[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of extracellular traps (ETs) has recently been recognized as a novel defense mechanism in several types of innate immune cells. It has been suggested that these structures are toxic to microbes and contribute significantly to killing several pathogens. However, the role of ETs formed by macrophages (METs) in defense against microbes remains little known. In this study, we demonstrated that a subset of murine J774A.1 macrophage cell line (8% to 17%) and peritoneal macrophages (8.5% to 15%) form METs-like structures (METs-LS) in response to Escherichia coli and Candida albicans challenge. We found only a portion of murine METs-LS, which are released by dying macrophages, showed detectable killing effects on trapped E. coli but not C. albicans. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that, in vitro, both microorganisms were entrapped in J774A.1 METs-LS composed of DNA and microbicidal proteins such as histone, myeloperoxidase and lysozyme. DNA components of both nucleus and mitochondrion origins were detectable in these structures. Additionally, METs-LS formation occurred independently of ROS produced by NADPH oxidase, and this process did not result in cell lysis. In summary, our results emphasized that microbes induced METs-LS in murine macrophage cells and that the microbicidal activity of these METs-LS differs greatly. We propose the function of METs-LS is to contain invading microbes at the infection site, thereby preventing the systemic diffusion of them, rather than significantly killing them.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e90042. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present new zircon U–Pb dating, Hf isotope, major and trace elements, and Sr–Nd isotope data for Early–Middle Triassic intrusive rocks in the Erguna Massif of NE China, in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Our aim is to elucidate the tectonic evolution of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean and its influence on NE China. Zircons from five representative intrusions in the Erguna Massif are euhedral–subhedral in shape, display oscillatory growth zoning in CL images, and have Th/U ratios of 0.17–1.54, and in combination these features indicate that the zircons are of igneous origin. Zircon U–Pb dating results demonstrate that the Early–Middle Triassic magmatism in the Erguna Massif took place between 241 and 247 Ma. The Early–Middle Triassic rocks are composed mainly of a suite of diorites, quartz–diorites, granodiorites, monzogranites, and syenogranites. They have SiO2 = 57.71–72.86 wt.%, Mg# = 19–52, Al2O3 = 14.27–17.23 wt.%, and Na2O/K2O = 0.67–1.59. Chemically, they are metaluminous to peraluminous and belong to the high-K calc-alkaline series. Moreover, they are enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements, and depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti). The whole-rock εNd(t) and zircon εHf(t) values of these samples range from − 4.68 to − 3.42, and from − 2.0 to + 6.6, respectively, indicative of formation from primary magmas generated by partial melting of juvenile crustal material with a contribution from mantle-derived mafic magmas. These magmas subsequently underwent fractional crystallization, contamination, and magma mixing. Geochemically, these Early–Middle Triassic intrusive rocks have affinities with intrusive rocks from active continental margin settings. We conclude, therefore, that the Early–Middle Triassic magmatism in the Erguna Massif was generated within an active continental margin setting related to the southwards subduction of the Mongol–Okhotsk oceanic plate beneath the Erguna Massif. This conclusion is supported by the occurrence of Early Mesozoic porphyry and skarn deposits along the southeastern side of the Mongol–Okhotsk suture belt.
