G Bona

Amedeo Avogadro University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Piedmont, Italy

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Publications (224)463.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We aim to investigate vitamin D (25OHD) levels in children with or without type 1 diabetes (T1D) according to latitude and skin colour. We compared 25OHD levels in children with T1D living in Piedmont, of Caucasian or Moroccan origin, with healthy control subjects matched for age and ethnicity. Data of resident children in Morocco, with and without T1D, were used for comparison. Caucasian (21.4±1.5 vs 24.0±0.5 ng/ml, p<0.05) and Moroccan children with T1D (12.0±2.6 vs 17.1±1.7 ng/ml, p<0.05) living in Piedmont had lower 25OHD levels than their counterparts without diabetes. Moroccan children living in Morocco with and without T1D had similar 25OHD levels. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with T1D in Caucasian and Moroccan children living in Piedmont (OR: 1.720, CI95% 1.034--2.860, p<0.03), CONCLUSIONS: Lower vitamin D levels were associated with T1D in Piedmont. Further studies are necessary to explain a possible relationship between vitamin D and T1D.
    Minerva pediatrica 01/2015; 67(3). · 0.43 Impact Factor
  • Minerva pediatrica 01/2015; 67(3). · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity in childhood is associated with the presence of complications that can undermine health immediately or in the long term. Several conditions, such as pulmonary or orthopedic complications are strictly associated with the severity of overweight, since they are directly associated to the mechanic stress of fat tissue on the airways or on the bones. Other conditions, such as metabolic or liver complications, although increasing with the extent of overweight, are associated with insulin resistance, which can be modulated by different other factors (ethnicity, genetics, fat distribution) and can occur in overweight children as well. No less important are psychological correlates, such as depression and stigma, which can seriously affect the health related quality of life. Pediatric services for the care of childhood obesity need to be able to screen overweight and obese children for the presence of physical and psychological complications, which can be still reversed by weight loss. This article provides pediatricians a comprehensive update on the main complications in obese children and adolescents and their treatment.
    Minerva pediatrica 10/2014; 66(5):381-414. · 0.43 Impact Factor
  • S Bellone · L Cavallo · G Bona
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 07/2014; 29(7):579-80. DOI:10.1007/BF03344155 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to extend to pre-school ages the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (SIEDP)-2002 growth charts for height, weight and body mass index (BMI), to obtain charts (SIEDP-2006) that apply to the Italian population from 2 to 20 yr of age, taken as a whole, or separately in two geographical areas (Central-North Italy and South Italy). The charts are based on a sample of about 70,000 subjects attending infant, primary and secondary schools, between 1994 and 2004. The distribution of the sample by gender, age and geographic area was roughly similar to that of Italian school population in the last decade of the 20th century. Height and weight were measured using portable Harpenden stadiometers and properly calibrated scales, respectively. SIEDP-2006 references are presented both as centiles and as LMS curves for the calculation of SD scores, and include the extra-centiles for overweight and obesity. Large differences in BMI growth pattern emerged between the SIEDP-2006, 2000 CDC and UK90 references: in Italy, BMI is higher and its distribution is more skewed during childhood and adolescence. At the end of growth, median values of the three references are similar, but the 97th centile of 2000 CDC charts is much higher and increases more steeply than that of SIEDP-2006 charts, which on the contrary reach a plateau. SIEDP-2006 references intend to supply pediatricians with a tool that avoids the use of charts that are outdated or that refer to other populations, and thus should be suitable for adequately monitoring the growth of their patients.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 07/2014; 29(7):581-93. DOI:10.1007/BF03344156 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Vitamin D exerts pleiotropic effects and few studies are available in the Italian population. Aim Aim of our study was to evaluate vitamin D status in children living in Northern Italy. Methods We studied vitamin D levels in a population of 113 normal weight (NW) and 444 obese (OB) children, prepubertal and pubertal. We considered vitamin D levels >20 ng/ml as normal, but also measured percentage of children with vitamin D levels higher than a cutoff of 30 ng/ml. Results 68.2 % of NW children showed normal levels of vitamin D, while 31.8 % showed a clear vitamin D deficiency. Only 28.3 % showed vitamin D levels higher than 30 ng/ml. Obese children showed 55.6 % of subjects with normal levels of vitamin D and 44.4 % of subjects a status of vitamin D deficiency. Only the 18.9 % showed vitamin D levels higher than 30 ng/ml. Mean vitamin D levels in NW children (27.3 ± 1.2 ng/ml) were higher than in OB children (21.8 ± 0.6 ng/ml). No differences have been found between prepubertal and pubertal children in terms of vitamin D levels. Conclusions Our paediatric population demonstrates a low percentage of vitamin D sufficiency. In particular, obese children show only 19 % of subjects with normal levels while almost half of this population shows a clear deficiency. Further studies are needed to support these results and to evaluate the possible metabolic consequences.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 06/2014; 37(9). DOI:10.1007/s40618-014-0108-3 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations affecting exon3 splicing are the main cause of autosomal dominant isolated GH deficiency (IGHDII) by increasing the level of exon 3-skipped mRNA encoding the functionally inactive dominant-negative 17.5-kDa isoform. The exons and introns of the gene encoding GH (GH1) were screened for the presence of mutations in 103 sporadic IGHD cases. Four different variations within exon 3 were identified in three patients. One carried c.261C>T (p.Pro87Pro) and c.272A>T (p.Glu91Val), the second c.255G>A (p.Pro85Pro) and c.261 C>T and the third c.246G>C (p.Glu82Asp). All the variants were likely generated by gene conversion from an homologous gene in the GH1 cluster. In silico analysis predicted that positions c.255 and c.272 were included within two putative novel Exon Splicing Enhancers (ESEs). Their effect on splicing was confirmed in vitro. Constructs bearing these two variants induced consistently higher levels both of transcript and protein corresponding to the 17.5 kDa isoform. When c.255 and c.272 were combined in cis with the c.261 variant, as in our patients, their effect was weaker. In conclusion we identified two variations, c.255G>A and c.272A>T, located in two novel putative ESEs and affecting GH1 splicing in vitro by increasing the production of alternatively spliced isoforms. The amount of aberrant isoforms is further regulated by the presence in cis of the c.261 variant. Thus our results evidenced novel putative splicing regulatory elements within exon 3 confirming the crucial role of this exon in mRNA processing.
    Endocrinology 03/2014; 155(5):en20132146. DOI:10.1210/en.2013-2146 · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The craniopharyngioma is a benign intracranial nonglial tumor derived from a malformation of the embryonic tissue. Represents approximately 6-9% of brain tumors in children. It grows close to the optic nerve, hypothalamus and pituitary. The most frequent histological variety in children is adamantinomatous. The initial symptoms of intracranial hypertension is headache and nausea, followed by visual disturbances, impaired hormonal changes such as the secretion of GH, gonadotropins, TSH and ACTH and central diabetes insipidus. We present the clinical case of MD, 5yrs at age, which shows signs of intracranial hypertension syndrome: neuroradiological findings raise the diagnosis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma for which the child underwent to sub-total surgical removal of the lesion and radiosurgery treatment. During the disease develops visual impairment, and secondary diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism hipocotisolism that takes therapy with desmopressin (Minirin), Cortone acetate and L-tiroxine. For the failure of previous therapies, the child has performed chemotherapy with cisplatin (30 mg/sqm/day) and Etoposide (150 mg/mq/day). A year after the end of the last cycle of chemotherapy was detected new progression of the lesion with the appearance of worsening headache and vomiting in the upright position. TC notes the expansion of the third ventricle and the patient undergoes surgery craniotomy. This clinical case underlines the difficulties in treatment of recurrent craniopharyngioma in situations where the anatomical location do not permit aggressive radical surgery. Anyway, new studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of systemic chemotherapy as a method of experimental treatment that could reduce the progression of disease.
