G Davey Smith

University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (245)1358.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between increased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA), but whether this represents cause or effect remains unclear. In this study, we used a novel approach to investigate this question, determining whether individuals with High Bone Mass (HBM) have a higher prevalence of radiographic hip OA compared with controls.
    Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding alpha1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases.
    PLoS Genet. 01/2014; 10(7):e1004474.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Epidemiological studies have shown an association between increased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoarthritis (OA), but whether this represents cause or effect remains unclear. In this study, we used a novel approach to investigate this question, determining whether individuals with High Bone Mass (HBM) have a higher prevalence of radiographic hip OA compared with controls. Design HBM cases came from the UK-based HBM study: HBM was defined by BMD Z-score. Unaffected relatives of index cases were recruited as family controls. Age-stratified random sampling was used to select further population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. Pelvic radiographs were pooled and assessed by a single observer blinded to case-control status. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender and BMI. Results 530 HBM hips in 272 cases (mean age 62.9 years, 74% female) and 1702 control hips in 863 controls (mean age 64.8 years, 84% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic OA, defined as Croft score ≥3, was higher in cases compared with controls (20.0% vs. 13.6%), with adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.52 [1.09,2.11], p=0.013. Osteophytes (OR 2.12 [1.61,2.79], p<0.001) and subchondral sclerosis (OR 2.78 [1.49,5.18], p=0.001) were more prevalent in cases. However, no difference in the prevalence of joint space narrowing was seen (OR 0.97 [0.72,1.33], p=0.869). Conclusions An increased prevalence of radiographic hip OA and osteophytosis was observed in HBM cases compared with controls, in keeping with a positive association between HBM and OA and suggesting that OA in HBM has a hypertrophic phenotype.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2014; · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes.Objective:The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years.Methods:Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score 22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation.Subjects:Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years.Results:In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores 85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score 85th percentile (P for trend 0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes.Conclusion:In our large, prospective cohort in Belarus, both parental and childhood overweight and obesity at 6.5 years were associated with pre-adolescent problematic eating attitudes 5 years later.
    Nutrition & Diabetes 01/2014; 4:e100.
  • K M Keyes, G Davey Smith, E Susser
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure and hyperactivity remains controversial. To mitigate limitations of prior studies, we used a strategy involving comparison of maternal and paternal smoking reports in a historical sample where smoking during pregnancy was common. Method Data were drawn from a longitudinally followed subsample of the Child Health and Development Study (n = 1752), a population-based pregnancy cohort ascertained in 1961-1963 in California. Maternal prenatal smoking was common (33.4%). Maternal and paternal smoking patterns were assessed at three time points by mother report. Hyperactivity was assessed at the mean of age of 10 years based on mother report to a personality inventory. RESULTS: Unadjusted, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with offspring hyperactivity [β = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.33] and, to a similar degree, when the father smoked (β = 0.18, 95% CI 0.07-0.30). After adjustment, maternal smoking remained robustly predictive of offspring hyperactivity (β = 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.40) but father smoking was not (β = 0.02, 95% CI -0.20 to 0.24). When examined among the pairs matched on propensity score, mother smoking was robustly related to offspring hyperactivity whether the father smoked (β = 0.26, 95% CI 0.03-0.49) or did not smoke (β = 0.30, 95% CI 0.04-0.57). By number of cigarettes, associations with hyperactivity were present for 10-19 and 20+ cigarettes per day among mothers. CONCLUSIONS: In a pregnancy cohort recruited in a time period in which smoking during pregnancy was common, we document associations between prenatal smoking exposure and offspring hyperactivity. Novel approaches to inferring causality continue to be necessary in describing the potential adverse consequences of prenatal smoking exposure later in life.
    Psychological Medicine 05/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intelligence in childhood, as measured by psychometric cognitive tests, is a strong predictor of many important life outcomes, including educational attainment, income, health and lifespan. Results from twin, family and adoption studies are consistent with general intelligence being highly heritable and genetically stable throughout the life course. No robustly associated genetic loci or variants for childhood intelligence have been reported. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) on childhood intelligence (age range 6-18 years) from 17 989 individuals in six discovery and three replication samples. Although no individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected with genome-wide significance, we show that the aggregate effects of common SNPs explain 22-46% of phenotypic variation in childhood intelligence in the three largest cohorts (P=3.9 × 10(-15), 0.014 and 0.028). FNBP1L, previously reported to be the most significantly associated gene for adult intelligence, was also significantly associated with childhood intelligence (P=0.003). Polygenic prediction analyses resulted in a significant correlation between predictor and outcome in all replication cohorts. The proportion of childhood intelligence explained by the predictor reached 1.2% (P=6 × 10(-5)), 3.5% (P=10(-3)) and 0.5% (P=6 × 10(-5)) in three independent validation cohorts. Given the sample sizes, these genetic prediction results are consistent with expectations if the genetic architecture of childhood intelligence is like that of body mass index or height. Our study provides molecular support for the heritability and polygenic nature of childhood intelligence. Larger sample sizes will be required to detect individual variants with genome-wide significance.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 January 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.184.
