Frederick L Baehner

CSU Mentor, Long Beach, California, United States

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Publications (46)435.02 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prostate tumor heterogeneity and biopsy undersampling pose challenges to accurate, individualized risk assessment for men with localized disease.
    European urology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lobular neoplasia (LN) is a term that encompasses both lobular carcinoma in situ and atypical lobular hyperplasia. These lesions have been shown to constitute both risk indicators and nonobligate precursors of invasive breast cancer, they are relatively uncommon, and are most often identified in specimens taken for other reasons. Their incidence has increased in the last 2 decades, and novel variants, including a pleomorphic type, have been described. Loss of E-cadherin expression is recognized as a hallmark diagnostic feature of LN and invasive lobular carcinomas, and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis using anti-E-cadherin antibodies has been proven to be a useful method to differentiate between lobular and ductal lesions. The frequent use of E-cadherin IHC analysis in routine diagnostic histopathology, however, has resulted in confusion with regard to the actual value of IHC with antibodies against E-cadherin and other proteins of the cadherin-catenin complex. This review provides an update on recent clinicopathologic and molecular data on LN and invasive lobular carcinoma and a discussion about the use and limitations of IHC with E-cadherin in diagnostic breast pathology.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 07/2013; 37(7):e1-e11. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background For women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast, the risk of developing an ipsilateral breast event (IBE; defined as local recurrence of DCIS or invasive carcinoma) after surgical excision without radiation is not well defined by clinical and pathologic characteristics.Methods The Oncotype DX breast cancer assay was performed for patients with DCIS treated with surgical excision without radiation in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) E5194 study. The association of the prospectively defined DCIS Score (calculated from seven cancer-related genes and five reference genes) with the risk of developing an IBE was analyzed using Cox regression. All statistical tests were two-sided.ResultsThere were 327 patients with adequate tissue for analysis. The continuous DCIS Score was statistically significantly associated with the risk of developing an IBE (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 4.49; P = .02) when adjusted for tamoxifen use (prespecified primary analysis) and with invasive IBE (unadjusted HR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.34 to 9.62; P = .01). For the prespecified DCIS risk groups of low, intermediate, and high, the 10-year risks of developing an IBE were 10.6%, 26.7%, and 25.9%, respectively, and for an invasive IBE, 3.7%, 12.3%, and 19.2%, respectively (both log rank P ≤ .006). In multivariable analyses, factors associated with IBE risk were DCIS Score, tumor size, and menopausal status (all P ≤ .02).Conclusions The DCIS Score quantifies IBE risk and invasive IBE risk, complements traditional clinical and pathologic factors, and provides a new clinical tool to improve selecting individualized treatment for women with DCIS who meet the ECOG E5194 criteria.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 05/2013; · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages play a major role in inflammatory processes and have been associated with poor prognosis in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. Previously, we investigated the relationship of a subset of tumor-associated macrophages (PCNA(+) TAMs) with clinicopathologic characteristics of breast cancer. We reported that high PCNA(+) TAM counts were associated with hormone receptor (HR)-negative, high-grade tumors and early recurrence. To further understand the significance of elevated PCNA(+) TAMs and the functionality of TAMs, we examined the expression of S100A8/S100A9 with the antibody Mac387. The heterodimeric S100A8/S100A9 complex plays a role in inflammation and is increased in several cancer types. We performed immunohistochemistry using the Mac387 antibody on 367 invasive human breast cancer cases. Results were compared to previous PCNA(+) TAM counts and were correlated with patient outcomes adjusting for HR status and histologic grade. Like PCNA(+) TAMs, high Mac387 counts were associated with HR negativity, high tumor grade, younger age, and decreased recurrence-free survival. Mac387, however, appears to identify both a subset of macrophages and a subset of tumor cells. The concordance between Mac387 and PCNA(+) TAM counts was low and cases that had both high Mac387 and high PCNA(+) TAMs counts had a stronger association with early recurrence. The presence of high numbers of PCNA(+) TAMs and Mac387-positive cells in breast cancers with poor outcomes may implicate a subset of TAMs in breast cancer pathogenesis, and may ultimately serve to develop potential cellular targets for therapeutic interventions.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2012; 19(12):3979-86. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to evaluate the significance of biologic subtype and 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence and local-regional recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 was a prospective randomized clinical trial that compared two adjuvant systemic chemotherapy regimens for patients with operable breast carcinoma with 1-3 positive lymph nodes or negative lymph nodes with tumor size >1.0 cm. The study population was a subset of 388 patients with known 21-gene recurrence score and treated with breast conservation surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and definitive radiation treatment. Median follow-up was 9.7 years (range = 3.7-11.6 years). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local-regional recurrence were 5.4 % and 6.6 %, respectively. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene Recurrence Score was associated with local recurrence or local-regional recurrence on univariate or multivariate analyses (all P ≥ 0.12). The 10-year rates of local recurrence were 4.9 % for hormone receptor positive, HER2-negative tumors, 6.0 % for triple negative tumors, and 6.4 % for HER2-positive tumors (P = 0.76), and the 10-year rates of local-regional recurrence were 6.3, 6.9, and 7.2 %, respectively (P = 0.79). For hormone receptor-positive tumors, the 10-year rates of local recurrence were 3.2, 2.9, and 10.1 % for low, intermediate, and high 21-gene recurrence score, respectively (P = 0.17), and the 10-year rates of local-regional recurrence were 3.8, 5.1, and 12.0 %, respectively (P = 0.12). For hormone receptor-positive tumors, the 21-gene recurrence score evaluated as a continuous variable was significant for local-regional recurrence (hazard ratio 2.66; P = 0.03). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local-regional recurrence were reasonably low in all subsets of patients. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene recurrence score should preclude breast conservation treatment with radiation.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 05/2012; 134(2):683-92. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Frederick L Baehner, Carl Yoshizawa, Steven Shak
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2012; 30(14):1727-8; author reply 1728-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary objectives of this work are to (1) quantitate tumor burden in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), and (2) assess the independent contributions of SLN tumor burden and primary melanoma thickness (PMT) with respect to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Sixty-three patients (41 male and 22 female) with one or more positive SLNs were available for review in this study, with median follow-up of 6.8 years. PMT was measured and SLN metastases were assessed for size, as maximum metastasis size (MMS) in mm, by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemistry (S100 and HMB45). PFS and OS were calculated from time of SLN resection until melanoma recurrence or death. Univariate and multivariate analyses and trend test were performed. Kaplan-Meier estimates of PFS and OS differed significantly by MMS (log-rank P = 0.031 for PFS and P = 0.016 for OS) and PMT (log-rank P = 0.036 for PFS and P < 0.001 for OS). After adjusting for age and gender, the hazard ratio (HR) associated with MMS was 1.09 per mm increase (P = 0.05) for PFS, and 6.30 (P = 0.014) and 5.41 (P = 0.048) for OS in patients, respectively, with MMS of 0.6-5.5 mm and MMS ≥5.5 mm compared with those with MMS <0.6 mm. When patients were stratified by their tumor characteristics of PMT, the risk for disease progression and worse OS was substantially higher for the group with PMT ≥ 4.5 mm (HR = 13.10 and P = 0.022 for PFS; HR = 17.26 and P < 0.001 for OS) relative to the baseline group with PMT <1.6 mm. All patients had completion lymph node dissection (CLND) except for four patients. Patients with positive CLND (14, 22.2%) showed significant worse PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.0003) than the negative CLND group (45, 71.4%). PMT and MMS were independently prognostic of PFS and OS in melanoma patients. Patients with negative CLND had significantly better PFS and OS than those with positive CLND.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2012; 19(3):1034-42. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our goals are to develop a computational histopathology pipeline for characterizing tumor types that are being generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for genomic association. TCGA is a national collaborative program where different tumor types are being collected, and each tumor is being characterized using a variety of genome-wide platforms. Here, we have developed a tumor-centric analytical pipeline to process tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for visualization and cell-by-cell quantitative analysis. Thus far, analysis is limited to Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and kidney renal clear cell carcinoma tissue sections. The final results are being distributed for subtyping and linking the histology sections to the genomic data. A computational pipeline has been designed to continuously update a local image database, with limited clinical information, from an NIH repository. Each image is partitioned into blocks, where each cell in the block is characterized through a multidimensional representation (e.g., nuclear size, cellularity). A subset of morphometric indices, representing potential underlying biological processes, can then be selected for subtyping and genomic association. Simultaneously, these subtypes can also be predictive of the outcome as a result of clinical treatments. Using the cellularity index and nuclear size, the computational pipeline has revealed five subtypes, and one subtype, corresponding to the extreme high cellularity, has shown to be a predictor of survival as a result of a more aggressive therapeutic regime. Further association of this subtype with the corresponding gene expression data has identified enrichment of (i) the immune response and AP-1 signaling pathways, and (ii) IFNG, TGFB1, PKC, Cytokine, and MAPK14 hubs. While subtyping is often performed with genome-wide molecular data, we have shown that it can also be applied to categorizing histology sections. Accordingly, we have identified a subtype that is a predictor of the outcome as a result of a therapeutic regime. Computed representation has become publicly available through our Web site.
