F J Bollum

Jichi Medical University, Totigi, Tochigi, Japan

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Publications (117)1025.2 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) assay methods was examined by using a mixture of the TdT-positive lymphoblastic leukemia cell line NALM-18 and the TdT-negative erythroleukemia cell line K-562. The biochemical assay could detect TdT activity in the mixture containing NALM-18 cells at concentrations of more than 10 percent. The immunofluorescent (IF) method could detect positive cells in the mixture containing NALM-18 cells at concentrations of more than 1 percent. Furthermore, an approximately 10(5)-fold increase in sensitivity was obtained by the combination of RT-PCR and subsequent Southern blotting, as compared to biochemical assay. In many leukemia cases the expression of TdT-mRNA corresponded well to that of TdT protein. However, in some patients with leukemia, only TdT-mRNA was detectable by RT-PCR without any expression of TdT protein. A PCR-based technique enables us to detect TdT transcripts at the highest sensitivity, but does not allow the characterization of each positive cell. IF analysis is simple and sensitive, but may sometimes cause nonspecific reactions. All these techniques have some advantages and some faults, therefore, the results obtained from clinical studies using these techniques should be interpreted with caution.
    Leukemia 09/1996; 10(8):1377-82. · 9.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Culture of two lymphoid leukemia cell lines with 5 x 10(-9) to 10(-7) M 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induced the significant increase in sialyltransferase, acid phosphatase and butyrate esterase activities, the decrease in poly(A) polymerase and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) activities. B4-, J5-, TdT- or PNA-positive cells were decreased in TPA-treated cells, while B1-positive cells were increased. These results suggest enzymatic changes as an aspect of TPA-induced differentiation in lymphoid leukemia cell lines. These enzymatic activities may be useful markers for the differentiation of lymphoid leukemia cells.
    Haematologia 02/1993; 25(2):111-21.
  • R Sasaki, F Takaku, F J Bollum
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    ABSTRACT: Higher level of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) and peanut agglutinin (PNA)-positive cells were found in those fractions of albumin gradient separated rat thymocytes that had a higher level of glucocorticoid (GC) receptors and a lower level of sialyltransferase (S-T) activity. Incubation of thymocytes in these fractions with dexamethasone inhibited RNA synthesis significantly. Incubation of these thymocytes with tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA) reduced TdT activity, while increasing S-T activity. The higher level of GC receptors may be responsible for GC sensitivity of TdT-positive thymocytes. In addition, sialyltransferase may be a biochemical marker for thymocyte differentiation.
    Haematologia 02/1993; 25(3):165-78.
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    ABSTRACT: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) was purified from calf thymus and a monoclonal antibody-producing clone was produced by the fusion of mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells of mice immunized with the purified enzyme. The antigens recognized by an immunoadsorbent column revealed TdT, whose molecular weight was 62 kDa. The extensive study of TdT in 196 patients with hematological disorders was done. The results from immunofluorescent analysis corresponded well to the results of biochemical assays of this enzyme. This monoclonal antibody will provide a useful means for the survey of leukemia and lymphoma patients.
    Haematologia 02/1993; 25(4):223-35.
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    ABSTRACT: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is an important marker for the diagnosis and the therapy of leukemia and lymphoma patients. In this study, we developed the quantitative method for the assay of TdT antigen in leukemic cells using a combination of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies prepared for this enzyme. High correlation was obtained between the values measured by biochemical assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This method (ELISA), using antibodies to TdT, permits the rapid and quantitative estimation of TdT antigen in leukemic cells.
    Haematologia 02/1991; 24(3):145-52.
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    L M Chang, F J Bollum
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    ABSTRACT: Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase activity is absolutely dependent on the presence of a divalent cation in the reaction mixture. This requirement can be satisfied by either Mg2+, Co2+, or Mn2+. When Mg2+ is used, the reaction rate is inhibited by metal ligands, and this inhibition can be reversed by Zn2+. Reaction rates in Mg2+ are also stimulated by the addition of micromolar amounts of Zn2+. To examine the role of Zn2+ in terminal transferase catalysis we analyzed for Zn2+ in homogeneous recombinant human terminal transferase preparations and found that Zn2+ is not an intrinsic part of enzyme molecule. Analysis of Zn2+ binding to terminal transferase under equilibrium conditions shows about 0.3 g of atom of Zn2+/mol of enzyme, suggesting that Zn2+ forms an easily dissociable complex with the enzyme molecule. Kinetic analyses showed that the stimulatory effect of Zn2+ is observed in several buffer systems. Zn2+ increases the affinity of the enzyme for the initiator about 2-fold and decreases affinity for dATP more than 10-fold, resulting in an increase in the apparent Vmax of the reaction. Using a 3'-ended 2',3'-dideoxyoligonucleotide as an inhibitor demonstrates that the inhibitor has no effect on the reaction rate in the absence of Zn2+ but is competitive with respect to the initiator in the presence of Zn2+. These results suggest that Zn2+ is a positive effector for terminal transferase, interacting with oligonucleotide and enzyme near the initiator binding site. Binding of Zn2+ to the enzyme appears to induce conformational changes that greatly increase the Vmax of the reaction with a concomitant decrease in the affinity of the enzyme for dNTP.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1990; 265(29):17436-40. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • R Sasaki, J Minowada, F J Bollum, Y Miura
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(A) polymerase activity was markedly elevated in CML in the blastic phase, moderately high in the accelerated phase and low in the chronic phase. The activity was significantly higher in the myeloid crisis than in the lymphoid crisis and elevated with increasing ratio of blasts in leukemia cases. In TPA or retinoic acid-treated leukemia cells poly(A) polymerase activity was decreased. These results suggest that poly(A) polymerase activity changes, depending on the maturation of leukemic cells and the assay of this enzyme activity may be useful for the early detection of the exacerbation of CML cases.
    Leukemia Research 02/1990; 14(3):273-8. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have established stably transformed mammalian cell lines expressing recombinant human terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. A 58 kDa, enzymatically active protein is produced by these cell lines. Using the lacI gene of pJYMib shuttle vector as mutagenic target, we found no increase in mutation rates in cells expressing terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase compared to controls. Our results suggest that the presence of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase alone in mammalian cells does not increase mutation rates.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/1989; 165(1):271-7. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overproduction of human terminal transferase protein has now been accomplished by cloning the coding sequence of human terminal transferase into a baculovirus, where the expression of terminal transferase is under the control of the polyhedrin protein promoter. Two constructs were made, one producing a protein containing the entire terminal transferase fused to 12 amino acids from the NH2 terminus of the polyhedrin protein, and the other producing 58-kDa human terminal transferase. The terminal transferase levels expressed in cells infected with either recombinant baculovirus are around 10,000 units/10(7) cells at 48 h postinfection, about 200-fold greater than levels expressed in thymus and cultured lymphoblastoid cells. The chimeric polyhedrin/human terminal transferase protein produced in the infected insect cells has a molecular weight of about 60,000 while the nonfused recombinant human terminal transferase is identical in molecular weight to that present in human lymphoblastoid cells. Both forms of recombinant terminal transferase show immunological and enzymatic activity. When infected cells are pulse-labeled with [35S] methionine at 42-45 h postinfection, about 10% of newly synthesized protein is terminal transferase. Both forms of terminal transferase are phosphorylated in recombinant virus-infected cells as demonstrated by pulse-labeling infected cells with 32P-inorganic phosphate and isolation of labeled terminal transferase peptides by immunoprecipitation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1988; 263(25):12509-13. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph1) acute leukemia is a heterogeneous subset of acute leukemia with a poor prognosis. We studied five patients to determine the potential for phenotypic and molecular heterogeneity. Cellular characterization studies included light myeloperoxidase (L-MPO), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), ultrastructural MPO (U-MPO), and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry using T11, T3, T4, T8, Leu 1, B1, Leu 12, HLA-DR (la), CALLA (J5), OKM1, My4, My7, My8, My9, and My10. DNA was analyzed for rearrangements of the breakpoint cluster region (bcr), immunoglobulin heavy chain, joining region (JH), immunoglobulin kappa light chain constant region (C kappa), and T cell receptor (TcR beta). RNA dot blots were hybridized by using molecular probes for MPO and TdT. We found that four of five cases were acute mixed-lineage leukemia (AMLL). One patient had acute unclassifiable leukemia. Of the four patients classified as having AMLL, three showed myeloid and lymphoid features, with one patient showing myeloid, T cell, and B cell features. The last case showed T cell and B cell features only. In one patient MPO/RNA was positive in spite of insufficient L-MPO or U-MPO to diagnose acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), thereby suggesting significant MPO gene expression before the production of sufficient MPO protein to meet the French-American-British criteria for AML. Three of the five patients showed rearrangement of bcr (cases 1, 2, and 5). Studies of these five patients support the concepts of molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity in Ph1 acute leukemia, demonstrate a high incidence of AMLL in this subset of acute leukemia, and support the use of lineage-associated molecular probes to define lineage at an earlier stage than previously possible.