    Molecular psychiatry 01/2013; · 15.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:  Maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy have been associated with offspring-attention deficit problems. Aim:  We explored possible intrauterine effects by comparing maternal and paternal symptoms during pregnancy, by investigating cross-cohort consistency, and by investigating whether parental symptoms in early childhood may explain any observed intrauterine effect. Methods:  This study was conducted in two cohorts (Generation R, n = 2,280 and ALSPAC, n = 3,442). Pregnant women and their partners completed questionnaires to assess symptoms of depression and anxiety. Child attention problems were measured in Generation R at age 3 with the Child Behavior Checklist, and in ALSPAC at age 4 with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results:  In both cohorts, antenatal maternal symptoms of depression (Generation R: OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.43; ALSPAC: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.48) and anxiety (Generation R: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.46; ALSPAC: OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19-1.47) were associated with a higher risk of child attention problems. In ALSPAC, paternal depression was also associated with a higher risk of child attention problems (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24). After adjusting for maternal symptoms after giving birth, antenatal maternal depression and anxiety were no longer associated with child attention problems in Generation R. Moreover, there was little statistical evidence that antenatal maternal and paternal depression and anxiety had a substantially different effect on attention problems of the child. Conclusions:  The apparent intrauterine effect of maternal depression and anxiety on offspring-behavioural problems may be partly explained by residual confounding. There was little evidence of a difference between the strength of associations of maternal and paternal symptoms during pregnancy with offspring-attention problems. That maternal symptoms after childbirth were also associated with offspring-behavioural problems may indicate a contribution of genetic influences to the association.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 12/2012; · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with mental illness but the causal direction of the association is uncertain. We investigated the causal relationship between smoking and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the Norwegian HUNT study using the rs1051730 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant located in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15 as an instrumental variable for smoking phenotypes. Among smokers, this SNP is robustly associated with smoking quantity and nicotine dependence.Method In total, 53 601 participants were genotyped for the rs1051730 SNP and provided information on smoking habits and symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Self-reported smoking was positively associated with the prevalence of both anxiety and depression, and the measured polymorphism was positively associated with being a current smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked in current smokers. In the sample as a whole, risk of anxiety increased with each affected T allele [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.09, p=0.002] but there was no association with depression (p=0.31). However, we found no clear association of the polymorphism with either anxiety (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09, p=0.34) or depression (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95-1.09, p=0.62) among smokers. CONCLUSIONS: As there was no association of the smoking-related rs1051730 SNP with anxiety and depression among smokers, the results suggest that smoking is not a cause of anxiety and depression.
    Psychological Medicine 06/2012; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes are dynamic and vary over time. Differences between countries can provide useful insights into the causes of health inequalities. The study aims to compare the associations between two measures of socioeconomic position (SEP)-maternal education and family income-and maternal and infant health outcomes between ALSPAC and Pelotas cohorts. Birth cohort studies were started in Avon, UK, in 1991 (ALSPAC) and in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 1982, 1993 and 2004. Maternal outcomes included smoking during pregnancy, caesarean section and delivery not attended by a doctor. Infant outcomes were preterm birth, intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and breast feeding for <3 months. The relative index of inequality was used for each measure of SEP so that results were comparable between cohorts. An inverse association (higher prevalence among the poorest and less educated) was observed for almost all outcomes, with the exception of caesarean sections where a positive association was found. Stronger income-related inequalities for smoking and education-related inequalities for breast feeding were found in the ALSPAC study. However, greater inequalities in caesarean section and education-related inequalities in preterm birth were observed in the Pelotas cohorts. Mothers and infants have more adverse health outcomes if they are from poorer and less well-educated socioeconomic backgrounds in both Brazil and the UK. However, our findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of the association between SEP and health outcomes. Examining differential socioeconomic patterning of maternal and infant health outcomes might help understanding of mechanisms underlying such inequalities.