    Minerva pediatrica 12/2013; 65(6):673-6. · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this paper was to know and analyze information, attitudes and behaviors related with transformations occurring in men when they become fathers. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire has been given out to all men whose newborns were born in the Hospitals located into Borgosesia, Ivrea, Novara, Verbania and Vercelli (Piedmont region in north west of the Italy) in the last quarter of 2006. The questionnaire was created ad hoc and filled out on the day of discharge; results underwent statistical analyses through SPSS system. Results: For the duration of the research, out of 870 men who became fathers in the hospitals were involved in this study, 570 responded voluntarily to the self-administered questionnaire (65.6% of the total sample). They showed a lack of information about how to take care of their newborns and the emotional turmoil of women after delivery (58% think children are blind when they are born, 52% think it is better to breastfeed newborns at fixed times and 47% ignore that mothers can enter a depression state). Eighty-eight percent of respondents were in the delivery room to see their child's birth, 56% took a leave from job to stay with mother and child in the hospital and 58% of them report the intention to take an additional 2-3 days leave after coming home from the hospital; 27% had trouble sleeping during pregnancy and are afraid not to be good fathers for their child; 90% believe that their newborn will make them change life habits. Most of the new fathers had difficulties in sharing emotions and feelings related with their status of fathers-to-be with other men. Some of these results are significantly different in older fathers, fathers having their first child and fathers with a lesser level of education. Conclusion: During pregnancy and in the first months after their child is born, fathers-to-be and new fathers must be considered a potential target for educational interventions aiming at promoting their parenting information and reinforcing their positive attitudes and beliefs related with their fathering status.
    Minerva pediatrica 10/2013; 65(5):531-540. · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients without spleen or with diminished splenic function are at high risk (10-50 times higher than in normal population) of developing life-threatening infections (OPSI). Mortality from OPSI is estimated at 50 to 80% of cases. More frequent causative agents are encapsulated bacteria: Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria Meningitidis. The risk of OPSI can be reduced by immunizing patients against these pathogens and by prescribing antibiotic prophylaxis. Continuous antibiotic prophylactic for 2-5 years after splenectomy (longer periods might expose the patients to the risk of antibiotic resistance) with penicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate acid is mandatory. Asplenic individuals should take empirical antibiotic therapy - so called "self-treatment" - and immediate medical consultation in presence of febrile illness. All patients and their parents should be carefully educated about the risk of infections in order to obtain a good long-term compliance with these recommendations.
    Minerva pediatrica 08/2013; 65(4):427-445. · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: TSHR is a G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane domain receptor that activates the two major signal transduction pathways: the Gαs/adenylate cyclase and the Gαq/11/phospholipase C pathways. Inactivating mutations in the TSHR gene have been demonstrated to be responsible for subclinical hypothyroidism, a disorder characterized by elevated serum TSH concentrations despite normal thyroid hormones levels. Aim: We identified in a child a nonsense mutation (W520X) in the third transmembrane domain of the TSHR that causes the lack of the C-terminus portion of the receptor. The functional significance of this variation was assessed in vitro. Material/Subject and Methods: The W520X mutation was introduced into the pSVL vector containing the wild-type sequence of TSHR gene. Wild-type and mutated vectors were expressed in CHO cells and cAMP, IP, immunofluorescence and FACS analyses were performed. Results: Transfection with pSVL-TSHR vector induced basal cAMP and IP production in the absence of TSH stimulation, indicating a constitutive activity for the TSHR. An impairment of receptor function was demonstrated by the observation that cells expressing the mutant TSHR exhibited a lower second messenger production with respect to the wild-type, despite a normal expression of the receptor at the cell surface. Conclusions: The mechanism through which the W520X mutation exerts its effect is more likely haploinsufficiency rather than a dominant-negative effect. This could explain the phenotype of our patient, who has a hormonal pattern in the range of a mild subclinical hypothyroidism, without an overt disease phenotype.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 04/2013; 36(9). DOI:10.3275/8930 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Epistaxis is an extremely common event at all ages; however, under two years of age epistaxis is a very rare event and recent studies carried out in Great Britain concern this event as related to possible non-accidental trauma. To date, no other studies carried out in Italy are available on this topic. Methods: A file review of all cases of epistaxis occurred in children under the age of 2 who were admitted into the ED in our area over a period of two years was carried out. Results: We have collected data concerning 10 cases of epistaxis occurred in children under 2 years of age with an incidence of 10.4 cases per 10000 accessions to the ED of children under the age of 2. Four of the cases had attendances for head injury or facial trauma. Conclusion: The results obtained are higher than the results of the British studies adopting the same methodology, but comparable to their surveillance data on the general population. Through the analysis of the collected data, two correlated assumptions have been made: a possible relationship between epistaxis and neglect, and a relation between epistaxis and domestic accidents.
    Minerva pediatrica 02/2013; 65(1):71-75. · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the association between pneumococcal DNA load and parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) in children with community-acquired pneumonia. Bacterial load was quantified and related to the presence of PPE with or without empyema in 72 otherwise healthy children aged ≤5 years who were hospitalised because of radiographically confirmed CAP and showed a real-time polymerase chain reaction that was positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. The proportion of children with a high bacterial load (i.e. ≥265 DNA copies/mL) was larger among the subjects with PPE than those without it. Multivariate analysis showed that a high bacterial load was significantly associated with PPE (OR 8.65; 95 % CI 1.10-67.8 vs a bacterial load of <125 copies/mL). Children with infection due to pneumococcal serotype 19A were at highest risk of developing PPE (OR 7.44; 95 % CI 1.10-50.4 vs all other typeable serotypes). The patients with CAP due to pneumococcal serotypes that are not included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) were more frequently affected by PPE than those with infections associated with serotypes included in the vaccine, except for serotype 19A. Bacterial loads of ≥265 DNA copies/mL are significantly associated with PPE, and serotype 19A is significantly associated with a high bacterial load and the development of PPE. The mean bacterial load of the patients with empyema was higher than that of patients with simple PPE. Although further studies are required, it seems that serotypes not included in PCV13 can play a major role in causing a higher bacterial load and PPE.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2013; 32(7). DOI:10.1007/s10096-013-1821-0 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increased prevalence of depression, emotional lability, decreased energy levels, and poor quality of life have been reported in adults with GH deficiency (GHD). The impairment of psychological parameters depends on the aetiology of GHD and the presence of other pituitary hormone deficiencies because of hormonal effects on neural cell metabolism. Cognitive dysfunctions appear to be specifically related to GHD itself, whereas the lower emotional well-being and reduced motor performance are attributed to other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Traumatic Brain Injury causes very often hypopituitarism and GHD as well as other many psychological symptoms: cognitive impairment, sleeping disorders, and depression. Many neurobehavioral symptoms of postconcussion syndrome (PCS) are the same suffered by adult GHD and hypopituitaric patients but there are no data about the occurrence of hypopituitarism in PCS. In some studies treatment with rhGH is reported to have a beneficial effect and GHD could contribute itself to the global impairment of psychological dysfunctions. The link between psychosocial impairments and GHD is not fully understood. The effects of long-term rhGH therapy on cognitive functions are largely unknown. Thus, long-term placebo-controlled double-blind studies are required to investigate whether psychological dysfunctions are reversible on GH substitution.
    Panminerva medica 12/2012; 54(4):323-31. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To establish the rate of agreement in predicting metabolic syndrome (MS) in different pediatric classifications using percentiles or fixed cut-offs, as well as exploring the influence of cholesterol. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional study in a tertiary care center. Nine hundred and twenty-three obese children and adolescents were evaluated for metabolic characteristics, cholesterol levels, the agreement rate and prevalence of MS across age subgroups with pediatric National Cholesterol Education Program/ Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) classifications. Results: The overall prevalence of MS was 36.2% and 56.7% with NCEPATP III and IDF. The overall concordance was fair (k: 0.269), with substantial values observed only in children older than 10 (k: 0.708) and 16 yr (0.694). Concordant subjects for both classifications, ≤6 yr, had higher triglycerides, blood pressure (p<0.05) and lower HDL-cholesterol (p<0.0001), with respect to those found to be discordant. Concordant subjects ranging 6-10 yr had all parameters higher than those discordant for IDF (p<0.01) and insulin resistance (p<0.05) than those discordant for NCEP-ATP III. Concordant subjects ≥10 yr presented more altered parameters than those included only in NCEP-ATP III (p<0.05). Overt glucose alterations were uncommon (7.4%; confidence interval 95% 0.1-14.9%), although glucose was modestly higher in MS subjects (p<0.01). Total and LDL-cholesterol was lower in subjects with MS than in those without (p<0.05), and in concordant rather than discordant subjects (p<0.05). Conclusions: Classifications of MS do not identify the same pediatric population. Subjects who satisfied any classification were the most compromised. Lipid alterations were precocious in the youngest. Obese youths with MS presented lower total and LDL-cholesterol.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 11/2012; 36(7). DOI:10.3275/8768 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the incidence of abnormal neuroendocrine function post-traumatic brain injuriy (TBI) in a large group of paediatric patients and its correlations with clinical parameters (Glasgow coma scale-GCS, Glasgow outcome scale-GOS, TC marshall scale, height velocity). We evaluated 70 patients [58 M, 12 F; age at the time of TBI (mean ± SEM) 8.12 ± 4.23 years] previously hospitalized for TBI at the "Regina Margherita" Hospital, in Turin and "Maggiore della Carità Hospital" in Novara, Italy, between 1998 and 2008. All patients included underwent: auxological, clinical, hormonal and biochemical assessments at recall (after at least 1 year from TBI to T0); auxological visit after 6 months (T6) and hormonal assessments at 12 months (T12) in patients with height velocity (HV) below the 25th centile. At T0, 4 cases of hypothalamus-pituitary dysfunction had been diagnosed; At T6 20/70 patients had an HV <25th centile, but no one had HV < the 3rd centile limit. At T12, among the 20 patients with HV <25th centile, in 13 patients the HV was below the 25th centile and GHRH + Arginine test has been performed. Four subjects demonstrated an impaired GH peak and were classified as GH deficiency (GHD). Of these 4 subjects, 3 subjects showed isolated GHD, while one patient showed multiple hypopituitarism presenting also secondary hypocortisolism and hypothyroidism. The GCS at admission and GOS do not correlate with the onset of hypopituitarism. A simple measurement of the height velocity at least 1 year after the TBI, is enough to recognize patients with a pituitary impairment related to GH deficiency. We suggest to follow-up paediatric population who had TBI with auxological evaluations every 6 months, limiting hormonal evaluation in patients with a reduction of height velocity below the 25th centile limit.
    Pituitary 11/2012; 16(4). DOI:10.1007/s11102-012-0446-0 · 3.20 Impact Factor
  • G Bona · C Guidi
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    ABSTRACT: Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) can develop rapidly and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10% and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. The incidence of invasive disease due to Neisseria meningitidis is highly variable according to geographical area and serogroup distribution. The major disease burden is in developing countries; in industrialized countries meningococcal disease occurs sporadically and most IMD is caused by serogroups B and C. In the US serogroup Y is a major cause of meningococcal disease, accounting for more than one third of cases. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y were developed but they were not so effective in protecting infants, who are at particularly high risk from invasive meningococcal infections. Conjugation of bacterial capsular polysaccharide to a carrier protein generates a T cell dependent immune response and immunological memory from infancy. After the introduction of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccines since 1999, the incidence of serogroup C disease fell dramatically in countries in which they have been used. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, another tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM, Menveo) was licensed in Europe and the US. Although polysaccharide and glycoconjugate vaccines have been developed for serogroups A, C, Y and W-135, currently there are no broadly effective vaccines available for the prevention of meningococcal B disease.
    Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene 09/2012; 53(3):131-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pertussis occurs in older children, adolescents and adults due to waning immunity after primary vaccination. Booster vaccination for pre-school children has been recommended in Italy since 1999. In this study (NCT00871000), the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of reduced-antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (dTpa-IPV; GSK Biologicals Boostrix™-Polio; 3-component pertussis) vs. full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine (sanofi-pasteur-MSD Tetravac™; 2-component pertussis) was evaluated in pre-school Italian children. Methods: Healthy children aged 5-6 y primed in a routine vaccination setting with three doses of DTPa-based vaccines were enrolled and randomized (1:1) in this phase IIIb, booster study to receive a single dose of dTpa-IPV or DTPa-IPV; the MMRV vaccine was co-administered. Antibody concentrations/titers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliovirus 1-3 were measured before and one month post-booster. Reactogenicity and safety was assessed. Results: 305 subjects were enrolled of whom 303 (dTpa-IPV = 151; DTPa-IPV = 152) received booster vaccination. One month post-booster, all subjects were seroprotected/seropositive for anti-diphtheria, anti-tetanus, anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-poliovirus 1-3; 99.3% of dTpa-IPV and 60.4% of DTPa-IPV subjects were seropositive for anti-PRN; 98-100% of subjects were seropositive against MMRV antigens post-booster. Pain at the injection site (dTpa-IPV: 63.6%; DTPa-IPV: 63.2%) and fatigue (dTpa-IPV: 26.5%; DTPa-IPV: 23.7%) were the most commonly reported solicited local and general symptoms, during the 4-d follow-up period. No SAEs or fatalities were reported. Conclusions: The reduced-antigen-content dTpa-IPV vaccine was non-inferior to full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine with respect to immunogenicity. The vaccine was well-tolerated and can be confidently used as a booster dose in pre-school children.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 03/2012; 8(3):355-62. DOI:10.4161/hv.18650 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the absence of an effective vaccine, serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) remains a major cause of invasive disease in early childhood in developed countries. To determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a multicomponent MenB vaccine (4CMenB) and routine infant vaccines when given either concomitantly or separately. Phase 2b, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled study of 1885 infants enrolled at age 2 months from August 2008 to July 2010 in Europe. Participants were randomized 2:2:1:1 to receive (1) 4CMenB at 2, 4, and 6 months with routine vaccines (7-valent pneumococcal and combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines); (2) 4CMenB at 2, 4, and 6 months and routine vaccines at 3, 5, and 7 months; (3) 4CMenB with routine vaccines at 2, 3, and 4 months; or (4) routine vaccines alone at 2, 3, and 4 months. Percentage of participants with human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) titer of 1:5 or greater against 3 MenB strains specific for vaccine antigens (NZ98/254, 44/76-SL, and 5/99). After three 4CMenB vaccinations, 99% or more of infants developed hSBA titers of 1:5 or greater against strains 44/76-SL and 5/99. For NZ98/254, this proportion was 79% (95% CI, 75.2%-82.4%) for vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months with routine vaccines, 86.1% (95% CI, 82.9%-89.0%) for vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months without routine vaccines, and 81.7% (95% CI, 76.6%-86.2%) for vaccination at 2, 3, and 4 months with routine vaccines. Responses to routine vaccines given with 4CMenB were noninferior to routine vaccines alone for all antigens, except for the responses to pertactin and serotype 6B pneumococcal polysaccharide. Fever was seen following 26% (158/602) to 41% (247/607) of 4CMenB doses when administered alone, compared with 23% (69/304) to 36% (109/306) after routine vaccines given alone and 51% (306/605) to 61% (380/624) after 4CMenB and routine vaccines administered together. A 4CMenB vaccine is immunogenic against reference strains when administered with routine vaccines at 2, 4, and 6 or at 2, 3, and 4 months of age, producing minimal interference with the response to routine infant vaccinations. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00721396.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2012; 307(6):573-82. DOI:10.1001/jama.2012.85 · 35.29 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
463.59 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2014
    • Amedeo Avogadro University of Eastern Piedmont
      • Clinica Pediatrica
      Novara, Piedmont, Italy
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2013
    • Universita' degli Studi "Magna Græcia" di Catanzaro
      Catanzaro, Calabria, Italy
  • 2000–2012
    • Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Maggiore della Carità
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Novara, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2011
    • Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2008
    • Applied Science Laboratories
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
    • Ospedale Centrale di Bolzano
      Bozen, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy
  • 2005
    • Policlinico San Matteo Pavia Fondazione IRCCS
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1994–2005
    • Ospedale Infantile Regina Margherita Sant Anna
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2004
    • Università degli Studi di Trieste
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 2002
    • Università del Piemonte Orientale
      Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy
  • 1999
    • University of Pavia
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1988–1999
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      • Department of Medical Science
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy