F P Guengerich

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Michigan, United States

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Publications (409)1814.4 Total impact

  • 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 14 acetylenic PAHs and biphenyls were used to analyze interactions with cytochrome P450 (P450) 1B1 in inhibiting catalytic activity, using 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) as a model reaction. Most of the chemicals examined were direct inhibitors of P450 1B1 except for 4-(1-propynyl)biphenyl, a mechanism-based inhibitor. In the case of direct inhibition of EROD activity {15 of 24 chemicals, e.g., benzo[ a]pyrene, 1-(1-propynyl)pyrene, and 3-(1-propynyl)phenanthrene}, restoration of the EROD activity occurred with increasing incubation time, and kinetic analysis showed that EROD K m values were higher with these inhibitors at initial stages of incubation but became lower with increasing incubation time. With the other nine chemicals, the K m values for P450 1B1-mediated EROD increased during the incubations. Acetylenic inhibitors, but not the 11 PAHs, induced reverse type I spectral changes with P450 1B1, and the low dissociation constants ( K s) suggested a role for such interaction in the inhibition of catalytic activity. Studies of quenching of P450 1B1-derived fluorescence with inhibitors demonstrated that acetylenic inhibitors and PAHs interacted rapidly with P450 1B1, with K d values <10 muM. However, studies of quenching of inhibitor-derived fluorescence with P450 1B1 showed these interactions to be different, that is, B[ a]P interacted with P450 1B1 more slowly. Molecular docking of P450 1B1, based on P450 1A2 crystal structure, suggested that there are clear differences in the interaction of PAH inhibitors with P450 1B1 and 1A2 and that these differences may explain why PAH inhibitors inhibit P450 1 enzymes by different mechanisms. The results suggest that P450 1B1 interacts with synthetic polycyclic aromatic acetylenes and PAHs in different ways, depending on the chemicals, and that these differences in interactions may explain how these chemicals inhibit P450 activities by different mechanisms.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 10/2008; · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (P450) 4X1 is one of the so-called 'orphan' P450s without an assigned biological function. Codon-optimized P450 4X1 and a number of N-terminal modified sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli. Native P450 4X1 showed a characteristic P450 spectrum but low expression in E. coli DH5alpha cells (< 100 nmol P450.L(-1)). The highest level of expression (300-450 nmol P450.L(-1) culture) was achieved with a bicistronic P450 4X1 construct (N-terminal MAKKTSSKGKL, change of E2A, amino acids 3-44 truncated). Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) has emerged as an important signaling molecule in the neurovascular cascade. Recombinant P450 4X1 protein, co-expressed with human NADPH-P450 reductase in E. coli, was found to convert the natural endocannabinoid anandamide to a single monooxygenated product, 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic (EET) ethanolamide. A stable anandamide analog (CD-25) was also converted to a monooxygenated product. Arachidonic acid was oxidized more slowly to 14,15- and 8,9-EETs but only in the presence of cytochrome b(5). Other fatty acids were investigated as putative substrates but showed only little or minor oxidation. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated extrahepatic mRNA expression, including several human brain structures (cerebellum, amygdala and basal ganglia), in addition to expression in human heart, liver, prostate and breast. The highest mRNA expression levels were detected in amygdala and skin. The ability of P450 4X1 to generate anandamide derivatives and the mRNA distribution pattern suggest a potential role for P450 4X1 in anandamide signaling in the brain.
    FEBS Journal 07/2008; 275(14):3706-17. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human liver microsomal cytochrome P450s (P450s or CYP) involved in the oxidative biotransformation of the anesthetic agent propofol were investigated. Of six cDNA-expressed human P450 enzymes tested, CYP2B6 and CYP1A2, followed by CYP3A4, had high catalytic activities at a 20 microM propofol concentration, corresponding to clinical plasma levels. K(m) and k(cat) values for propofol omega- and 4-hydroxyation were 27 microM and 21 nmol omega-hydroxypropofol formed/min/nmol CYP2B6 and 30 microM and 42 nmol 4-hydroxypropofol formed/min/nmol CYP2B6, respectively. CYP2B6 expressed in HepG2 cells also effectively catalyzed propofol omega- and 4-hydroxylation. In a panel of individual human liver microsomes, propofol omega- and 4-hydroxylation activities (at the substrate concentration of 20 microM) were highly correlated with CYP2B6 contents, and moderately with CYP3A4 contents. Anti-CYP2B6 antibody inhibited both omega- and 4-hydroxylation activities in human liver samples that contained relatively high levels of CYP2B6, whereas alpha-naphthoflavone and an anti-CYP1A2 antibody showed inhibitory effects on the 4-hydroxylation activity in a liver microsomal sample in which the CYP1A2 level was relatively high. These results suggest that CYP2B6 has an important role in propofol omega- and 4-hydroxylation in human livers and that the hepatic contents of CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP1A2 determine which P450 enzymes play major roles in propofol oxidation in individual humans.
    Xenobiotica 08/2007; 37(7):717-24. · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • H Yamazaki, A Okayama, N Imai, F P Guengerich, M Shimizu
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-individual variations in cytochrome P4502J2 (CYP2J2) and its typical drug oxidation activities in human liver microsomes in both Japanese and Caucasian populations. CYP2J2 contents were determined immunochemically in liver microsomes from 20 Japanese and 29 Caucasian samples using recombinant CYP2J2 commercially available as a standard. Ebastine hydroxylation and astemizole O-demethylation activities were compared. The CYP2J2 genotype was determined by direct sequencing of liver genomic DNA. The mean expression levels of CYP2J2 determined immunochemically in liver microsomes from Japanese and Caucasian samples were 2.0 +/- 1.5 and 1.2 +/- 2.1 pmol CYP2J2 mg-1 protein (mean +/- standard deviation), respectively, accounting for 1.8 +/- 1.1% and 0.52 +/- 0.65% of the total hepatic P450 content (0.15 +/- 0.19 and 0.27 +/- 0.14 nmol P450 mg-1 protein, respectively). The individual variation of the two marker drug oxidation activities could not be fully accounted for by the CYP2J2 contents or currently known CYP2J2 genotypes. The amounts of CYP2J2 in liver microsomes with the CYP2J2*7 allele (-76G>T) were decreased to 39% compared with those of liver microsomes from other individuals. The results indicate that CYP2J2 accounts for approximately 1-2% of total P450 in human liver microsomes. The information about large inter-individual variation of the CYP2J2 suggests that this enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and may be useful in in-silico simulations of drug disposition.
    Xenobiotica 12/2006; 36(12):1201-9. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 7-Ethoxy (OEt) coumarin has been used as a model substrate in many cytochrome P450 (P450) studies, including the use of kinetic isotope effects to probe facets of P450 kinetics. P450s 1A2 and 2E1 are known to be the major catalysts of 7-OEt coumarin O-deethylation in human liver microsomes. Human P450 1A2 also catalyzed 3-hydroxylation of 7-methoxy (OMe) coumarin at appreciable rates but P450 2E1 did not. Intramolecular kinetic isotope effects were used as estimates of the intrinsic kinetic deuterium isotope effects for both 7-OMe and 7-OEt coumarin dealkylation reactions. The apparent intrinsic isotope effect for P450 1A2 (9.4 for O-demethylation, 6.1 for O-deethylation) showed little attenuation in other competitive and noncompetitive experiments. With P450 2E1, the intrinsic isotope effect (9.6 for O-demethylation, 6.1 for O-deethylation) was attenuated in the noncompetitive intermolecular experiments. High noncompetitive intermolecular kinetic isotope effects were seen for 7-OEt coumarin O-deethylation in a baculovirus-based microsomal system and five samples of human liver microsomes (7.3-8.1 for O-deethylation), consistent with the view that P450 1A2 is the most efficient P450 catalyzing this reaction in human liver microsomes and indicating that the C-H bond-breaking step makes a major contribution to the rate of this P450 (1A2) reaction. Thus, the rate-limiting step appears to be the chemistry of the breaking of this bond by the activated iron-oxygen complex, as opposed to steps involved in the generation of the reactive complex. The conclusion about the rate-limiting step applies to all of the systems studied with this model P450 1A2 reaction including human liver microsomes, the most physiologically relevant.
    FEBS Journal 06/2006; 273(10):2223-31. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the liver P-450 xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, P450-2E1 is of interest because of its activation of potent carcinogens, and P-450 1A2 is of interest because of its role in oxidation of drugs and carcinogens. This unit describes column chromatography protocols for purification of recombinant forms of these enzymes expressed in a bacterial expression system.
    Current protocols in toxicology 08/2002; Chapter 4:Unit4.2.
  • Biochemistry 04/2002; 27(18). · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • Chemical Research in Toxicology 04/2002; 6(4). · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2002; 34(6). · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    Elizabeth M. J. Gillam, F. Peter Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: The cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes involved in drug metabolism are among the most versatile biological catalysts known. A small number of discrete forms of human P450 are capable of catalyzing the monooxygenation of a practically unlimited variety of xenobiotic substrates, with each enzyme showing a more or less wide and overlapping substrate range. This versatility makes P450s ideally suited as starting materials for engineering designer catalysts for industrial applications. In the course of heterologous expression of P450s in bacteria, we observed the unexpected formation of blue pigments. Although this was initially assumed to be an artifact, subsequent work led to the discovery of a new function of P450s in intermediary metabolism and toxicology, new screens for protein engineering, and potential applications in the dye and horticulture industries.
    International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 01/2002; 52(6):271-7. · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Katsunori Nakamura, Martha V. Martin, F.Peter Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2A6 mutants from randomized libraries generated in the substrate recognition sequence (SRS) regions were screened in Escherichia coli on the basis of indole metabolism. SRS 3 and 4 libraries yielded colonies that produced indigo at least as well as wild-type (WT) P450 2A6, and some colonies were consistently more blue upon replating. One mutant, F209T, showed indole 3-hydroxylation <WT but had a k(cat) for coumarin 7-hydroxylation 13-fold >WT. The double mutant L240C/N297Q consistently produced very blue colonies. Five mutants yielded mixtures of pigments from indole different than WT, as judged by visible spectra and HPLC of products. When bacteria expressing the mutants were grown in the presence of each of 26 substituted indoles, a variety of patterns of formation of different dyes was seen with several of the mutants. This approach has potential value in understanding P450 2A6 function and generating new dyestuffs and other products.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 12/2001; 395(1):25-31. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    Y J Chun, S Kim, D Kim, S K Lee, F P Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 1B1 is found mainly in extrahepatic tissues and is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors. Metabolic activation of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) to 4-hydroxy E(2) by P450 1B1 has been postulated to be a factor in mammary carcinogenesis. The inhibition of recombinant human P450 1B1 by 2,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) was investigated using either bacterial membranes from a human P450/NADPH-P450 reductase bicistronic expression system or using purified enzymes. TMS showed potent and selective inhibition of the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activity of P450 1B1 with an IC(50) value of 6 nM. TMS exhibited 50-fold selectivity for P450 1B1 over P450 1A1 (IC(50) = 300 nM) and 500-fold selectivity for P450 1B1 over P450 1A2 (IC(50) = 3 microM). The inhibitory effects of TMS on EROD activity of human liver microsomes were determined. TMS inhibited EROD activity of human liver microsomes at the same concentration as with recombinant human P450 1A2. TMS also strongly inhibited 4- and 2-hydroxylation of E(2) by P450 1B1-expressing membranes or purified P450 1B1. TMS was a competitive inhibitor of P450 1B1 with a K(i) of 3 nM. The inhibition by TMS was not mechanism-based, and the loss of activity was not blocked by the trapping agents glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, or dithiothreitol. Using purified histidine-tagged P450 1B1, the binding kinetic analysis was performed with TMS, yielding a K(d) of 3 microM. The activation of 2-amino-3,5-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in an Escherichia coli lac-based mutagenicity tester system containing functional human P450 1B1 was strongly inhibited by TMS. Our results indicate that TMS is a very selective and potent competitive inhibitor of P450 1B1. TMS is selective for inhibiting P450 1B1 among other human P450s including 1A1, 1A2, and 3A4 and warrants consideration as a candidate for preventing mammary tumor formation by E(2) in humans.
    Cancer Research 12/2001; 61(22):8164-70. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2D6 oxidizes a wide variety of drugs typically at a distance of 5-7 A from a basic nitrogen on the substrate. To investigate the determinants of P450 2D6 catalysis, we analyzed the binding and oxidation of phenethylamine substrates. P450 2D6 discriminated between the various phenethylamines, as evidenced by binding and steady-state results. Whereas the spectral binding affinity for 3-methoxyphenethylamine and 4-methoxyphenethylamine was similar, the affinity for 4-hydroxyphenethylamine was 12-fold weaker than for 3-hydroxyphenethylamine at pH 7.4. The binding of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine was equally poor. These equilibrium dissociation constants were based on the observation of both type I and type II perturbation difference spectra; the former involves displacement of the proximal H(2)O ligand, yielding an iron spin state change, and the latter requires nitrogen ligation to the heme iron. One explanation for the observed type II binding spectra is the presence of both protonated and unprotonated forms of these compounds. To address this possibility, the K(S) values for 3-methoxyphenethylamine and 4-methoxyphenethylamine were determined as a function of pH. Two apparent pK(a) values were determined, which corresponded to a P450 2D6 residue involved in binding and to a lowered pK(a) of a substrate amine group upon binding P450 2D6. The apparent pK(a) of the enzyme residue (6.6) is much higher than the expected pK(a) of Asp301, which has been hypothesized to play a role in binding. Interestingly, the apparent pK(a) for the methoxyphenethylamine derivatives decreased by as much as 2 pH units upon binding to P450 2D6. 3-Methoxyphenethylamine and 4-methoxyphenethylamine underwent sequential oxidations with O-demethylation and subsequent ring hydroxylation to form 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine (dopamine). At higher substrate concentrations, the second oxidation was inhibited. This result can be explained by the increasing concentration of the inhibitory unprotonated substrate. Nevertheless, the rates of methoxyphenethylamine oxidations are the highest reported for P450 2D6 substrates.
    Biochemistry 12/2001; 40(47):14215-23. · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • I H Hanna, J A Krauser, H Cai, M S Kim, F P Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2D6 was first identified as the polymorphic human debrisoquine hydroxylase and subsequently shown to catalyze the oxidation of a variety of drugs containing a basic nitrogen. Differences in the regioselectivity of oxidation products formed in systems containing NADPH-P450 reductase/NADPH and the model oxidant cumene hydroperoxide have been proposed by others to be due to an allosteric influence of the reductase on P450 2D6 (Modi, S., Gilham, D. E., Sutcliffe, M. J., Lian, L.-Y., Primrose, W. U., Wolf, C. R., and Roberts, G. C. K. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 4461-4470). We examined the differences in the formation of oxidation products of N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, metoprolol, and bufuralol between reductase-, cumene hydroperoxide-, and iodosylbenzene-supported systems. Catalytic regioselectivity was not influenced by the presence of the reductase in any of the systems supported by model oxidants, ruling out allosteric influences. The presence of the reductase had little effect on the affinity of P450 2D6 for any of these three substrates. The addition of the reaction remnants of the model oxidants (cumyl alcohol and iodobenzene) to the reductase-supported system did not affect reaction patterns, arguing against steric influences of these products on catalytic regioselectivity. Label from H(2)18O was quantitatively incorporated into 1'-hydroxybufuralol in the iodosylbenzene- but not in the reductase- or cumene hydroperoxide-supported reactions. We conclude that the P450 systems utilizing NADPH-P450 reductase, cumene hydroperoxide, and iodosylbenzene use similar but distinct chemical mechanisms. These differences are the basis for the variable product distributions, not an allosteric influence of the reductase.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2001; 276(43):39553-61. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • T Shimada, Y Oda, E M Gillam, F P Guengerich, K Inoue
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their dihydrodiol derivatives, arylamines, heterocyclic amines, and nitroarenes, were incubated with cDNA-based recombinant (Escherichia coli or Trichoplusia ni) systems expressing different forms of human cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) and NADPH-P450 reductase using Salmonella typhimurium tester strain NM2009, and the resultant DNA damage caused by the reactive metabolites was detected by measuring expression of umu gene in the cells. Recombinant (bacterial) CYP1A1 was slightly more active than any of four CYP1B1 allelic variants, CYP1B1*1, CYP1B1*2, CYP1B1*3, and CYP1B1*6, in catalyzing activation of chrysene-1,2-diol, benz[a]anthracene-trans-1,2-, 3,4-, 5,6-, and 8,9-diol, fluoranthene-2,3-diol, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene and several arylamines and heterocyclic amines, whereas CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes had essentially similar catalytic specificities toward other procarcinogens, such as (+)-, (-)-, and (+/-)-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol, 5-methylchrysene-1,2-diol, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-3,4-diol, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene-11,12-diol, benzo[b]fluoranthene-9,10-diol, benzo[c]chrysene, 5,6-dimethylchrysene-1,2-diol, benzo[c]phenanthrene-3,4-diol, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, 5-methylchrysene, and benz[a]anthracene. We also determined activation of these procarcinogens by recombinant (T. ni) human P450 enzymes in S. typhimurium NM2009. There were good correlations between activities of procarcinogen activation by CYP1A1 preparations expressed in E. coli and T. ni cells, although basal activities with three lots of CYP1B1 in T. ni cells were very high without substrates and NADPH in our assay system. Using 14 forms of human P450s (but not CYP1B1) (in T. ni cells), we found that CYP1A2, 2C9, 3A4, and 2C19 catalyzed activation of several of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at much slower rates than those catalyzed by CYP1A1 and that other enzymes, including CYP2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C18, 2D6, 2E1, 3A5, 3A7, and 4A11, were almost inactive in the activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons examined here.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 10/2001; 29(9):1176-82. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • H Yamazaki, T Shimada, M V Martin, F P Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: Many cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent reactions have been shown to be stimulated by another microsomal protein, cytochrome b(5) (b(5)). Two major explanations are (i) direct electron transfer from b(5) and (ii) a conformational effect in the absence of electron transfer. Some P450s (e.g. 3A4, 2C9, 17A, and 4A7) are stimulated by either b(5) or b(5) devoid of heme (apo-b(5)), indicating a lack of electron transfer, whereas other P450s (e.g. 2E1) are stimulated by b(5) but not by apo-b(5). Recently, a proposal has been made by Guryev et al. (Biochemistry 40, 5018-5031, 2001) that the stimulation by apo-b(5) can be explained only by transfer of heme from P450 preparations to apo-b(5), enabling electron transfer. We have repeated earlier findings of stimulation of catalytic activity of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation activities with four P450 preparations, in which nearly all of the heme was accounted for as P450. Spectral analysis of mixtures indicated that only approximately 5% of the heme can be transferred to apo-b(5), which cannot account for the observed stimulation. The presence of the heme scavenger apomyoglobin did not inhibit the stimulation of P450 3A4-dependent testosterone or nifedipine oxidation activity. Further evidence against the presence of loosely bound P450 3A4 heme was provided in experiments with apo-heme oxygenase, in which only 3% of the P450 heme was converted to biliverdin. Finally, b(5) supported NADH-b(5) reductase/P450 3A4-dependent testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation, but apo-b(5) did not. Thus, apo-b(5) can stimulate P450 3A4 reactions as well as b(5) in the absence of electron transfer, and heme transfer from P450 3A4 to apo-b(5) cannot be used to explain the catalytic stimulation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2001; 276(33):30885-91. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A primary route of metabolism of dihalomethanes occurs via glutathione (GSH) transferase-catalyzed conjugation. Mammalian theta class GSH transferases and a group of bacterial dichloromethane dehalogenases are able to catalyze the hydrolytic dehalogenation of dihalomethanes via GSH conjugation and subsequent formation of HCHO. Dihalomethanes have been shown to induce revertants in Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 expressing theta class GSH transferases. Two mammalian theta class GSH transferases (rat GST 5-5 and human GST T1) and the bacterial dehalogenase DM11 were compared in the in vitro conjugation of CH(3)Cl and using in vitro assays (HCHO formation) and the S. typhimurium mutagenesis assay with the dihalomethanes CH(2)Cl(2), CH(2)Br(2), CH(2)BrCl, CH(2)ICl, CH(2)I(2), and CH(2)ClF. GSTs 5-5 and T1 had similar characteristics and exhibited first-order rather than Michaelis-Menten kinetics for HCHO formation over the range of dihalomethane concentrations tested. In contrast, the DM11 enzyme displayed typical hyperbolic Michaelis-Menten kinetics for all of the compounds tested. A similar pattern was observed for the conjugation of CH(3)Cl. The reversion tests with S. typhimurium expressing DM11 or GST 5-5 showed a concentration-dependent increase in revertants for most of the dihalomethanes, and DM11 produced revertants at dihalomethane concentrations lower than GST 5-5. Collectively, the results indicate that rates of conversion of dihalomethanes to HCHO are not correlated with mutagenicity and that GSH conjugates are genotoxic. The results are compared with the conjugation and genotoxicity of haloethanes in the preceding paper in this issue [Wheeler, J. B., Stourman, N. V., Armstrong, R. N., and Guengerich, F. P. (2001) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14, 1107-1117]. The halide order appears most important in the dihalomethane conjugation reactions catalyzed by GST 5-5 and less so in GST T1 and DM11, probably due to changes in the rate-limiting steps.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 09/2001; 14(8):1118-1127. · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    F.Peter Guengerich
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolism plays important roles in chemical carcinogenesis, both good and bad. The process of carcinogen metabolism was first recognized in the first half of the twentieth century and developed extensively in the latter half. The activation of chemicals to reactive electrophiles that become covalently bound to DNA and protein was demonstrated by Miller and Miller [Cancer 47 (1981) 2327]. Today many of the DNA adducts formed by chemical carcinogens are known, and extensive information is available about pathways leading to the electrophilic intermediates. Some concepts about the stability and reactivity of electrophiles derived from carcinogens have changed over the years. Early work in the field demonstrated the ability of chemicals to modulate the metabolism of carcinogens, a phenomenon now described as enzyme induction. The cytochrome P450 enzymes play a prominent role in the metabolism of carcinogens, both in bioactivation and detoxication. The conjugating enzymes can also play both beneficial and detrimental roles. As an example of a case in which several enzymes affect the metabolism and carcinogenicity of a chemical, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) research has revealed insight into the myriad of reaction chemistry that can occur even with a 1s half-life for a reactive electrophile. Further areas of investigation involve the consequences of enzyme variability in humans and include areas such as genomics, epidemiology, and chemoprevention.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 08/2001; 488(3):195-209. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH) transferases are generally involved in the detoxication of xenobiotic chemicals. However, conjugation can also activate compounds and result in DNA modification. Activation of 1,2-dihaloethanes (BrCH(2)CH(2)Br, BrCH(2)CH(2)Cl, and ClCH(2)CH(2)Cl) was investigated using two mammalian theta class GSH transferases (rat GST 5-5 and human GST T1) and a bacterial dichloromethane dehalogenase (DM11). Although the literature suggests that the bacterial dehalogenase does not catalyze reactions with CH(3)Cl, ClCH(2)CH(2)Cl, or CH(3)CHCl(2), we found a higher enzyme efficiency for DM11 than for the mammalian GSH transferases in conjugating CH(3)Cl, CH(3)CH(2)Cl, and CH(3)CH(2)Br. Enzymatic rates of activation of 1,2-dihaloethanes were determined in vitro by measuring S,S-ethylene-bis-GSH, the major product trapped by nonenzymatic reaction with the substrate GSH. Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 systems expressing each of these GSH transferases were used to determine mutagenicity. Rates of formation of S,S-ethylene-bis-GSH by the GSH transferases correlated with the mutagenicity determined in the reversion assays for the three 1,2-dihaloethanes, consistent with the view that half-mustards are the mutagenic products of the GSH transferase reactions. Half-mustards [S-(2-haloethyl)GSH] containing either F, Cl, or Br (as the leaving group) were tested for their abilities to induce revertants in S. typhimurium, and rates of hydrolysis were also determined. GSH transferases do not appear to be involved in the breakdown of the half-mustard intermediates. A halide order (Br > Cl) was observed for both GSH transferase-catalyzed mutagenicity and S,S-ethylene-bis-GSH formation from 1,2-dihaloethanes, with the single exception (both assays) of BrCH(2)CH(2)Cl reaction with DM11, which was unexpectedly high. The lack of substrate saturation seen for conjugation of dihalomethanes with GSTs 5-5 and T1 was also observed with the mono- and 1,2-dihaloethanes [Wheeler, J. B., Stourman, N. V., Thier, R., Dommermuth, A., Vuilleumier, S., Rose, J. A., Armstrong, R. N., and Guengerich, F. P. (2001) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14, 1118-1127], indicative of an inherent difference in the catalytic mechanisms of the bacterial and mammalian GSH transferases.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 08/2001; 14(8):1107-17. · 4.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

27k Citations
1,814.40 Total Impact Points


  • 1980–2008
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Center in Molecular Toxicology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2007
    • Showa Pharmaceutical University
      Machida, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2006
    • Chonnam National University
      • School of Biological Sciences and Technology
      Yeoju, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 1995–2002
    • University of Queensland 
      • • School of Biomedical Sciences
      • • School of Chemical Engineering
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2001
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1999–2001
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kanazawa University
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
    • Nestlé S.A.
      • Nestlé Research Center
      Vevey, VD, Switzerland
  • 1996–2001
    • Státní Zdravotní Ústav
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
    • Northeastern University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och biofysik
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
    • University at Albany, The State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2000
    • Université de Rennes 2
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
  • 1998–1999
    • University of Guelph
      • Department of Chemistry
      Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1996–1998
    • Albany State University
      Georgia, United States
  • 1995–1998
    • Pai Chai University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1992–1998
    • Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1991–1998
    • National Taiwan University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Graduate Institute of Toxicology
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Keio University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1997
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Tulane University
      • Department of Chemistry
      New Orleans, LA, United States
  • 1992–1996
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department of Chemical Biology
      Нью-Брансуик, New Jersey, United States
  • 1990–1993
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Iowa City, IA, United States
    • Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Molecular Genetics
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 1989–1992
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Chemistry
      Charlottesville, VA, United States
  • 1988–1989
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine (RWJ Medical School)
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (RWJ Medical School)
      Newark, NJ, United States
  • 1986–1988
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1984
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States