Lithos 01/2014; s 184–187:1–16. · 3.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We here elucidate the tectonic evolution of the Xing’an and Songnen–Zhangguangcai Range massifs during the early Carboniferous–early Permian, based on zircon U–Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks of the Songnen–Zhangguangcai Range Massif in the Sunwu area, Heilongjiang Province, NE China. Euhedral–subeuhedral zircons from three rhyolites and one dacite from the study area display fine-scale oscillatory growth zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U–Pb dating by LA–ICP–MS indicates that these acidic volcanic rocks formed in the early Carboniferous–early Permian; i.e., early Carboniferous (~ 351 Ma), early late Carboniferous (~ 319 Ma), and early Permian (295–293 Ma). The early Carboniferous rhyolites exhibit chemical affinities to A-type rhyolites, implying an extensional environment. Their positive εHf(t) values (+ 8.67 to + 13.4 except for one spot of + 1.63) and Hf two-stage model ages (TDM2 = 562–988 Ma) indicate that the primary magma was possibly derived from partial melting of newly accreted continental crust. The early late Carboniferous rhyolites and dacites (~ 319 Ma) exhibit calc-alkaline peraluminous signatures [molar Al2O3/(CaO + K2O + Na2O) ratio, or A/CNK = 1.04–1.22)]. The εHf(t) values and TDM2 ages of zircons from the 319 Ma dacites are in the range of + 5.33 to + 9.32 and 907–1268 Ma, respectively, suggesting that the primary magma was derived from partial melting of newly accreted crust. The early Permian rhyolites (295–293 Ma) show chemical affinities to A-type rhyolites, implying an extensional tectonic environment; their positive εHf(t) values (+ 8.82 to + 13.8) and Hf two-stage model ages (484–743 Ma) indicate that the primary magma was derived from partial melting of newly accreted crust. Combined with the geochemical features of coeval igneous rocks from the eastern margin of the Xing’an Massif, these data reveal the late Paleozoic tectonic history and relationships of the Xing’an and Songnen–Zhangguangcai Range massifs, i.e., early Carboniferous westward subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic plate beneath the Xing’an Massif, followed by early late Carboniferous collision and amalgamation of microcontinental blocks, and early Permian post-collisional extension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case report describes an unusual presentation of Clonorchis sinensis infection. In this rare case, a clonorchiasis infection that had been latent for decades was misdiagnosed as acute calculous cholecystitis. Exploratory surgery and a cholecystectomy were performed. Therefore, in the course of diagnosis of hepatic and gall diseases, we cannot neglect parasite infections such as clonorchiasis.
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 01/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoregulatory effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) via promoting the apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to attenuate the severity of early stage acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats. Additionally, the persistence of the HBO treatment effects was evaluated. One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: sham, AP, AP + normobaric oxygen (NBO), and AP + HBO. Each group consisted of 30 rats. Four hours after the induction of AP, the 30 rats in the AP + NBO group were given normobaric oxygen treatment with 100 % oxygen at 1 atm for 90 min. The 30 rats in the AP + HBO group received 100 % oxygen at 2.5 atm for 90 min, with a compression/decompression time of 15 min. The 30 rats in the AP group remained untreated. At 6, 12, and 24 h after the induction of AP, surviving rats from each group were sacrificed, and the blood and tissue samples were collected for the following measurements: the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and oxygen saturation (SaO2) of the arterial blood, the levels of serum amylase, lipase, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) of the PBLs. The expression levels of procaspase-3, caspase-3, procaspase-9, and caspase-9 were also evaluated in the PBLs. Additionally, the apoptosis of PBLs was assessed, and the pancreatic tissues were subjected to a histopathological analysis by pathological grading and scoring. The histopathology of the lung, liver, kidney, duodenum, and heart was also analyzed at 12 h after the induction of AP. Significant differences were found at 6 and 12 h after AP induction. The HBO treatment significantly elevated the PaO2 and SaO2 levels, and the ROS levels in the PBLs. Additionally, HBO downregulated the levels of amylase and lipase. The HBO treatment also reduced the ∆Ψm levels, upregulated the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and increased the apoptosis rate of the PBLs. Moreover, the HBO treatment decreased the serum concentrations of IL-2, IFN-γ and HGF, and reduced the pathological scores of the pancreatic tissue. The histopathological changes of the lung, liver, kidney, duodenum, and heart were also improved. A significant elevation of IL-10 occurred only at the 12-h time point. However, no obvious differences were found at the 24-h time point. This study demonstrated that the HBO treatment can promote the apoptosis of PBLs via a mitochondrial-dependent pathway and inhibit the inflammatory response. These immunoregulatory effects may play an important therapeutic role in attenuating the severity of early stage AP. The repeated administration of HBO or the use of HBO in combination with other approaches may further improve outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in trabecular meshwork, such as fibronectin, collagen IV, elastin. leads to increased resistance of trabecular meshwork in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is known to regulate the ECM deposits. In this study, we detect the effect of adenovirus conducted CTGF (Adv-CTGF) transfection on either the expression of ECM components or aqueous humor outflow facility. Adv-CTGF was used to transfect rat trabecular meshwork cells in vivo and in vitro. Aqueous humor outflow facility was test by microbeads perfusion. Protein expression of CTGF, fibronectin, and collagen IV was determined using Western blot. In the Adv-CTGF group, the outflow facility displayed a significant decrease from baseline. It appears as though the transfection with Adv-CTGF significantly affects the aqueous humor outflow pattern. A negative correlation between IOP and PEFL indicated that a decrease in the area of bead deposition corresponded to an overall decrease of outflow, leading to an elevated IOP. Adv-CTGF can enhance the expression of CTGF, fibronectin and collagen IV. CTGF is the novel target for treatment of POAG. It is necessary to further study to test inhibition of CTGF expression for treatment of POAG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analysis have been
undertaken on Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic intrusive rocks of
central Jilin Province, NE China, with the aim of constraining the
tectonic evolution of the eastern segment of the northern margin of the
North China Block (NCB) during the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic.
Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that Late Paleozoic-Early
Mesozoic magmatic events can be subdivided into four stages: Middle
Permian (~ 270 Ma), Late Permian (259-255 Ma), Early Triassic (~
249 Ma), and Late Triassic (~ 222 Ma). The Middle Permian magmatic event
formed peraluminous garnet-bearing monzogranites, indicative of
formation under a compressional tectonic regime related to collision
between the NCB and the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif. The
Late Permian magmatic event formed gabbros and syenogranites, a bimodal
association that is typical of magmatism within post-collisional
extensional setting. The Early Triassic magmatic event formed adakitic
monzogranites, suggesting that they formed from magmas derived from
partial melting of a thickened mafic lower crust. The Late Triassic
magmatic event formed a series of mafic-ultramafic intrusive
rocks, together with coeval granitoids in adjacent regions, and make up
a typical bimodal association suggesting that they formed under an
extensional environment related to the final amalgamation of the NCB and
the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif. Taken together, we
conclude that the northern margin of the NCB underwent multiple orogenic
events between the Middle Permian and the Late Triassic, with final
amalgamation of the NCB and the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif
occurring in the Early Triassic, an event that led to the final suturing
of the Solonker-Xra Moron-Changchun zone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: siRNA (small interfering RNA) interference represents an exciting new technology that could have therapeutic applications for the treatment of viral infections. However, a major challenge in the use of siRNA as a therapeutic agent is the development of a suitable delivery system. We demonstrated that a new non-viral transgene carrier, recombinant archaeal histone from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (HPhA), can transfect short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expressing plasmids into HL-7702 cells to inhibit the expression of HCV 5'NTR and Core protein and mRNA. Plasmids Psilencirle transfected by HPhA inhibited the expression of HCV 5'-NTR and Core protein and mRNA in HL-7702 cells. The transfection efficiency of HPhA in HL-7702 cells was not affected by 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). HPhA exhibited effects of transfection without apparent toxicity, and with high affinity for DNA. This suggests that HPhA may be useful for RNAi-based gene therapy in vivo.
International journal of medical sciences 01/2013; 10(8):957-964. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Trichinellosis has major economic impacts on the animal husbandry and food safety, and the control and elimination of trichinellosis is a major objective of veterinary medicine. A gene encoding serine protease of Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) (Ts-Adsp) was identified by immunoscreening an adult T. spiralis cDNA library. In this study, the recombinant Ts-Adsp protein (rTs-Adsp) was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. To determine whether the purified rTs-Adsp is a potential vaccine candidate for the control of T. spiralis infection, we immunized BALB/c mice with this protein in combination with an alum adjuvant and subsequently challenged with T. spiralis larvae. The results showed that mice vaccinated with rTs-Adsp exhibited an average reduction in the muscle larvae burden of 46.5% relative to the control group. Immunization with the rTs-Adsp antigen induced both humoral and cellular immune responses, which manifested as elevated specific anti-rTs-Adsp IgG and IgE antibodies and a mixed Th1/Th2 response, as determined by Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokine profiling, with the Th2 predominant. Thus, purified rTs-Adsp is able to limit the invasion of T. spiralis, and this protein could be an effective vaccine candidate for trichinellosis.
Journal of Parasitology 12/2012; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we present U–Pb age data of detrital and magmatic zircons from sedimentary and volcanic rocks in the Zhangguangcailing Group (ZG), NE China, to constrain the tectonic evolution of the region as a whole. The ZG consists of slightly metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and from bottom to top is divided into the Zhenggou, Hongguang, and Xinxing suites. Zircons from three schists in the Zhenggou suite give 12 main groups of age populations (from 226 to 861 Ma), whereas zircons from a basaltic andesite give a Late Triassic age (211 ± 2 Ma). In the Hongguang suite, zircons from two schists and a greywacke give 6 main groups, 5 main groups, and 3 main groups of age populations (from 262 to 916 Ma), respectively, whereas zircons from a gabbro–diorite and two volcanic rocks give ages of 259, 219, and 317 Ma, respectively. Zircons from a schist in the Xinxing suite give 12 main groups of age populations (from 284 to 1837 Ma). These results, together with the field relationships of the rocks, indicate (1) that the sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the ZG have diverse ages (from Early Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic), (2) that the rocks do not lie in a logical stratigraphic sequence, and (3) that the rocks represent a tectonic mélange. Based on the youngest age (211 Ma) for volcanic rocks within the ZG, and the age of deformation (174–184 Ma) of the Heilongjiang Complex, we propose that the tectonic mélange formed during the Late Triassic–Early Jurassic. Furthermore, the occurrence of detrital zircons with ages of 0.8–0.9, 1.8, and 2.4–2.5 Ga implies the existence of Neoproterozoic magmatism and the remnants of a Precambrian basement in the Songnen–Zhangguangcai Range Massif, NE China.
Tectonophysics 09/2012; s 566–567:105–122. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play key roles in plant development, growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. At least four classes of sRNAs have been well characterized in plants, including repeat-associated siRNAs (rasiRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) and natural antisense transcript-derived siRNAs. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is one of the most important coniferous evergreen tree species in China. No sRNA from Chinese fir has been described to date.
To obtain sRNAs in Chinese fir, we sequenced a sRNA library generated from seeds, seedlings, leaves, stems and calli, using Illumina high throughput sequencing technology. A comprehensive set of sRNAs were acquired, including conserved and novel miRNAs, rasiRNAs and tasiRNAs. With BLASTN and MIREAP we identified a total of 115 conserved miRNAs comprising 40 miRNA families and one novel miRNA with precursor sequence. The expressions of 16 conserved and one novel miRNAs and one tasiRNA were detected by RT-PCR. Utilizing real time RT-PCR, we revealed that four conserved and one novel miRNAs displayed developmental stage-specific expression patterns in Chinese fir. In addition, 209 unigenes were predicted to be targets of 30 Chinese fir miRNA families, of which five target genes were experimentally verified by 5' RACE, including a squamosa promoter-binding protein gene, a pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein gene, a BolA-like family protein gene, AGO1 and a gene of unknown function. We also demonstrated that the DCL3-dependent rasiRNA biogenesis pathway, which had been considered absent in conifers, existed in Chinese fir. Furthermore, the miR390-TAS3-ARF regulatory pathway was elucidated.
We unveiled a complex population of sRNAs in Chinese fir through high throughput sequencing. This provides an insight into the composition and function of sRNAs in Chinese fir and sheds new light on land plant sRNA evolution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating and geochemical data have been obtained from five representative mafic–ultramafic intrusions in the Lesser Xing'an–Zhangguangcai Range, NE China, with the aim of improving our understanding of the Mesozoic tectonic evolution in the region, and in particular, determining the time of initiation of the circum-Pacific tectonic system. The selected zircons exhibit striped absorption in cathodoluminescence (CL) images and have high Th/U ratios (0.20–3.16), indicating a magmatic origin. The zircon U–Pb dates indicate that most of these magmatic zircons (other than a few relics that were captured and entrained in the magma) formed in the late Early Jurassic (186–182 Ma), and not as previously supposed in the Middle Caledonian. The five mafic–ultramafic plutons are composed of olivine-gabbro, hornblendite, gabbro, hornblende-gabbro, and gabbro–diorite. The olivine-gabbro and hornblendite display cumulate textures, implying that fractional crystallization of olivine and plagioclase took place during magma evolution. These mafic–ultramafic igneous rocks have SiO2 = 37.3%–55.7%, MgO = 3.05%–13.3%, Al2O3 = 11.8%–23.8%, Mg# = 42–69 [Mg# = 100Mg / (Mg + Fe2 +total)], and δEu = 0.88–1.32, and they display three types of rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns: right-slipped, flat patterns, or dome-like. The trace element spider diagrams show that the rocks are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) such as Ba, K, and Sr, and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs) such as Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf. The zircons have εHf (186–182 Ma) = + 2.7 to + 12.0, and TDM1 = 366–732 Ma. The geochemical data indicate that the Early Jurassic mafic magma originated in an extensional environment from the partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge that had been metasomatized by fluids released from a fossil subducted slab. These data, combined with information on the spatial variation of coeval igneous rocks, indicate that the formation of the Early Jurassic mafic–ultramafic rocks in the Lesser Xing'an–Zhangguangcai Range was related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian continent, and this event would mark the beginning of the circum-Pacific tectonic system.
Lithos 06/2012; s 142–143:256–266. · 3.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The balance between mitochondrial fission and fusion is disrupted during mitosis, but the mechanism governing this phenomenon in plant cells remains enigmatic. Here, we used mitochondrial matrix-localized Kaede protein (mt-Kaede) to analyze the dynamics of mitochondrial fission in BY-2 suspension cells. Analysis of the photoactivatable fluorescence of mt-Kaede suggested that the fission process is dominant during mitosis. This finding was confirmed by an electron microscopic analysis of the size distribution of mitochondria in BY-2 suspension cells at various stages. Cellular proteins interacting with Myc-tagged dynamin-related protein 3A/3B (AtDRP3A and AtDRP3B) were immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody-conjugated beads and subsequently identified by microcapillary liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CapLC Q-TOF) MS/MS. The identified proteins were broadly associated with cytoskeletal (microtubular), phosphorylation, or ubiquitination functions. Mitotic phosphorylation of AtDRP3A/AtDRP3B and mitochondrial fission at metaphase were inhibited by treatment of the cells with a CdkB/cyclin B inhibitor or a serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor. The fate of AtDRP3A/3B during the cell cycle was followed by time-lapse imaging of the fluorescence of Dendra2-tagged AtDRP3A/3B after green-to-red photoconversion; this experiment showed that AtDRP3A/3B is partially degraded during interphase. Additionally, we found that microtubules are involved in mitochondrial fission during mitosis, and that mitochondria movement to daughter cell was limited as early as metaphase. Taken together, these findings suggest that mitotic phosphorylation of AtDRP3A/3B promotes mitochondrial fission during plant cell mitosis, and that AtDRP3A/3B is partially degraded at interphase, providing mechanistic insight into the mitochondrial morphological changes associated with cell-cycle transitions in BY-2 suspension cells.
The Plant Journal 05/2012; 72(1):43-56. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To constrain the early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the
Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range and Jiamusi massifs, we undertook zircon
U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses (major and trace elements, and Hf
isotopic compositions) of early Paleozoic igneous rocks in the Lesser
Xing'an-Zhangguangcai Range of eastern Heilongjiang province, NE China.
The zircons from one diorite, two rhyolites, and four granitoids are
euhedral-subhedral and display fine-scale oscillatory growth zoning,
indicating a magmatic origin. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age data indicate
the occurrence of magmatic events in the late Ordovician (443-451 Ma)
and middle Silurian (424-430 Ma). The late Ordovician igneous rocks are
composed mainly of diorite, tonalite, and rhyolite, whereas the middle
Silurian igneous rocks consist mainly of monzogranites. The early
Paleozoic igneous rocks have SiO2 = 59.65-76.11 wt.%, MgO =
0.13-1.23 wt.%, and Na2O + K2O = 4.68-7.77 wt.%,
and are chemically a calc-alkaline series. They are characterized by
enrichment in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile
elements, and depletion in heavy rare earth elements and high field
strength elements such as Nb, Ta, and Ti, consistent with the chemistry
of igneous rocks from an active continental margin setting. In situ Hf
analyses of zircons show that &z.epsiv;Hf(t) values of
zircons that formed in the early Ordovician (captured and inherited
zircons in late Ordovician igneous rocks) range from -0.1 to +7.1;
those of zircons that formed in the late Ordovician (including captured
and inherited zircons in middle Silurian monzogranite) vary from
-2.6 to +5.6; and those of zircons that formed in the middle
Silurian vary from -3.0 to +3.2. The progressive decrease in
zircon &z.epsiv;Hf(t) values from the early Ordovician to the
middle Silurian suggests an increasing involvement of ancient crust in
the magma sources, corresponding to the transition from subduction to
collision. Take together, these data suggest that the formation of late
Ordovician diorite, tonalite, and rhyolite in the Zhangguangcai Range,
adjacent to the Mudanjiang Fault, may have been related to the westward
subduction of an oceanic plate between the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range
and Jiamusi massifs. In contrast, coeval rhyolites from the Lesser
Xing'an Range, located far from the Mudanjiang Fault, may have formed in
the supra-subduction zone. The occurrence of a middle Silurian
monzogranite association, combined with geochronological data for
detrital zircons from Early Devonian sedimentary rocks in eastern
Heilongjiang province, suggests that the amalgamation between the
Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range and Jiamusi massifs occurred in the middle
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 04/2012; · 2.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposits lead to elevated resistance of aqueous humor outflow which play an important role in the development of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The TGF-β2 (transforming growth factor β)/Smad (signaling mathers against decapentaplegic) pathway is known to regulate the ECM deposits. In this study, we determined the effect of Smad7 siRNA transfection in inhibiting the expression of ECM components.
Plasmid containing Smad7 siRNA was used to transfect cultured human trabecular meshwork cells (HTM). Protein expression of Smad7, fibronectin, and laminin was determined using western blot.
Downregulation of Smad7 interrupts the effects of TGF-β2 on the expression of several ECM components. Smad7 siRNA can partially decrease the expression of Smad7, fibronectin, and laminin.
Smad7 plays an important role in regulating the ECM protein in the aqueous outflow pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether transfection with Krüppel-like factor 6 splice variant 1 (KLF6SV1) siRNA can inhibit proliferation of human lens epithelial cell (HLEC).
Plasmid containing KLF6SV1 siRNA was used to decrease the level of KLF6SV1 protein in HLEC. The expression of protein27 kinase inhibition protein 1 (p27(kip1)) and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was tested with western blot. Cell proliferation was assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation.
KLF6SV1 siRNA can decrease KLF6SV1 expression which leads to increased levels of p27(kip1) and decreased expression of PCNA in HLEC. Cells transfected with pKLF6SV1 siRNA showed less viability compared with the control group in vitro.
KLF6SV1 siRNA can effectively inhibit HLEC proliferation. It can be regarded as a novel target to treat posterior capsular opacity (PCO).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The excretory-secretory products (ESP) released by muscle stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ESP modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. In the present study, the ability of ESP of muscle larvae of T. spiralis (ML-ESP) to influence the proliferation and differentiation of murine myoblasts and the mechanisms were evaluated in vitro using C2C12 myoblast cell line, which were incubated for various times under grow or differentiation culture medium containing various concentrations of ML-ESP. The results indicated that ML-ESP promoted myoblast proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and increased the expression of the cell-cycle regulator cyclin D1 as well as that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Conversely, ML-ESP inhibited the differentiation of these cells, which was evidenced by a reduction in the levels of MHC and MRFs expression (MyoD and myogenin) as well as that of p21. In addition, ML-ESP also inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in differentiating C2C12 myoblast. Taken together, these results imply that certain critical mediators contained in ML-ESP inhibit myogenesis through enhancing skeletal myoblasts proliferation and down-regulating the expression of MRFs as well as involving p38 MAPK signalling pathway, which provides insight into the mechanisms utilised by T. spiralis to interfere normal wound repair in infected muscle cells and affect nurse cell formation.
Parasitology Research 12/2011; 110(6):2481-90. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laminaria japonica is a popular seafood and medicinal plant in China, Chinese people use them as a traditional medicine for curing edema disease, a symptom of kidney diseases.
The renal protective activity and mechanism of fucoidan derivatives was studied against adenine induced CKD in rats. The fucoidan derivatives were administered at dose of 50 and 150 mg/kg body weight. The serum urea nitrogen (SUN), serum creatinine (SCR) and some enzymic activity were detected.
The SUN and SCR level decreased significantly with fucoidan derivatives administration. Histopathological changes of renal tubules and interstitium were markedly alleviated by fucoidan derivatives and the mesangial areas were also greatly reduced. Alterations were observed in the activities/levels of serum enzymic (CAT, GSH-PX) and non-enzymic (GSH) antioxidants, along with high level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the CKD rats. However, normalized lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defenses occurred with fucoidan derivatives administration.
This study exhibited a new mechanism of fucoidan derivatives on CKD rats, that was the samples could alleviate renal tubules, interstitium and mesangial areas mediated by replacing the electronegative content of the glomerular cells and inhibition of mesangial cell proliferation. The study also proved the mechanism of fucoidan derivatives on the CKD rats had relationship with their antioxidant activities, the samples which could enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduce the LPO level could alleviate the symptom of CKD.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2011; 139(3):807-13. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR) in dendritic cells (DCs) and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. This may regulate aberrant intestinal inflammation in humans with helminthes and may thus help alleviate inflammation associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. Fine control of inflammation in the TLR pathway is highly desirable for effective host defense. Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products should be considered for the treatment of IBD.