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 02/2012; 66(2):127-35. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taller adults have a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, and there is some evidence that pre-adolescent exposures, indexed by leg length, underlie this association. Associations with other aspects of skeletal size in childhood have not previously been investigated. We have examined associations of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity with childhood height, shoulder breadth, leg, trunk and foot length using a cohort of children whose families participated in a 1937-9 survey of diet and health followed up for 59 years. Altogether 2642 traced participants had at least one anthropometric measurement; a subsample (n=1043), completed the Rose angina questionnaire and provided information about doctor-diagnosed ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in 1997-8. Childhood stature was weakly inversely associated with cardiovascular mortality, and leg length was the component with the strongest associations. There was evidence from secondary analyses that childhood anthropometric measurements were inversely related to early (age <65 years) rather than late cardiovascular mortality. Childhood stature was inversely associated with self-reported IHD and associations with leg length were strongest. Associations were somewhat attenuated in models including terms for having been breastfed and socioeconomic position. Pre-adult exposures are more strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity than mortality, and they affect premature cardiovascular mortality more than later mortality.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 01/2012; 66(1):18-23. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    S J Lewis, R Araya, S Leary, G Davey Smith, A Ness
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    ABSTRACT: As low folate status has been implicated in depression, high folate intake, in the form of supplements, during pregnancy might offer protection against depression during pregnancy and postpartum. We examined the association between change in self-reported depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) at different timepoints during and following pregnancy and self-reported folic acid supplementation during pregnancy in a prospective cohort of 6809 pregnant women. We also tested whether there was a main effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype (which influences folate metabolism and intracellular levels of folate metabolites and homocysteine) on change in depression scores, and carried out our analysis of folic acid supplementation and depression stratifying by genotype. We found no strong evidence that folic acid supplementation reduced the risk of depression during pregnancy and up to 8 months after pregnancy. However, we did find evidence to suggest that folic acid supplements during pregnancy protected against depression 21 months postpartum, and that this effect was more pronounced in those with the MTHFR C677T TT genotype (change in depression score from 8 months to 21 months postpartum among TT individuals was 0.66 (95% CI=0.31-1.01) among those not taking supplements, compared with -1.02 (95% CI=-2.22-0.18) among those taking supplements at 18 weeks pregnancy, P(difference)=0.01). Low folate is unlikely to be an important risk factor for depression during pregnancy and for postpartum depression, but may be a risk factor for depression outside of pregnancy, especially among women with the MTHFR C677T TT genotype.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 07/2011; 66(1):97-103. · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Osteoporosis International 06/2011; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS/PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in men aged 65-83 years living in the Speedwell region of Bristol, United Kingdom and identify modifiable risk factors. A total of 2348 men recruited to the Speedwell prospective cohort study in 1979 were followed up in 1997 with an eye questionnaire and had retinal photographs that were assessed using the International Classification System for ARM. In all, 934 men (66.8% response rate) attended with a mean of 17.9 years (15.3-20.6 years) follow-up. Early ARM (grades 2-3) was found in 9.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.4%, 11.4%) and late age-related maculopathy (grade 4, AMD) in 0.5% (95% CI 0.2%, 1.2%). The risk of ARM (grades 2-4) was increased with raised C-reactive protein and consumption of lard and solid fats, whereas triglyceride levels were associated with a lower risk. The latter were confirmed in multivariable analyses and in addition, haemodynamic measures also predicted risk (eg mean arterial pressure odds ratio (OR) per z-score 1.37, 95% CI 1.04, 1.79). In a representative cohort of men aged 65-83 from Bristol, United Kingdom, many had macular changes that put them at higher risk of developing AMD. Various modifiable exposures were associated with an increased risk ARM/AMD. Opportunities for screening and undertaking secondary prevention interventions need to be explored to prevent progression of the disease and blindness.
    Eye (London, England) 03/2011; 25(6):784-93. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The assignment of direction and causality within networks of observational associations is problematic outside randomized control trials, and the presence of a causal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) is disputed. Using reciprocal Mendelian randomization, we aim to assess the direction of causality in relationships between BMI and CRP and to demonstrate this as a promising analytical technique. The study was based on a large, cross-sectional European study from Copenhagen, Denmark. Genetic associates of BMI (FTO(rs9939609)) and circulating CRP (CRP(rs3091244)) have been used to reexamine observational associations between them. Observational analyses showed a strong, positive association between circulating CRP and BMI (change in BMI for a doubling in log CRP of 1.03 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.00, 1.07), P<0.0001). Analysis using CRP(rs3091244) to re-estimate the causal effect of circulating CRP on BMI yielded null effects (change in BMI for a doubling in log CRP of -0.24 kg m(-2) (95% CI: -0.58, 0.11), P=0.2). In contrast, analysis using FTO(rs9939609) to assess the causal effect of BMI on circulating CRP confirmed observational associations (ratio of geometric means of CRP per s.d. increase in BMI 1.41 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.80), P=0.006). Taken together, these data suggest that the observed association between circulating CRP and measured BMI is likely to be driven by BMI, with CRP being a marker of elevated adiposity. More generally, the method of reciprocal randomization has general applicability in determining the direction of causation within inter-correlated networks of metabolic components.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 02/2011; 35(2):300-8. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated the association between genetic variation and obesity traits in Indian populations or the role of environmental factors as modifiers of these relationships. In the context of rapid urbanisation, resulting in significant lifestyle changes, understanding the aetiology of obesity is important. We investigated associations of FTO and MC4R variants with obesity traits in 3390 sibling pairs from four Indian cities, most of whom were discordant for current dwelling (rural or urban). The FTO variant rs9939609 predicted increased weight (0.09 Z-scores, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.15) and BMI (0.08 Z-scores, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14). The MC4R variant rs17782313 was weakly associated with weight and hip circumference (P < .05). There was some indication that the association between FTO and weight was stronger in urban than that in rural dwellers (P for interaction = .03), but no evidence for effect modification by diet or physical activity. Further studies are needed to investigate ways in which urban environment may modify genetic risk of obesity.
    Journal of obesity 01/2011; 307542(7).
  • European Urology Supplements - EUR UROL SUPPL. 01/2011; 10(2):208-208.
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2011; 70(OCE4). · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2011; 12(1):117-117.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated an intrauterine influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy on childhood bone mass. Daughters, but not sons, of mothers who smoked had higher bone mass at age 10years. This appears to be due to familial factors related to parental smoking influencing increased offspring adiposity rather than a direct intrauterine effect. Neonatal studies have demonstrated an adverse relationship between maternal smoking in pregnancy and foetal bone mineral accrual. We aimed to investigate an intrauterine influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring bone mass at mean age 9.9 years. We compared associations of maternal and paternal smoking in pregnancy with offspring total body less head (TBLH) and spine bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD) and area-adjusted BMC (ABMC) in 7,121 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Maternal smoking in any trimester was associated with increased TBLH BMC, BA and BMD in girls (mean difference [95% CI] (sex-specific SD scores), 0.13 [0.05-0.22], 0.13 [0.04-0.21], 0.13 [0.04-0.22], respectively) but not boys (0.01 [-0.07-0.09], 0.00 [-0.08-0.08], 0.04 [-0.05-0.12]), and also with spine BMC, BA and BMD in girls (0.13 [0.03-0.23], 0.12 [0.03-0.22], 0.10 [0.00-0.21]) but not boys (0.03 [-0.06-0.12], 0.00 [-0.09-0.09], 0.05 [-0.04-0.14]), but not with ABMC. Paternal smoking associations were similar, with no statistical evidence for a difference between maternal and paternal effects. Maternal associations increased on adjustment for offspring birth weight and gestational age, but attenuated to the null after adjustment for current height and weight. We found little evidence that maternal smoking was related to bone mass in boys. In girls, maternal smoking associations were similar to those of paternal smoking, suggesting that these were attributable to shared familial characteristics, not intrauterine mechanisms.
    Osteoporosis International 10/2010; 22(6):1809-19. · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • S Leary, G Davey Smith, A Ness
    International Journal of Obesity 09/2010; 35(1):151-152. · 5.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
1,358.55 Total Impact Points


  • 1996–2014
    • University of Bristol
      • • School of Social and Community Medicine
      • • MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology
      • • School of Oral and Dental Sciences
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Bristol Hospital
      Bristol, Connecticut, United States
  • 1994–2010
    • University of Glasgow
      • • Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
      • • MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit
      • • West of Scotland Cancer Surveillance Unit
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1992–2009
    • University College London
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      • • Institute of Child Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Newcastle University
      • Institute of Health and Society
      Newcastle upon Tyne, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Division of Biostatistics
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
  • 2003–2008
    • Massey University
      • Centre for Public Health Research
      Palmerston North, Manawatu-Wanganui, New Zealand
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences
      Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Department of Oral Medicine
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1989–2008
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • • Department of Non-communicable Disease Epidemiology
      • • Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2006
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Centre for Public Health
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • University of London
      • The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997–2003
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Sport and Exercise Sciences
      Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Bath
      Bath, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • Karolinska Institutet
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden