F P Guengerich

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Michigan, United States

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Publications (258)1182.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (P450) 4X1 is one of the so-called 'orphan' P450s without an assigned biological function. Codon-optimized P450 4X1 and a number of N-terminal modified sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli. Native P450 4X1 showed a characteristic P450 spectrum but low expression in E. coli DH5alpha cells (< 100 nmol P450.L(-1)). The highest level of expression (300-450 nmol P450.L(-1) culture) was achieved with a bicistronic P450 4X1 construct (N-terminal MAKKTSSKGKL, change of E2A, amino acids 3-44 truncated). Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) has emerged as an important signaling molecule in the neurovascular cascade. Recombinant P450 4X1 protein, co-expressed with human NADPH-P450 reductase in E. coli, was found to convert the natural endocannabinoid anandamide to a single monooxygenated product, 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic (EET) ethanolamide. A stable anandamide analog (CD-25) was also converted to a monooxygenated product. Arachidonic acid was oxidized more slowly to 14,15- and 8,9-EETs but only in the presence of cytochrome b(5). Other fatty acids were investigated as putative substrates but showed only little or minor oxidation. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated extrahepatic mRNA expression, including several human brain structures (cerebellum, amygdala and basal ganglia), in addition to expression in human heart, liver, prostate and breast. The highest mRNA expression levels were detected in amygdala and skin. The ability of P450 4X1 to generate anandamide derivatives and the mRNA distribution pattern suggest a potential role for P450 4X1 in anandamide signaling in the brain.
    FEBS Journal 07/2008; 275(14):3706-17. DOI:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06518.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human liver microsomal cytochrome P450s (P450s or CYP) involved in the oxidative biotransformation of the anesthetic agent propofol were investigated. Of six cDNA-expressed human P450 enzymes tested, CYP2B6 and CYP1A2, followed by CYP3A4, had high catalytic activities at a 20 microM propofol concentration, corresponding to clinical plasma levels. K(m) and k(cat) values for propofol omega- and 4-hydroxyation were 27 microM and 21 nmol omega-hydroxypropofol formed/min/nmol CYP2B6 and 30 microM and 42 nmol 4-hydroxypropofol formed/min/nmol CYP2B6, respectively. CYP2B6 expressed in HepG2 cells also effectively catalyzed propofol omega- and 4-hydroxylation. In a panel of individual human liver microsomes, propofol omega- and 4-hydroxylation activities (at the substrate concentration of 20 microM) were highly correlated with CYP2B6 contents, and moderately with CYP3A4 contents. Anti-CYP2B6 antibody inhibited both omega- and 4-hydroxylation activities in human liver samples that contained relatively high levels of CYP2B6, whereas alpha-naphthoflavone and an anti-CYP1A2 antibody showed inhibitory effects on the 4-hydroxylation activity in a liver microsomal sample in which the CYP1A2 level was relatively high. These results suggest that CYP2B6 has an important role in propofol omega- and 4-hydroxylation in human livers and that the hepatic contents of CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP1A2 determine which P450 enzymes play major roles in propofol oxidation in individual humans.
    Xenobiotica 08/2007; 37(7):717-24. DOI:10.1080/00498250701449431 · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • H Yamazaki, A Okayama, N Imai, F P Guengerich, M Shimizu
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-individual variations in cytochrome P4502J2 (CYP2J2) and its typical drug oxidation activities in human liver microsomes in both Japanese and Caucasian populations. CYP2J2 contents were determined immunochemically in liver microsomes from 20 Japanese and 29 Caucasian samples using recombinant CYP2J2 commercially available as a standard. Ebastine hydroxylation and astemizole O-demethylation activities were compared. The CYP2J2 genotype was determined by direct sequencing of liver genomic DNA. The mean expression levels of CYP2J2 determined immunochemically in liver microsomes from Japanese and Caucasian samples were 2.0 +/- 1.5 and 1.2 +/- 2.1 pmol CYP2J2 mg-1 protein (mean +/- standard deviation), respectively, accounting for 1.8 +/- 1.1% and 0.52 +/- 0.65% of the total hepatic P450 content (0.15 +/- 0.19 and 0.27 +/- 0.14 nmol P450 mg-1 protein, respectively). The individual variation of the two marker drug oxidation activities could not be fully accounted for by the CYP2J2 contents or currently known CYP2J2 genotypes. The amounts of CYP2J2 in liver microsomes with the CYP2J2*7 allele (-76G>T) were decreased to 39% compared with those of liver microsomes from other individuals. The results indicate that CYP2J2 accounts for approximately 1-2% of total P450 in human liver microsomes. The information about large inter-individual variation of the CYP2J2 suggests that this enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and may be useful in in-silico simulations of drug disposition.
    Xenobiotica 12/2006; 36(12):1201-9. DOI:10.1080/00498250600944318 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 7-Ethoxy (OEt) coumarin has been used as a model substrate in many cytochrome P450 (P450) studies, including the use of kinetic isotope effects to probe facets of P450 kinetics. P450s 1A2 and 2E1 are known to be the major catalysts of 7-OEt coumarin O-deethylation in human liver microsomes. Human P450 1A2 also catalyzed 3-hydroxylation of 7-methoxy (OMe) coumarin at appreciable rates but P450 2E1 did not. Intramolecular kinetic isotope effects were used as estimates of the intrinsic kinetic deuterium isotope effects for both 7-OMe and 7-OEt coumarin dealkylation reactions. The apparent intrinsic isotope effect for P450 1A2 (9.4 for O-demethylation, 6.1 for O-deethylation) showed little attenuation in other competitive and noncompetitive experiments. With P450 2E1, the intrinsic isotope effect (9.6 for O-demethylation, 6.1 for O-deethylation) was attenuated in the noncompetitive intermolecular experiments. High noncompetitive intermolecular kinetic isotope effects were seen for 7-OEt coumarin O-deethylation in a baculovirus-based microsomal system and five samples of human liver microsomes (7.3-8.1 for O-deethylation), consistent with the view that P450 1A2 is the most efficient P450 catalyzing this reaction in human liver microsomes and indicating that the C-H bond-breaking step makes a major contribution to the rate of this P450 (1A2) reaction. Thus, the rate-limiting step appears to be the chemistry of the breaking of this bond by the activated iron-oxygen complex, as opposed to steps involved in the generation of the reactive complex. The conclusion about the rate-limiting step applies to all of the systems studied with this model P450 1A2 reaction including human liver microsomes, the most physiologically relevant.
    FEBS Journal 06/2006; 273(10):2223-31. DOI:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05235.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the liver P-450 xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, P450-2E1 is of interest because of its activation of potent carcinogens, and P-450 1A2 is of interest because of its role in oxidation of drugs and carcinogens. This unit describes column chromatography protocols for purification of recombinant forms of these enzymes expressed in a bacterial expression system.
    Current protocols in toxicology 08/2002; Chapter 4:Unit4.2. DOI:10.1002/0471140856.tx0402s12
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    Y J Chun, S Kim, D Kim, S K Lee, F P Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 1B1 is found mainly in extrahepatic tissues and is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors. Metabolic activation of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) to 4-hydroxy E(2) by P450 1B1 has been postulated to be a factor in mammary carcinogenesis. The inhibition of recombinant human P450 1B1 by 2,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) was investigated using either bacterial membranes from a human P450/NADPH-P450 reductase bicistronic expression system or using purified enzymes. TMS showed potent and selective inhibition of the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activity of P450 1B1 with an IC(50) value of 6 nM. TMS exhibited 50-fold selectivity for P450 1B1 over P450 1A1 (IC(50) = 300 nM) and 500-fold selectivity for P450 1B1 over P450 1A2 (IC(50) = 3 microM). The inhibitory effects of TMS on EROD activity of human liver microsomes were determined. TMS inhibited EROD activity of human liver microsomes at the same concentration as with recombinant human P450 1A2. TMS also strongly inhibited 4- and 2-hydroxylation of E(2) by P450 1B1-expressing membranes or purified P450 1B1. TMS was a competitive inhibitor of P450 1B1 with a K(i) of 3 nM. The inhibition by TMS was not mechanism-based, and the loss of activity was not blocked by the trapping agents glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, or dithiothreitol. Using purified histidine-tagged P450 1B1, the binding kinetic analysis was performed with TMS, yielding a K(d) of 3 microM. The activation of 2-amino-3,5-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in an Escherichia coli lac-based mutagenicity tester system containing functional human P450 1B1 was strongly inhibited by TMS. Our results indicate that TMS is a very selective and potent competitive inhibitor of P450 1B1. TMS is selective for inhibiting P450 1B1 among other human P450s including 1A1, 1A2, and 3A4 and warrants consideration as a candidate for preventing mammary tumor formation by E(2) in humans.
    Cancer Research 12/2001; 61(22):8164-70. · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • I H Hanna, J A Krauser, H Cai, M S Kim, F P Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2D6 was first identified as the polymorphic human debrisoquine hydroxylase and subsequently shown to catalyze the oxidation of a variety of drugs containing a basic nitrogen. Differences in the regioselectivity of oxidation products formed in systems containing NADPH-P450 reductase/NADPH and the model oxidant cumene hydroperoxide have been proposed by others to be due to an allosteric influence of the reductase on P450 2D6 (Modi, S., Gilham, D. E., Sutcliffe, M. J., Lian, L.-Y., Primrose, W. U., Wolf, C. R., and Roberts, G. C. K. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 4461-4470). We examined the differences in the formation of oxidation products of N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, metoprolol, and bufuralol between reductase-, cumene hydroperoxide-, and iodosylbenzene-supported systems. Catalytic regioselectivity was not influenced by the presence of the reductase in any of the systems supported by model oxidants, ruling out allosteric influences. The presence of the reductase had little effect on the affinity of P450 2D6 for any of these three substrates. The addition of the reaction remnants of the model oxidants (cumyl alcohol and iodobenzene) to the reductase-supported system did not affect reaction patterns, arguing against steric influences of these products on catalytic regioselectivity. Label from H(2)18O was quantitatively incorporated into 1'-hydroxybufuralol in the iodosylbenzene- but not in the reductase- or cumene hydroperoxide-supported reactions. We conclude that the P450 systems utilizing NADPH-P450 reductase, cumene hydroperoxide, and iodosylbenzene use similar but distinct chemical mechanisms. These differences are the basis for the variable product distributions, not an allosteric influence of the reductase.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2001; 276(43):39553-61. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M106841200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • T Shimada, Y Oda, E M Gillam, F P Guengerich, K Inoue
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their dihydrodiol derivatives, arylamines, heterocyclic amines, and nitroarenes, were incubated with cDNA-based recombinant (Escherichia coli or Trichoplusia ni) systems expressing different forms of human cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) and NADPH-P450 reductase using Salmonella typhimurium tester strain NM2009, and the resultant DNA damage caused by the reactive metabolites was detected by measuring expression of umu gene in the cells. Recombinant (bacterial) CYP1A1 was slightly more active than any of four CYP1B1 allelic variants, CYP1B1*1, CYP1B1*2, CYP1B1*3, and CYP1B1*6, in catalyzing activation of chrysene-1,2-diol, benz[a]anthracene-trans-1,2-, 3,4-, 5,6-, and 8,9-diol, fluoranthene-2,3-diol, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene and several arylamines and heterocyclic amines, whereas CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes had essentially similar catalytic specificities toward other procarcinogens, such as (+)-, (-)-, and (+/-)-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol, 5-methylchrysene-1,2-diol, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-3,4-diol, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene-11,12-diol, benzo[b]fluoranthene-9,10-diol, benzo[c]chrysene, 5,6-dimethylchrysene-1,2-diol, benzo[c]phenanthrene-3,4-diol, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, 5-methylchrysene, and benz[a]anthracene. We also determined activation of these procarcinogens by recombinant (T. ni) human P450 enzymes in S. typhimurium NM2009. There were good correlations between activities of procarcinogen activation by CYP1A1 preparations expressed in E. coli and T. ni cells, although basal activities with three lots of CYP1B1 in T. ni cells were very high without substrates and NADPH in our assay system. Using 14 forms of human P450s (but not CYP1B1) (in T. ni cells), we found that CYP1A2, 2C9, 3A4, and 2C19 catalyzed activation of several of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at much slower rates than those catalyzed by CYP1A1 and that other enzymes, including CYP2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C18, 2D6, 2E1, 3A5, 3A7, and 4A11, were almost inactive in the activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons examined here.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 10/2001; 29(9):1176-82. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • H Yamazaki, T Shimada, M V Martin, F P Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: Many cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent reactions have been shown to be stimulated by another microsomal protein, cytochrome b(5) (b(5)). Two major explanations are (i) direct electron transfer from b(5) and (ii) a conformational effect in the absence of electron transfer. Some P450s (e.g. 3A4, 2C9, 17A, and 4A7) are stimulated by either b(5) or b(5) devoid of heme (apo-b(5)), indicating a lack of electron transfer, whereas other P450s (e.g. 2E1) are stimulated by b(5) but not by apo-b(5). Recently, a proposal has been made by Guryev et al. (Biochemistry 40, 5018-5031, 2001) that the stimulation by apo-b(5) can be explained only by transfer of heme from P450 preparations to apo-b(5), enabling electron transfer. We have repeated earlier findings of stimulation of catalytic activity of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation activities with four P450 preparations, in which nearly all of the heme was accounted for as P450. Spectral analysis of mixtures indicated that only approximately 5% of the heme can be transferred to apo-b(5), which cannot account for the observed stimulation. The presence of the heme scavenger apomyoglobin did not inhibit the stimulation of P450 3A4-dependent testosterone or nifedipine oxidation activity. Further evidence against the presence of loosely bound P450 3A4 heme was provided in experiments with apo-heme oxygenase, in which only 3% of the P450 heme was converted to biliverdin. Finally, b(5) supported NADH-b(5) reductase/P450 3A4-dependent testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation, but apo-b(5) did not. Thus, apo-b(5) can stimulate P450 3A4 reactions as well as b(5) in the absence of electron transfer, and heme transfer from P450 3A4 to apo-b(5) cannot be used to explain the catalytic stimulation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2001; 276(33):30885-91. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M105011200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolism of the mutagen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was investigated with human and rat liver microsomes, recombinant human cytochrome P450 1A2 (P450 1A2) expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and rat P450 1A2. Human liver microsomes and human P450 1A2 catalyzed the oxidation of the exocyclic amine group of MeIQx to form the genotoxic product 2-(hydroxyamino)-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (HONH-MeIQx). Human P450 1A2 also catalyzed the oxidation of C(8)-methyl group of MeIQx to form 2-amino-(8-hydroxymethyl)-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-CH(2)OH-IQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carbaldehyde (IQx-8-CHO), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid (IQx-8-COOH). Thus, chemically stable C(8)-oxidation products of MeIQx may be useful biomarkers of P450 1A2 activity in humans. Rat liver microsomes were 10-15-fold less active than the human counterpart at both N-oxidation and C(8)-oxidation of MeIQx when expressed as nanomoles of product formed per minute per nanomoles of P450 1A2. Differences in regioselective oxidation of MeIQx were also observed with human and rat liver microsomes and the respective P450 1A2 orthologs. In contrast to human liver microsomes and P450 1A2, rat liver microsomes and purified rat P4501A2 were unable to catalyze the oxidation of MeIQx to the carboxylic derivative IQx-8-COOH, an important detoxication product formed in humans. However, rat liver microsomes and rat P4501A2, but not human liver microsomes or human P450 1A2, extensively catalyzed ring oxidation at the C-5 position of MeIQx to form the detoxication product 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-5-hydroxyimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (5-HO-MeIQx). There are important differences between human and rat P450 1A2, both in catalytic activities and oxidation pathways of MeIQx, that may affect the biological activity of this carcinogen and must be considered when assessing human health risk.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 08/2001; 14(7):901-11. · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • F P Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play major roles in the metabolism of drugs, carcinogens, steroids, eicosanoids, alkaloids, pesticides, and other important xenobiotics, as well as chemicals normally endogenous to the body. P450s are generally considered in a classical catalytic reduction-oxidation cycle and an odd-electron abstraction/rebound chemical mechanism that can be used to rationalize carbon hydroxylation, dealkylation of heteroatomic substrates, heteroatom oxygenation, and the oxidation of unsaturated compounds to epoxides and phenols. However, many other reactions are catalyzed by P450s but not generally appreciated. The classical catalytic mechanism requires some expansion to explain all of these reactions. Reactions discussed here include mechanism-based heme inactivation, mechanism-based protein modification, 1,2-shifts, 1- and 2-electron reductions, 1-electron oxidation, oxidative cleavage of carboxylic acid esters, desaturation, deformylation of aldehydes, ring formation, ipso mechanisms for aryl dehalogenation and O- and N-dearylation, cis-trans bond isomerization, several rearrangements of oxidized eicosanoids, aldoxime dehydration, and hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine.
    Current Drug Metabolism 07/2001; 2(2):93-115. DOI:10.2174/1389200013338694 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of environmental and dietary arylamines, and heterocyclic amines in the etiology of human cancer is of growing interest. These pre-carcinogens are known to undergo bioactivation by cytochrome P450 (CYP)-directed oxidation, which then become substrates for the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Thus, glucuronidation may contribute to the elimination of CYP-mediated reactive intermediate metabolites, preventing a toxic event. In this study, human UGTs were analyzed for their ability to modulate the mutagenic actions of N-hydroxy-arylamines formed by CYP1A2. Studies with recombinant human UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B4, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 expressed in heterologous cell culture confirmed that UGT1A9 glucuronidated the mutagenic arylamines N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-hydroxy-2AAF) and 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (N-hydroxy-PhIP). To examine the mutagenic potential of these agents, a genotoxicity assay was employed using Salmonella typhimurium NM2009, a bacterial strain expressing the umuC SOS response gene fused to a beta-galactosidase reporter lacZ gene. DNA modification results in the induction of the umuC gene and subsequent enhancement of beta-galactosidase activity. Both N-hydroxy-2AAF and N-hydroxy-PhIP stimulated a dose-dependent increase in bacterial beta-galactosidase activity. In addition, the procarcinogens 2AAF and PhIP were efficiently bioactivated to bacterial mutagens when incubated with Escherichia coli membranes expressing CYP1A2 and NADPH reductase. CYP1A2 generated 2AAF- and PhIP-mediated DNA damage, but only the action of N-hydroxy-2AAF was blocked by expressed UGT1A9. These results indicate that UGT1A9 can control the outcome of a genotoxic response. The results also indicate that while a potential toxicant such as N-hydroxy-PhIP can serve as substrate for glucuronidation, its biological actions can exceed the capacity of the detoxification pathway to prevent the mutagenic episode.
    Carcinogenesis 07/2001; 22(6):943-50. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Eight human cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) allelic variants, namely Arg48 Ala119 Leu432, Arg48 Ala119 Val432 Gly48 Ala119 Leu432, Gly48 Ala119 Val432, Arg48 Ser119 Leu432, Arg48 Ser119 Val432, Gly48 Ser119 Leu432 and Gly48 Ser119 Va1432 (all with Asn453), were expressed in Escherichia coli together with human NADPH-P450 reductase and their catalytic specificities towards oxidation of 17beta-oestradiol and benzo[a]pyrene were determined. 2. All of the CYP1B1 variants expressed in bacterial membranes showed Fe2+.CO versus Fe2+ difference spectra with wavelength maxima at 446 nm and they reacted with antibodies raised against recombinant human CYP1B1 in immunoblots. The ratio of expression of the reductase to CYP1B1 in these eight preparations ranged from 0.2 to 0.5. 3. CYP1B1 Arg48 variants tended to have higher activities for 17beta-oestradiol 4-hydroxylation than Gly48 variants, although there were no significant variations in 17beta-oestradiol 2-hydroxylation activity in these eight CYP1B1 variants. Interestingly, ratios of formation of 17beta-oestradiol 4-hydroxylation to 2-hydroxylation by these CYP1B1 variants were higher in all of the Val432 forms than the corresponding Leu432 forms. 4. In contrast, Leu432 forms of CYP1B1 showed higher rates of oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene (to the 7,8-dihydoxy-7,8-dihydrodiol in the presence of epoxide hydrolase) than did the Val432 forms. 5. These results suggest that polymorphic human CYP1B1 variants may cause some altered catalytic specificity with 17beta-oestradiol and benzo[a]pyrene and may influence susceptibilities of individuals towards endogenous and exogenous carcinogens.
    Xenobiotica 04/2001; 31(3):163-76. DOI:10.1080/00498250110043490 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic pathways of the mutagen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) remain incompletely characterized in humans. In this study, the metabolism of MeIQx was investigated in primary human hepatocytes. Six metabolites were characterized by UV and mass spectroscopy. Novel metabolites were additionally characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The carcinogenic metabolite, 2-(hydroxyamino)-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, which is formed by cytochrome P450 1A2 (P450 1A2), was found to be transformed into the N(2)-glucuronide conjugate, N(2)-(beta-1-glucosiduronyl)-2-(hydroxyamino)-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. The phase II conjugates N(2)-(3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxalin-2-yl)sulfamic acid and N(2)-(beta-1-glucosiduronyl)-2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, as well as the 7-oxo derivatives of MeIQx and N-desmethyl-MeIQx, 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-6-hydro-7H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxalin-7-one (7-oxo-MeIQx), and 2-amino-6-hydro-8-methyl-7H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxalin-7-one (N-desmethyl-7-oxo-MeIQx), thought to be formed exclusively by the intestinal flora, were also identified. A novel metabolite was characterized as 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid (IQx-8-COOH), and it was the predominant metabolite formed in hepatocytes exposed to MeIQx at levels approaching human exposure. IQx-8-COOH formation is catalyzed by P450 1A2. This metabolite is a detoxication product and does not induce umuC gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium strain NM2009. IQx-8-COOH is also the principal oxidation product of MeIQx excreted in human urine [Turesky, R., et al. (1998) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11, 217-225]. Thus, P450 1A2 is involved in both the metabolic activation and detoxication of this procarcinogen in humans. Analogous metabolism experiments were conducted with hepatocytes of untreated rats and rats pretreated with the P450 inducer 3-methylcholanthrene. Unlike human hepatocytes, the rat cell preparations did not produce IQx-8-COOH but catalyzed the formation of 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-5-hydroxyimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline as a major P450-mediated detoxication product. In conclusion, our results provide evidence of a novel MeIQx metabolism pathway in humans through P450 1A2-mediated C(8)-oxidation of MeIQx to form IQx-8-COOH. This biotransformation pathway has not been detected in experimental animal species. Considerable interspecies differences exist in the metabolism of MeIQx by P450s, which may affect the biological activity of this mutagen and must be considered when assessing human health risk.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 03/2001; 14(2):211-21. · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 02/2001; 500:459-62. · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • H J Einolf, F P Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide insertion opposite 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) by fetal calf thymus DNA polymerase delta (pol delta) was examined by steady-state and pre-steady-state rapid quench kinetic analyses. In steady-state reactions with the accessory protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), pol delta preferred to incorporate dCTP opposite 8-oxoG with an efficiency of incorporation an order of magnitude lower than incorporation into unmodified DNA (mainly due to an increased K(m)). Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of incorporation opposite 8-oxoG showed biphasic kinetics for incorporation of either dCTP or dATP, with rates similar to dCTP incorporation opposite G, large phosphorothioate effects (>100), and oligonucleotide dissociation apparently rate-limiting in the steady-state. Although pol delta preferred to incorporate dCTP (14% misincorporation of dATP) the extension past the A:8-oxoG mispair predominated. The presence of PCNA was found to be a more essential factor for nucleotide incorporation opposite 8-oxoG adducts than unmodified DNA, increased pre-steady-state rates of nucleotide incorporation by >2 orders of magnitude, and was essential for nucleotide extension beyond 8-oxoG. pol delta replication fidelity at 8-oxoG depends upon contributions from K(m), K(d)(dNTP), and rates of phosphodiester bond formation, and PCNA is an important accessory protein for incorporation and extension at 8-oxoG adducts.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2001; 276(6):3764-71. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M006696200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • F P Guengerich, H Cai, W W Johnson, A Parikh
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 02/2001; 500:639-50. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of four oxidative metabolites from the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin (DPH) catalyzed by human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes was determined simultaneously. Under the conditions in which linearity for formation of 4'-hydroxylated DPH (4'-HPPH; main metabolite) was observed, human liver cytosol increased microsome-mediated DPH oxidation. 3',4'-Dihydroxylated product (3', 4'-diHPPH) formation was 10 to 40% of total DPH oxidation in the presence of liver cytosol. 3'-Hydroxy DPH formation was catalyzed by only one of the human liver microsomal samples examined and 3', 4'-dihydrodiol formation could not be detected in all samples. In the presence of liver cytosol, 3',4'-diHPPH formation activity from 100 microM 4'-HPPH was correlated with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation activity and CYP3A4 content. However, 3', 4'-diHPPH formation using 1 or 10 microM 4'-HPPH as a substrate was not correlated with contents of any P450s or marker activities. Of 10 cDNA-expressed human P450 enzymes examined, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 catalyzed 3',4'-diHPPH formation from the primary hydroxylated metabolites (3'-hydroxy-DPH and 4'-HPPH). Fluvoxamine and anti-CYP2C antibody inhibited 3',4'-diHPPH formation from 10 microM 4'-HPPH in a human liver sample that contained relatively high levels of CYP2C, whereas ketoconazole and anti-CYP3A antibody showed inhibitory effects on the activities in liver microsomal samples in which CYP3A4 levels were relatively high. These results suggest that CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 all have catalytic activities in 3',4'-diHPPH formation from primary hydroxylated metabolites in human liver and that the hepatic contents of these three P450 forms determine which P450 enzymes play major roles of DPH oxidation in individual humans.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 12/2000; 28(11):1361-8. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • C Wandel, R B Kim, F P Guengerich, A J Wood
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    ABSTRACT: Mibefradil, a calcium T- and L-channel blocker developed for use in hypertension, was recently removed from the market after reports of severe drug-drug interactions. Mibefradil is known to inhibit various cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism, particularly CYP3A. However, the extent and the severity of the observed drug interactions in humans suggest that inhibition of additional systems important to drug disposition, such as the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), may also have contributed to the severity of the mibefradil interactions. A polarized epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1, which does not express P-gp, and the derived L-MDR1 cell line, which overexpresses human P-gp, were used to study the effects of mibefradil on drug transport. A markedly greater basal-to-apical versus apical-to-basal transport of [H3]mibefradil was seen in the L-MDR1, but not in the LLC-PK1 cells, suggesting that the drug is a substrate of P-gp. Using a human intestinal cancer-derived cell line Caco-2, which constitutively expresses P-gp, mibefradil was shown to be a potent inhibitor of P-gp-mediated digoxin transport, with an IC50 of 1.6 microM. Additionally, the effect of mibefradil on CYP3A was assessed using human liver microsomes. Mibefradil inhibited CYP3A-mediated nifedipine oxidase activity with an IC50 of 0.8 microM, and a Ki of 0.6 microM. Thus, mibefradil is not only a P-gp substrate, but also a potent inhibitor of both P-gp and CYP3A. These data suggest that the severity of drug interactions seen with mibefradil use is due to the dual inhibition of both P-gp and CYP3A.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 09/2000; 28(8):895-8. · 3.33 Impact Factor

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  • 1980–2008
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Center in Molecular Toxicology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2007
    • Showa Pharmaceutical University
      Machida, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2001
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999–2001
    • Kanazawa University
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
    • American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
      Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1998
    • National Taiwan University
      • College of Medicine
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1994–1997
    • Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1996
    • Státní Zdravotní Ústav
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
    • University at Albany, The State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Albany State University
      Олбани, Georgia, United States
  • 1995
    • Pai Chai University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1990–1993
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Iowa City, IA, United States
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Molecular Genetics
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 1992
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department of Chemical Biology
      Нью-Брансуик, New Jersey, United States
  • 1991
    • Keio University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1988
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (RWJ Medical School)
      Newark, New Jersey, United States