    Blood 02/1988; 71(1):186-95. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have localized a cDNA fragment that codes for human DNA polymerase-beta. Using somatic cell and in situ hybridization techniques, this cDNA was cloned by screening a human KM-3 cell cDNA library in lambda gt 11 for expression of fused beta-galactosidase-human DNA polymerase-beta proteins. We have mapped this human polymerase-beta gene to the short arm of chromosome 8 in the subregion 8p11----p12.
    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 02/1988; 47(3):121-4.
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    ABSTRACT: We have localized a cDNA fragment that codes for human DNA polymerase-β. Using somatic cell and in situ hybridization techniques, this cDNA was cloned by screening a human KM-3 cell cDNA library in λgt 11 for expression of fused β-galactosidase-human DNA polymerase-β proteins. We have mapped this human polymerase-β gene to the short arm of chromosome 8 in the subregion 8p11→p12.Copyright © 1988 S. Karger AG, Basel
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research 01/1988; 47(3):121-124. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study identifies defects in the early stages of lymphopoiesis that may contribute to the abnormalities in the development and/or function of peripheral T and B lymphocytes in mice homozygous for the motheaten (me/me) and viable motheaten (mev/mev) mutations. The results indicate that in me/me and mev/mev mice prothymocytes in bone marrow are present in essentially normal numbers, as determined by intrathymic injection, but apparently lack the ability to home effectively to the thymus, as determined by intravenous transfer; early B lineage cells in bone marrow, identified by the B220 antigen, are markedly depleted, including immature B cells (sIg+), pre-B cells (cIg+, sIg-), and pro-B cells (B220+, cIg-, sIg-); TdT+ bone marrow cells, especially a subset that expresses the B220 B lineage antigen, are markedly depleted by two weeks of age; normal numbers of TdT+ thymocytes are present during the first 3 wk of postnatal life, but rapidly decrease thereafter. The results further indicate that neither the defective thymus homing capacity of prothymocytes nor the deficiency of TdT+ bone marrow cells is due to autoantibodies. The possible relationship of the defective development of lymphoid precursor cells to the premature onset of thymic involution and to the abnormalities of peripheral T and B lymphocytes in me/me and mev/mev mice is discussed; as are the results of in vitro studies (presented in a companion paper), which suggest that a primary defect in the stromal microenvironment of the bone marrow is responsible for the abnormal development of the lymphoid precursor cells.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/1986; 164(4):1129-44. · 13.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Five major polypeptides are found in immunoaffinity-purified calf thymus DNA polymerase-DNA primase complex: 185, 160, 68, 55, and 48 kDa. Individual polypeptides purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to produce antibodies in rabbits to aid in identifying the relationships between these polypeptides by immunoblotting and enzyme neutralization procedures. Immunoblot analyses showed that the 160-kDa peptide is derived from the 185-kDa peptide and the 48-kDa peptide is derived from the 68-kDa peptide while antibodies to the 55-kDa peptide do not cross-react with other peptides found in the complex. Direct enzyme neutralization studies demonstrated that antibodies to 185- and 160-kDa peptides inhibit DNA polymerase activity in the complex, confirming earlier suggestions that these peptides are the catalytic peptides for DNA polymerase. DNA primase activity in the complex is inhibited by antibodies to 68-, 55-, and 48-kDa peptides and to a lesser extent by antibodies to the 160-kDa peptide. Free DNA primase isolated from the complex was estimated to have a native molecular weight of about 110,000. The 55- and 48-kDa peptides are found to be associated with the free primase activity. Rabbit antibodies to both 55- and 48-kDa peptides are inhibitory to this primase activity. From these results we suggest that the native calf thymus DNA polymerase-DNA primase complex contains only three unique peptides with the 185-kDa peptide as the catalytic peptide of DNA polymerase and the 55- and 68-kDa peptides constituting the primase peptides. A model illustrating the roles of these peptides in initiation and replication of DNA is presented.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1986; 261(25):11924-30. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • G R Lanham, F J Bollum, S A Stass
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) directed against human terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) have been developed recently. The authors evaluated the reactivity of two TdT MoAb, one directed against a native site and the other against a denatured site, in bone marrow samples from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Results were correlated with the immunophenotype and compared with those obtained with an anti-TdT polyclonal antibody (PoAb). The authors found that 39 of the 45 children (87%) with ALL were positive with the anti-TdT PoAb, while only 25 of 45 (56%) were positive using MoAb. In the 41 of 45 cases of ALL for which marker studies were available, there was no relationship between immunophenotype and reactivity with the PoAb or either MoAb. Five cases of AML were studied and two were positive using the PoAb, but none showed staining with the MoAb. The authors' findings demonstrate that, although MoAb may be used to detect TdT in acute leukemia, the two MoAb used do not correlate with immunophenotype and are less sensitive than the PoAb. However, the MoAb appears to demonstrate more specificity for ALL than the PoAb, since it was not reactive in PoAb+ AML.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 08/1986; 86(1):88-91. · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • L M Chang, F J Bollum
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    ABSTRACT: Terminal transferase is an unusual deoxynucleotide polymerizing enzyme found only in prelymphocytes. The protein was purified to homogeneity from calf thymus glands in 1971 as a 32 kDa protein with a two peptide structure. Subsequent biochemical and immunological analyses of terminal transferase protein in crude extracts from a number of animal species showed a single peptide with a molecular weight of about 58,000. The two peptide structure found earlier was caused by proteolysis. Homogeneous 58 kDa terminal transferase has now been produced from human lymphoblastoid cells and calf thymus glands by immunoaffinity chromatography. In vitro phosphorylation studies showed that the terminal transferase protein contains one phosphorylation site near one end of the polypeptide chain, and the phosphorylation of the enzyme has been confirmed by in vivo labeling experiments. Unambiguous demonstration of the molecular weight of the human terminal transferase was obtained by translation of the cloned human terminal transferase DNA sequence to a 58,308 Da protein. The translated amino acid sequence also provided a possible phosphorylation site near the amino-terminus of the protein. Preliminary analysis of the genomic structure shows a simple intron/exon pattern with the total human terminal transferase gene spanning at least 65 Kb.
    CRC critical reviews in biochemistry 02/1986; 21(1):27-52.
  • F J Bollum, L M Chang
    Advances in Cancer Research 02/1986; 47:37-61. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The calf thymus DNA polymerase-alpha-primase complex purified by immunoaffinity chromatography catalyzes the synthesis of RNA initiators on phi X174 single-stranded viral DNA that are efficiently elongated by the DNA polymerase. Trace amounts of ATP and GTP are incorporated into products that are full length double-stranded circular DNAs. When synthetic polydeoxynucleotides are used as templates, initiation and DNA synthesis occurs with both poly(dT) and poly(dC), but neither initiation nor DNA synthesis was observed with poly(dA) and poly(dI) templates. Nitrocellulose filter binding and sucrose gradient centrifugation studies show that the DNA polymerase-primase complex binds to deoxypyrimidine polymers, but not to deoxypurine polymers. Using d(pA)-50 with 3'-oligo(dC) tails and d(pI)-50 with 3'-oligo(dT) tails, initiator synthesis and incorporation of deoxynucleotide can be demonstrated when the average pyrimidine sequence lengths are 8 and 4, respectively. These results suggest that purine polydeoxynucleotides are used as templates by the DNA polymerase only after initiation has occurred on the oligodeoxypyrimidine sequence and that the pyrimidine stretch required by the primase activity is relatively short. Analysis of initiator chain length with poly(dC) as template showed a series of oligo(G) initiators of 19-27 nucleotides in the absence of dGTP, and 5-13 nucleotides in the presence of dGTP. The chain length of initiators synthesized by the complex when poly(dT) or oligodeoxythymidylate-tailed poly(dI) was used can be as short as a dinucleotide. Analysis of the products of replication of oligo(dC)-tailed poly(dA) shows that initiator with chain length as low as 4 can be used for initiation by the polymerase-primase complex.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1985; 260(19):10840-6. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complementary DNA clones representing the 3' half, the 5' half, and the entire coding region of the human terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase gene (TdT; DNA nucleotidylexotransferase, nucleosidetriphosphate: DNA deoxynucleotidylexotransferase, EC 2.7.7.31) were used to screen a panel of mouse X human somatic cell hybrid DNAs to determine the chromosomal location of the human TdT gene. The results of the Southern transfer analysis of hybrid DNAs indicate that the gene for TdT is located on human chromosome 10. The in situ hybridization technique was then used to further localize the gene for TdT to region q23-q25 of human chromosome 10.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1985; 82(17):5836-40. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cloned DNA fragment related to pT17 containing a partial cDNA sequence of human terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase was used as a probe to screen for the full length cDNA sequence of the enzyme in a lambda gt11 library constructed from human lymphoblastoid KM-3 cDNA. A recombinant containing a 2068-base pair insert was isolated and recloned into the EcoRI site of the sequencing plasmic pUC-8 as two subclones, pT711 and pT106. DNA sequencing and hybridization studies showed that pT711 contains the pT17 sequence and an additional 172 upstream nucleotides. pT711 represents the coding sequence for the carboxyl half of the terminal transferase protein. pT106, containing a 965-base pair insert, hybridizes to the same mRNA as pT711 on Northern blots and contains an open reading frame that is in phase with the reading frame of the insert in pT711. Amino acid sequencing of the 58-kDa peptide of the calf thymus terminal transferase failed, indicating that the N terminus is blocked. N-Terminal sequencing of a 56-kDa form of the protein produced 24 amino acids corresponding to the translated human cDNA coding sequence starting at residue 398 of the insert in pT106 with 83% homology between bovine and human sequence. The initiation codon is assigned to an ATG sequence at nucleotide 329 of the insert in pT106. Comparison of the translated human terminal transferase sequence with peptides from the calf thymus enzyme showed that the homology between the human and bovine enzyme is better than 90% among 263 amino acids determined. The coding sequences in pT106 and pT711 were recloned into an expression plasmid pUC-19 downstream from the lac promoter and in phase with the coding sequence of the lac Z gene. Lysates of bacteria carrying the reconstructed coding sequence of human terminal transferase contain a fused protein of 60 kDa that reacts with rabbit antibody to terminal transferase on immunoblots and exhibits enzyme activity. Isolation of this fused protein from bacterial lysates with mouse monoclonal antibody to human terminal transferase produces the expected protein of 60 kDa.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1985; 260(19):10495-502. · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
1,025.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996
    • Jichi Medical University
      • Division of Hematology
      Totigi, Tochigi, Japan
  • 1978–1990
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      Maryland, United States
  • 1988
    • Southwest Foundation For Biomedical Research
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 1971–1977
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Lexington, KY, United States