolisations (9.2%). Transient paraesthesias in the lower extremities were observed after 25 embolisations (25%) of pelvis and sacrum metastatic lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Embolisation with NBCA is recommended as primary or palliative treatment of bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma. Strict adherence to the principles of transcatheter embolisation is important to avoid complications.
La radiologia medica 03/2012; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parosteal osteosarcoma is a well-differentiated variant of osteosarcoma that affects the surface of the bone. The imaging pattern is very typical. We report two cases mimicking an osteochondroma, radiologically and histologically and propose an explanation.
The review of 86 parosteal osteosarcomas of bone revealed this atypical pattern only once. A consultation case was received in the same time, and added to ours. Patients were 28 years old and 56 years old females. Imaging studies included two radiographs, two CTscans, one MRI examination and one bone scan and the results were compared to histology.
On imaging, both lesions presented as ossified lobulated masses attached with a broad base to the underlying cortex. No radiolucent cleft separated the masses and the host bone and cortex continuity between the mass and the femur was seen, with medullary communication. The marrow of the mass had a different density and intensity compared to normal marrow. So, there were features of an osteochondroma (cortex and medullary continuity) and of a parosteal osteosarcoma (ossified marrow). Pathological assessment on the final specimen confirmed the presence of low-grade parosteal osteosarcomas, after an erroneous diagnosis of osteochondroma on the initial biopsy.
Parosteal osteosarcoma can be rarely confused with osteochondroma. A radiologic-pathologic correlation is essential. Cortex continuity is the most misleading imaging feature that may occur in parosteal osteosarcomas. A knowledge of this misleading pattern will help diagnose the lesion from the beginning.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resection of diaphyseal malignant bone tumors is indicated for local control and impending pathological fracture or failure of prophylactic internal fixation. However, there are no large, long-term studies analyzing the results of intercalary reconstruction using segmental metallic spacers.
We present 24 patients treated with wide resection for primary or metastatic bone tumors involving the diaphysis of the femur, tibia, or humerus and reconstruction using a modular intramedullary diaphyseal segmental defect fixation system. The mean length of bone resection was 10 cm. The postoperative complications and outcome were evaluated.
At a mean follow-up of 29 months, 17 patients were alive and 7 patients were dead of disease; no patient had local recurrence. Implant-related complications occurred in 8 patients, the most common being mechanical loosening and rotational instability. Loosening was most common in reconstructions of more than 10 cm length of bone resection. In all femoral reconstructions, mechanical failure occurred at the proximal stem. True limb length discrepancy of 2.0 cm was observed in one patient. Wound healing complications were not observed; range of motion and function of the adjacent joints was within normal limits.
The modularity, ease of application and preservation of the adjacent joints are major advantages of segmental modular prostheses; however, the complications' rate is high. Complications occur most often at the proximal stem in femoral reconstructions and reconstructions for more than 10 cm length of bone resection. In these cases, the use of these implants should be reconsidered or not recommended.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 03/2011; 104(1):83-90. · 2.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced sarcomas are rare, high-grade sarcomas that may arise within the radiation volume at a mean latency period of 3-55 years after radiation therapy, doses of which range from 45 to 60 Gy. Radiation-induced osteosarcomas, fibrosarcomas, and malignant fibrous histiocytomas are the most common. Extensive surgery with microscopically negative-margin resection, or amputation is recommended for improved survival. Adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy have not been shown to improve survival rates significantly. The prognosis is poor.
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants 01/2011; 21(3):233-40.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electroporation in the cell membrane occurs following exposure to a high-intensity electric field. Electroporation can be
used to introduce large molecules into the cell or to induce cell apoptosis by the application of the electric field alone,
provided that the cell damage is such that it cannot be recovered. Electroporation use in clinical practice is standardized
in association with drugs, electrochemotherapy, for the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor nodules. Effective tumor
ablation requires complete membrane electroporation of all malignant cells to allow drug diffusion into the cytoplasm. We
investigated the impact of the presence of bone trabeculae on electric field effect and whether the mineralized component
of the bone prevented the use of electroporation to eradicate tumor cells in bone tissue. We evaluated the possibility of
efficiently performing electroporation of osteoblasts and osteocytes, as well as of cells interspersed among bone trabeculae.
On healthy rabbits, the effect of electroporation on the distal femoral epiphysis, an area of high osteogenetic activity,
was investigated by histological and functional analysis. In bone tissue, complete cell ablation by electroporation was achieved
when the absorbed energy dose in the tissue exceeded 3,500 J/Kg. This threshold value was reached with all electric fields
tested by increasing the number of pulses delivered. The results of the preclinical investigation set the rationale for the
use of electrochemotherapy in patients with bone metastases. Preliminary experience with the use of electrochemotherapy for
bone metastases in patients will be discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short intense electrical pulses transiently increase the permeability of the cell membrane, an effect known as electroporation. This can be combined with antiblastic drugs for ablation of tumours of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of electroporation when applied to bone and to understand whether the presence of mineralised trabeculae would affect the capability of the electric field to porate the membrane of bone cells. Different levels of electrical field were applied to the femoral bone of rabbits. The field distribution and modelling were simulated by computer. Specimens of bone from treated and control rabbits were obtained for histology, histomorphometry and biomechanical testing. After seven days, the area of ablation had increased in line with the number of pulses and/or with the amplitude of the electrical field applied. The osteogenic activity in the ablated area had recovered by 30 days. Biomechanical testing showed structural integrity of the bone at both times. Electroporation using the appropriate combination of voltage and pulses induced ablation of bone cells without affecting the recovery of osteogenic activity. It can be an effective treatment in bone and when used in combination with drugs, an option for the treatment of metastases.
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - British Volume 11/2010; 92(11):1614-20. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a lytic benign bone lesion representing about 1% of all primary bone tumors. The lesion causes pain and swelling, which are generally present for less than 3 months.
From April 2003 to April 2008 36 patients affected by aneurysmal bone cysts were treated by selective arterial embolization with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate. The study population comprised 20 male and 16 female patients with an age range of 3.3-60.8 years. Nine lesions were localized in the appendicular skeleton (1 in the upper and 8 in the lower limb), 4 in the thoracic cage (1 rib lesion and 3 scapular lesions), 17 in the pelvis and 6 in the spine (1 thoracic and 5 sacral localizations).
A total of 55 embolizations were performed: in 22 cases (61%) only one embolization was needed, whilst two embolizations were necessary in 9 cases (25%) and 3 in the remaining 5 patients (14%). The treatment was effective in 32 patients (94% ): follow-up was 0.9-5 years. In one patient, previously surgically treated, only the cyanoacrylate embolization turned out to be useful for healing the lesion. Another 7 patients underwent surgery during the study period. In the 55 procedures we performed we had 3 complications (5%): 2 cases of skin necrosis and 1 of transient paresis.
Arterial embolization with cyanoacrylate may be the treatment of choice for aneurysmal bone cysts. Embolization is a less invasive, lower cost, simpler procedure than surgery and is easily repeatable.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unicondylar osteoarticular allografts (UOA) of the knee are mainly used after bone tumour resections for benign aggressive tumours or small malignant tumours with clearly defined margins. They are also used less often in large posttraumatic condylar defects. Between 1989 and 2004, 12 deep-frozen UOA reconstructions (in 11 patients) were performed at our Institute. The diagnosis was chondrosarcoma in four cases, giant cell tumour in three, osteosarcoma in three, posttraumatic defect in one, and one failed UOA. The involved site was the medial femoral condyle in six cases, the lateral femoral condyle in three, the medial side of the tibial plateau in two, and the lateral in one case. One allograft was removed after 29 months because of an intra-articular displaced fracture, and substituted with a new UOA. One patient died of metastatic disease at 24 months. We report the functional and radiographical outcome of the remaining 10 UOAs with a minimum follow-up of 4 years (average 11 years). Two of the 10 patients had excellent results, five were good and three were fair. Radiographically, five patients had "mild" and five had "severe" degenerative changes. One patient with severe degenerative changes had pain and stiffness, therefore the UOA was converted into a prosthesis allograft composite, using a conventional total knee prosthesis. In selected cases of distal femoral and proximal tibial tumours, UOA reconstructions give good functional outcomes with relatively few major complications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biopsies of lesions in the spine are often challenging procedures with significant risk of complications. CT-guided needle biopsies could lower these risks but uncertainties still exist about the diagnostic accuracy. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT-guided needle biopsies for bone lesions of the spine. We retrieved the results of 430 core needle biopsies carried out over the past fifteen years at the authors' institute and examined the results obtained. Of the 430 biopsies performed, in 401 cases the right diagnosis was made with the first CT-guided needle biopsy (93.3% accuracy rate). Highest accuracy rates were obtained in primary and secondary malignant lesions. Most false negative results were found in cervical lesions and in benign, pseudotumoral, inflammatory, and systemic pathologies. There were only 9 complications (5 transient paresis, 4 haematomas that resolved spontaneously) that had no influence on the treatment strategy, nor on the patient's outcome. In conclusion we can assert that this technique is reliable and safe and should be considered the gold standard in biopsies of the spine.
European Spine Journal 08/2008; 17(7):975-81. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondrosarcoma (CHS) is the third most frequent primary malignant tumour of bone exceeded only by myeloma and osteosarcoma. It usually occurs in the trunk bones (pelvic girdle, shoulder, ribs) followed by the femur and humerus and is very rare in the spine accounting for about 5% of all CHSs. The majority of patients affected are over 50 years old. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with a 2-month history of pain on the right side of the upper thoracic spine. Complete imaging work-up with radiographs, CT, MRI and digital subtraction angiography showed an osteolytic lesion of the right transverse process of T5 with extension into the ipsilateral rib and enhancing extracompartmental tissue involving the paraspinal muscles. Both CT-guided core needle biopsy and excisional biopsy were consistent with grade I central CHS with myxoid change and focal areas of Grade II CHS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resection of the distal end of the radius is indicated in the treatment of locally aggressive primary benign and malignant bone tumours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technique of osteoarticular allograft reconstruction of this bone defect. We analysed 12 patients retrospectively with a minimum follow-up of 2 years (range 26-145 months, median 52 months). Three patients had a malignant tumour and nine had a giant cell tumour. The patients ages ranged from 13 to 65 years. The mean resected length of the radius was 6.6 (range 4-14)cm. Non-union of the osteotomy line was diagnosed 6 months after surgery in one case and needed bone grafting. Distal radio-ulnar joint instability was observed in eight cases. Subchondral bone alterations and joint narrowing were present in all cases but were painful in only one patient. The mean range of motion was 51 degrees of flexion and 37 degrees of extension.
The Journal of Hand Surgery British & European Volume 09/2005; 30(4):369-73. · 0.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoid osteoma is a small benign tumor that requires treatment due to the intense pain it causes. Surgical therapy has been the ablative technique of choice after a failure of medical therapy. Recently, numerous less invasive, alternative procedures have been proposed: drill trepanation with or without ethanol injections, cryoablation, and thermoablation with laser or radiofrequency. The aim of this review is to retrospectively assess the effect of radiofrequency (RF) thermoablation in the treatment of primary non-spinal osteoid osteoma. From June 2001 to July 2003, we treated 106 patients affected by osteoid osteoma with RF thermoablation. Five patients with spinal osteoid osteoma and four with a previously treated osteoma were excluded from the study. In this paper, we assess the results obtained in a selected group of 97 primary non-spinal osteoid osteoma. The lesions were predominantly in the metaphysics of the femur. Central nidus calcifications were frequent and there was no prevalence for which side they occurred. Primary success was achieved in 82 patients (85%), while we obtained secondary success in 15 patients (15%). In two patients (2%), pain persisted between the two treatments and failed to be resolved, even after the second treatment; therefore, surgical excision was performed and complete resolution was obtained. No complications were reported. In conclusion, our results confirm that the treatment of choice for non-spinal osteoid osteoma is RF thermoablation, offering several advantages over ablative techniques.
European Radiology 08/2005; 15(7):1393-9. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoid osteoma is a small benign tumor, with a ''nidus'' that rarely exceeds 15 mm in diameter. It is relatively common in males, especially teenagers and young adults. It involves mainly the appendicular skeleton, the femur in particular, and rarely the axial skeleton. It requires treatment because it causes intense pain. In recent years alternative, less invasive, treatments have been proposed, such as drilling combined with ethanol injections, and thermal ablation with laser or radiofrequency. This study assesses 117 patients affected by osteoid osteoma, treated by radiofrequency thermal ablation between June 2001 and November 2003. We describe the patient recruitment procedure, CT-guided technique, the percutaneous approach, thermal ablation, and the instruments used. Data were analyzed thoroughly, and modifications that have improved the effects of treatment have been highlighted. The results achieved since the method was perfected have been extremely encouraging, confirming that the technique is very effective if performed correctly. For that reason radiofrequency thermal ablation has become the treatment of choice for non-spinal osteoid osteoma at Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute.
La radiologia medica 01/2005; 109(5-6):555-562. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Massive bone allograft reconstruction is commonly used for limb salvage after malignant bone tumour resection. Since the early 1980s, we have performed 540 operations in the limb with more than 2 years follow-up. The major complication was infection with a high risk of implant failure and significant risk of amputation. Structural failure of the graft is a common reason for further surgery, as is non- or delayed union. Additional autograft gives better results and half of our allografts survived 216 months.
Current Orthopaedics 01/2005; 19:393-399. · 0.14 Impact Factor