    BMC Bioinformatics 12/2011; 12:484. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed quantitative gene expression assays to assess recurrence risk and benefits from chemotherapy in patients with stage II colon cancer. We sought validation by using RNA extracted from fixed paraffin-embedded primary colon tumor blocks from 1,436 patients with stage II colon cancer in the QUASAR (Quick and Simple and Reliable) study of adjuvant fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy versus surgery alone. A recurrence score (RS) and a treatment score (TS) were calculated from gene expression levels of 13 cancer-related genes (n = 7 recurrence genes and n = 6 treatment benefit genes) and from five reference genes with prespecified algorithms. Cox proportional hazards regression models and log-rank methods were used to analyze the relationship between the RS and risk of recurrence in patients treated with surgery alone and between TS and benefits of chemotherapy. Risk of recurrence was significantly associated with RS (hazard ratio [HR] per interquartile range, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.74; P = .004). Recurrence risks at 3 years were 12%, 18%, and 22% for predefined low, intermediate, and high recurrence risk groups, respectively. T stage (HR, 1.94; P < .001) and mismatch repair (MMR) status (HR, 0.31; P < .001) were the strongest histopathologic prognostic factors. The continuous RS was associated with risk of recurrence (P = .006) beyond these and other covariates. There was no trend for increased benefit from chemotherapy at higher TS (P = .95). The continuous 12-gene RS has been validated in a prospective study for assessment of recurrence risk in patients with stage II colon cancer after surgery and provides prognostic value that complements T stage and MMR. The TS was not predictive of chemotherapy benefit.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2011; 29(35):4611-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain tamoxifen resistance of estrogen receptor (ER) -positive tumors, but a clinically useful explanation for such resistance has not been described. Because the ER is the treatment target for tamoxifen, a linear association between ER expression levels and the degree of benefit from tamoxifen might be expected. However, such an association has never been demonstrated with conventional clinical ER assays, and the ER is currently used clinically as a dichotomous marker. We used gene expression profiling and ER protein assays to help elucidate molecular mechanism(s) responsible for tamoxifen resistance in breast tumors. We performed gene expression profiling of paraffin-embedded tumors from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trials that tested the worth of tamoxifen as an adjuvant systemic therapy (B-14) and as a preventive agent (P-1). This was a retrospective subset analysis based on available materials. In B-14, ESR1 was the strongest linear predictor of tamoxifen benefit among 16 genes examined, including PGR and ERBB2. On the basis of these data, we hypothesized that, in the P-1 trial, a lower level of ESR1 mRNA in the tamoxifen arm was the main difference between the two study arms. Only ESR1 was downregulated by more than two-fold in ER-positive cancer events in the tamoxifen arm (P < .001). Tamoxifen did not prevent ER-positive tumors with low levels of ESR1 expression. These data suggest that low-level expression of ESR1 is a determinant of tamoxifen resistance in ER-positive breast cancer. Strategies should be developed to identify, treat, and prevent such tumors.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2011; 29(31):4160-7. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To conduct an exploratory analysis of the relationship between gene expression and recurrence in patients with operable triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy. RNA was extracted from archived tumor samples derived from 246 patients with stage I-III TNBC treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy, and was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR for a panel of 374 genes. The relationship between gene expression and recurrence was evaluated using weighted Cox proportional hazards model score tests. Growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (GRB7) was the only gene for which higher expression was significantly associated with increased recurrence in TNBC (Korn's adjusted P value = 0.04). In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for clinicopathologic features, higher GRB7 expression was associated with an increased recurrence risk (HR = 2.31; P = 0.04 using the median as the split). The 5-year recurrence rates were 10.5% [95% confidence intervals (CI), 7.8-14.1] in the low and 20.4% (95% CI, 16.5-25.0) in the high GRB7 groups. External validation in other datasets indicated that GRB7 expression was not prognostic in two adjuvant trials including variable systemic therapy, but in two other trials showed that high GBR7 expression was associated with resistance to neoadjuvant doxorubicin and taxane therapy. GRB7 was associated with an increased risk of recurrence in TNBC, suggesting that GRB7 or GRB7-dependent pathways may serve as potential biomarkers for therapeutic targets. Therapeutic targeting of one or more factors identified which function as interaction nodes or effectors should also be considered.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2011; 17(22):7194-203. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: African American and Hispanic women develop more triple negative breast cancer at younger ages than Caucasian women. The frequently observed association between race and socioeconomic status (SES) has confounded our understanding of the outcomes disparities seen in these groups. Given the association between inflammatory cells and high-grade, triple negative tumors, we sought to investigate whether differences in the presence of these cells varies by race. We evaluated breast tumor specimens for the presence PCNA+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in consecutive cases from a county hospital serving primarily un- or under-insured patients. All patients in this cohort had elevated PCNA + TAM levels. Higher PCNA + TAM counts were associated with hormone receptor (HR) negative tumors and non-Caucasian ethnicity. Hispanic women specifically had significantly higher PCNA + TAM counts than Caucasian patients and shorter disease-free survival. These findings implicate immune function in the development of aggressive breast cancer and suggest a possible link between SES and the inflammatory response.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2011; 130(2):635-44. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer has a long natural history. Established and emerging biologic markers address overall risk but not necessarily timing of recurrence. 346 adjuvant naïve breast cancer cases from Guy's Hospital with 23 years minimum follow-up and archival blocks were recut and reassessed for hormone-receptors (HR), HER2-receptor and grade. Disease-specific survival (DSS) was analyzed by recursive partitioning. To validate insights from this analysis, gene-signatures (proliferative and HR-negative) were evaluated for their ability to predict early versus late metastatic risk in 683 node-negative, adjuvant naïve breast cancers annotated with expression microarray data. Risk partitioning showed that adjuvant naïve node-negative outcome risk was primarily partitioned by tumor receptor status and grade but not tumor size. HR-positive and HER2-negative (HRpos) risk was partitioned by tumor grade; low grade cases have very low early risk but a 20% fall-off in DSS 10 or more years after diagnosis. Higher grade HRpos cases have risk over >20 years. Triple-negative (Tneg) and HER2-positive (HER2pos) cases DSS events occurred primarily within the first 5 years. Among node-positive cases, only low grade conferred late risk, suggesting that proliferative gene signatures that identify proliferation would be important for predicting early but not late recurrence. Using pooled data from four publicly available data sets for node-negative tumors annotated with gene expression and outcome data, we evaluated four prognostic gene signatures: two proliferation-based and two immune function-based. Tumor proliferative capacity predicted early but not late metastatic risk for HRpos cases. The immune function or HRneg specific signatures predicted only early metastatic risk in Tneg and HER2pos cases. Breast cancer prognostic signatures need to inform both risk and timing of metastatic events and may best be applied within subsets. Current signatures predict for outcome risk within 5 years of diagnosis. Predictors of late risk for HR positive disease are needed.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 05/2011; 129(2):607-16. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technologies has allowed for precise quantitation of RNA expression of hundreds to thousands of genes. These technologies have significantly impacted the study and understanding of cancer in terms of its molecular and genetic characteristics. In this review article, breast cancer, colon cancer, and adrenal carcinoma have been chosen to illustrate the principle and techniques of genomic profiling and to illustrate how such methods may be used to develop genomic signatures for personalized risk assessment and to individualize patient treatment.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2011; 103(6):563-73. · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Cancer - EUR J CANCER. 01/2011; 47.
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease encompassing a variety of entities with distinct morphological features and clinical behaviors. Although morphology is often associated with the pattern of molecular aberrations in breast cancers, it is also clear that tumors of the same histological type show remarkably different clinical behavior. This is particularly true for ‘basal-like cancer’, which is an entity defined using gene expression analysis. The purpose of this article was to review the current state of knowledge of basal-like breast cancers, to discuss the relationship between basal-like and triple-negative breast cancers, and to clarify practical implications of these diagnoses for pathologists and oncologists.Keywords: basal-like; breast cancer; definition; practical review; triple-negative
    Modern Pathology 11/2010; 24(2):157-167. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal method to assess human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status remains highly controversial. Before reporting patient HER2 results, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines mandate that laboratories demonstrate ≥ 95% concordance to another approved laboratory or methodology. Here, we compare central laboratory HER2 assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using Oncotype DX in lymph node-negative, chemotherapy-untreated patients from a large Kaiser Permanente case-control study. Breast cancer specimens from the Kaiser-Genomic Health study were examined. Central FISH assessment of HER2 amplification and polysomy 17 was conducted by PhenoPath Laboratories (ratios > 2.2, 1.8 to 2.2, and < 1.8 define HER2 positive, HER2 equivocal, and HER2 negative, respectively). HER2 expression by RT-PCR was conducted using Oncotype DX by Genomic Health (normalized expression units ≥ 11.5, 10.7 to < 11.5, and < 10.7 define HER2 positive, HER2 equivocal, and HER2 negative, respectively). Concordance analyses followed ASCO/CAP guidelines. HER2 concordance by central FISH and central RT-PCR was 97% (95% CI, 96% to 99%). Twelve percent (67 of 568 patients) and 11% (60 of 568 patients) of patients were HER2 positive by RT-PCR and FISH, respectively. HER2-positive patients had increased odds of dying from breast cancer compared with HER2-negative patients. Polysomy 17 was demonstrated in 12.5% of all patients and 33% of FISH-positive patients. Nineteen of 20 FISH-positive patients with polysomy 17 were also RT-PCR HER2 positive. Although not statistically significantly different, HER2-positive/polysomy 17 patients tended to have the worst prognosis, followed by HER2-positive/eusomic, HER2-negative/polysomy 17, and HER2-negative/eusomic patients. There is a high degree of concordance between central FISH and quantitative RT-PCR using Oncotype DX for HER2 status, and the assay warrants additional study in a trastuzumab-treated population.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2010; 28(28):4300-6. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: These studies were conducted to determine the relationship between quantitative tumor gene expression and risk of cancer recurrence in patients with stage II or III colon cancer treated with surgery alone or surgery plus fluorouracil (FU) and leucovorin (LV) to develop multigene algorithms to quantify the risk of recurrence as well as the likelihood of differential treatment benefit of FU/LV adjuvant chemotherapy for individual patients. We performed quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on RNA extracted from fixed, paraffin-embedded (FPE) tumor blocks from patients with stage II or III colon cancer who were treated with surgery alone (n = 270 from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project [NSABP] C-01/C-02 and n = 765 from Cleveland Clinic [CC]) or surgery plus FU/LV (n = 308 from NSABP C-04 and n = 508 from NSABP C-06). Overall, 761 candidate genes were studied in C-01/C-02 and C-04, and a subset of 375 genes was studied in CC/C-06. A combined analysis of the four studies identified 48 genes significantly associated with risk of recurrence and 66 genes significantly associated with FU/LV benefit (with four genes in common). Seven recurrence-risk genes, six FU/LV-benefit genes, and five reference genes were selected, and algorithms were developed to identify groups of patients with low, intermediate, and high likelihood of recurrence and benefit from FU/LV. RT-qPCR of FPE colon cancer tissue applied to four large independent populations has been used to develop multigene algorithms for estimating recurrence risk and benefit from FU/LV. These algorithms are being independently validated, and their clinical utility is being evaluated in the Quick and Simple and Reliable (QUASAR) study.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2010; 28(25):3937-44. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether 0.6 mm cores of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, as commonly used to construct immunohistochemical tissue microarrays, may be a valid alternative to tissue sections as source material for quantitative real-time PCR-based transcriptional profiling of breast cancer. Four matched 0.6 mm cores of invasive breast tumour and two 10 microm whole sections were taken from eight FFPE blocks. RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed, and TaqMan assays were performed on the 21 genes of the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer assay. Expression of the 16 recurrence-related genes was normalised to the set of five reference genes, and the recurrence score (RS) was calculated. RNA yield was lower from 0.6 mm cores than from 10 microm whole sections, but was still more than sufficient to perform the assay. RS and single gene data from cores were highly comparable with those from whole sections (RS p=0.005). Greater variability was seen between cores than between sections. FFPE sections are preferable to 0.6 mm cores for RNA profiling in order to maximise RNA yield and to allow for standard histopathological assessment. However, 0.6 mm cores are sufficient and would be appropriate to use for large cohort studies.
    Journal of clinical pathology 06/2010; 63(6):513-7. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ERBB2 amplification and overexpression in human breast cancer is associated with poor outcome. However, over-expression of ERBB2 alone is an early event in breast tumorigenesis, suggesting secondary events are required for progression. Here we demonstrate that the Ets transcription factor, ESX, induces an invasive phenotype in breast epithelial cells mediated through transcriptional targets of ESX. In non-transformed cells this process is regulated by EGF signaling. Expression of ERBB2 facilitates EGF-independent regulation of ESX levels, thus promoting invasion. Our data define mechanisms by which ERBB2 overexpression promotes breast cancer invasiveness and progression, and provide a model to understand the clinical behavior of this subset of human tumors and identify potential therapeutic targets to improve patient outcome.
    The Open Cancer Journal 05/2010; 3(1).

Publication Stats

5k Citations
435.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2014
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
    • Albert Einstein Medical Center
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Genomic Health
      Redwood City, California, United States
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Surgery
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2010
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2009
    • Indiana University Bloomington
      Bloomington, Indiana, United States
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom