[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn1-xMnxS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities up to 1400 mM(-1) [QD] s(-1) at 7 T and 300 K. We finally show that these QDs are suitable multimodal in vivo probes and demonstrate MRI and NIR fluorescence detection of regional lymph nodes in mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and complete surgical removal of the tumor, in relapsing patients may provide a clinical benefit. There is no consensus considering the place of HIPEC for patients who had first ovarian cancer relapse. To assess for possible efficacy of HIPEC on overall survival (OS) rates in this situation, we performed a multi-institutional study.
The current study was a retrospective case control multi-institutional study comparing a group of patients treated with HIPEC to a group of patients treated without HIPEC. Inclusion criteria were first relapse of a serous ovarian carcinoma and >6 months after the end of initial treatment. Exclusion criteria were another pathological subtype of ovarian cancer, a relapse at <6 months after initial treatment, and a second relapse or more. We aimed to assess OS, morbidity, and mortality rates and prognostic factors.
From June 1997-July 2011, 42 patients were included, 23 in the HIPEC group and 19 in the control group. Each patient from the two groups had a complete secondary surgery at the time of the first relapse. At 4 years OS was 75.6 % in the HIPEC group and 19.4 % in the control group (p = 0.013). In a multivariate analysis, HIPEC and interval-free before the end of initial treatment were both independent prognostic factors.
When compared to the control group, complete secondary surgery and HIPEC appear to afford a better OS rate than complete secondary surgery alone, in case of first ovarian cancer relapse. Further randomized trials are warranted to confirm these results.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Breast carcinomas are the most frequent form of cancer in French women. Following a total mastectomy, only an estimated 25% of patients wish to undergo breast reconstruction. After mammary volume reconstitution, the plastic surgeon often attempts to harmonize the two breasts by carrying out contralateral reduction mammaplasty (CRM). In the literature, the incidence of occult contralateral carcinomas incidentally discovered in surgical specimens ranges from 1.12 to 4.5%. The main objective of this study was to evaluate occurrence of carcinoma in the CRM specimens in the framework of a breast reconstruction operation. The secondary objective was to determine the consequences of the incidentally discovered carcinoma in the contralateral breast.
Material and methods
This was a 6-year, bicentric, retrospective study involving women having undergone breast cancer surgery who later underwent contralateral reduction mammaplasty (CRM), that is to say reconstruction aimed at harmonization of the two breasts.
Three hundred and nineteen patients were included in the study. Mean age during the CRM was 55 years (29–79). Mean weight of the surgical specimens was 323 grams (12–2500). Incidence of occult carcinomas found in the specimens was 0.94% (3 patients). The mean age for these 3 cases was 58 years (47–64). All 3 patients had superior pedicle mammaplasty. One of the patients benefited from monobloc resection with orientation of the surgical specimen. In the other 2 cases, there existed 3 surgical resection specimens; in one case, they were oriented; in the other, they were not. In all 3 cases, the histological findings were unifocal ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). Mean tumor size was 5.7 mm (3–9). Only the patient having had monobloc resection with orientation of the specimen underwent salvage surgery, which consisted in partial mastectomy, otherwise known as secondary lumpectomy. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered to all of the patients. After 17 months of mean follow-up (12–22), no recurrence was found in any of the three cases.
Incidence of occult contralateral breast carcinomas after symmetrization CRM approximates 1%. Our observations are in agreement with the data in the literature. Incidence is greater than in mammaplasty carried out for esthetic or functional reasons; this is probably due to the higher age and the previous breast cancer history of the breast reconstruction population. Monobloc resection and orientation of the surgical specimens with surgeon's knots facilitate precise pinpointing of the occult carcinoma. A secondary lumpectomy may take place when margins of excision are invaded or inadequate.
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique 04/2014; · 0.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radical nodes dissection has a diagnostic value and can play a part in the treatment. Its interest could be questionable according to efficacy of the associated treatments either adjuvant or neo-adjuvant. Above all, sentinel node dissection allows to avoid a radical dissection with deleterious effects.
Bulletin du cancer 04/2014; 101(4):342-344. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare tumor of ovary, included in the sex cord-stromal tumor category, hormone secreting. Seventeen patients with adult-type granulosa cell tumor were identified between 1995 and 2012. All have received surgical treatment first at stage I. Thirty-three percent of the patients relapsed with peritoneal nodules in 68% of the cases, treated surgically and sometimes with complementary therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal treatment. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were 100% and 58.3%, respectively at 10years with median time to recurrence of 6years (4-27). These tumors have therefore a good prognosis and require long-time follow-up. Finally, the prognostic factors of recurrence identified in the literature are FIGO stage, the presence of residual tumor and tumor size.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Duodenal GISTs represent 3-5% of all GISTs with limited understanding of patient outcomes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of primary localized duodenal GISTs.
Patients were identified via a survey from 16 FSG centers (n=105), and a group of 9 patients enrolled in the BFR14 trial. Data were collected from the original database and patient files, in agreement with French legislation.
114 patients were included, with a median age of 57. Tumors originated mainly in D2 (33%), or D3 (24%), with a median size of 5 cm. 109 patients had resection of the primary tumor; with a Local Resection (LR, n=82), a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, n=23), and data were missing for 4 patients. Resections were R0 (n= 87, 79%), R1 (n= 8, 7%), R2 (n=6). Tumor characteristics were: KIT+ (n=104), CD34 + (n= 58). Miettinen risk was low (n=43), and high (n=52). Imatinib was administered preoperatively (n=12) and post-operatively (n=19). With a median follow-up of 36 months (2-250), 98 patients are alive, and 33 relapsed. The 5-year OS and EFS rates are 86.5% and 54.5%. EFS was similar for patients in the LR and the PD groups (P > 0.05).
In multivariate analysis, ECOG PS, and CD34 expression are independent prognostic factors on OS. Miettinen risk and spindle cell type are independent predictive factors for relapse.
Patients with resected duodenal GIST have a reasonably favourable prognosis. This study favours a preservation of pancreas when there are no anatomical constraints. LR exhibit similar survival and smaller morbidity then PD.
European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO). 01/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare tumor of ovary, included in the sex cord-stromal tumor category, hormone secreting. Seventeen patients with adult-type granulosa cell tumor were identified between 1995 and 2012. All have received surgical treatment first at stage I. Thirty-three percent of the patients relapsed with peritoneal nodules in 68% of the cases, treated surgically and sometimes with complementary therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal treatment. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were 100% and 58.3%, respectively at 10 years with median time to recurrence of 6 years (4–27). These tumors have therefore a good prognosis and require long-time follow-up. Finally, the prognostic factors of recurrence identified in the literature are FIGO stage, the presence of residual tumor and tumor size.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Near-infrared (NIR) imaging of the lymphatic system offers a sensitive, versatile, and accurate lymph node mapping to locate the first, potentially metastatic, draining nodes in the operating room. Many luminescent nanoprobes have received great attention in this field, and the design of nontoxic and bright nanosystems is of crucial importance. Fluorescent NIR-emitting dye doped silica nanoparticles represent valuable platforms to fulfill these scopes, providing sufficient brightness, resistance to photobleaching, and hydrophilic nontoxic materials. Here, we synthesized these highly stable core-shell nanoparticles with a programmable surface charge positioning and determined the effect of these physicochemical properties on their in vivo behavior. In addition, we characterized their fluorescence kinetic profile in the right axillary lymph node (RALN) mapping. We found that nanoparticles with negative charges hidden by a PEG shell are more appropriate than those with external negative charges in the mapping of lymph nodes. We also demonstrated the efficient excretion of these nanostructures by the hepatobiliary route and their nontoxicity in mice up to 3 months postinjection. These results indicate the potential future development of these fluorescent nanosystems for LN mapping.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative radiochemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision is the standard of care for T3-T4-N0 or TxN1 rectal cancer. Defining target volumes relies on the patterns of nodal and locoregional failures. The lower limit of the clinical target volume depends also on the type of surgery. Conformational radiotherapy with or without intensity-modulated radiotherapy implies an accurate definition of volumes and inherent margins in the context of mobile organs such as the upper rectum. Tumoral staging recently improved with newer imaging techniques such as MRI with or without USPIO and FDG-PET-CT. The role of PET-CT remains unclear despite encouraging results and MRI is a helpful tool for a reliable delineation of the gross tumour volume. Co-registration of such modalities with the planning CT may particularly guide radiation oncologists through the gross tumour volume delineation. Acute digestive toxicity can be reduced with intensity modulation radiation therapy. Different guidelines and CT-based atlas regarding the target volumes in rectal cancer give the radiation oncologist a lot of ground for reproducible contours.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) analysis is conventionally analyzed using immunohistochemistry and in the case of SLN involvement, justifies a second surgery for axillary lymph node (ALN) resection, thus delaying the initiation of adjuvant therapies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred and eighty-one patients with early stage breast cancer (BC) were considered in this retrospective study. SLNs were detected using combined radioisotope and dye detection. SLN involvement was analyzed using routine intraoperative One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) assay, in 100 patients and compared with the conventional histopathology carried out previously in 281 patients. RESULTS: Considering positive SLNs as '++' (CK19 mRNA copy number>5000), '+' (250 < CK19 mRNA copy number <5000) and positive by inhibition in the OSNA group and macro-, micrometastases and isolated tumor cells in the histopathology group, no difference in SLN involvement rate was found between the two groups with 29.0% and 29.9% of positive SLNs, respectively. Using OSNA intraoperatively, the mean time to process the SLN was 42 min allowing immediate ALN resection, reduced significantly (P < 0.01) the re-intervention rate (9% versus 39%) and significantly (P < 0.01) accelerated the initiation of adjuvant therapy (6.2 versus 8.4 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: Using OSNA for intraoperative SLN analysis avoids second surgery for ALN resection in most patients and accelerates initiation of adjuvant therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recurrence rate after a single treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with CO2 laser vaporization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty women with usual-type or differentiated VIN (grades 2 and 3) treated with CO2 laser vaporization or surgery excision (cold knife or CO2 laser) were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 50 patients, 41 (82.0%) had usual-type VIN and 9 (18.0%) had differentiated VIN. Moreover, 24 (48.0%) were treated with surgery excision and 26 (52.0%) underwent CO2 laser vaporization. Laser-treated patients were significantly younger (p < .01) with more multifocal (p < .05) and multicentric lesions (p < .01) than in the surgery group. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates at 1 year were 91.0% for the surgery and 65.2% for the laser vaporization groups (p < .01). At 5 years, RFS rates were unchanged for the surgery group and dropped to 51.3% (p < .01) for the laser group. On the univariate analysis, current smoker (p = .03), multicentric VIN (p = .02), and laser vaporization treatment (p < .01) had a statistically significant impact on RFS. One patient progressed to invasive cancer (2%). CONCLUSIONS: The recurrence rate after CO2 laser vaporization requires regular, close, and extended monitoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectif
L’objectif de cet article est d’illustrer l’utilisation de la radiofréquence couplée au laser en cancérologie ORL ainsi que la prise en charge d’un chondrosarcome laryngé chez un patient de 90 ans.
Présentation du cas
Il s’agit d’un patient de 90 ans, OMS 3, présentant un chondrosarcome endolaryngé de bas grade, vu en consultation fin 2008 pour bilan d’une dysphonie. Une laryngectomie totale jugée trop lourde et par conséquent récusée, le patient a été tout d’abord trachéotomisé sous anesthésie locale devant une dyspnée, et pris en charge dans un second temps pour une désobstruction endolaryngée à visée symptomatique associant radiofréquence et laser. Cela a permis au patient une décanulation sous couvert d’une rééducation orthophonique avec réalimentation per os.
Dans notre cas, le patient a bénéficié d’un traitement palliatif associant de la radiofréquence et du laser dans le cadre d’un traitement à visée symptomatique.
La radiofréquence peut être appliquée en cancérologie ORL comme traitement alternatif à la chirurgie permettant une amélioration de la qualité de vie et de la survie.
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale. 04/2013; 130(2):95–97.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Despite a high response rate to front-line therapy, prognosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) remains poor. Approaches that combine Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been developed recently. The purpose of this study was to assess early and long-term survival in patients treated with this strategy.
Patients and methods
A retrospective cohort multicentric study from French centres was performed. All consecutive patients with advanced and recurrent EOC treated with CRS and HIPEC were included.
The study included 566 patients from 13 centres who underwent 607 procedures between 1991 and 2010. There were 92 patients with advanced EOC (first-line treatment), and 474 patients with recurrent EOC. A complete cytoreductive surgery was performed in 74.9% of patients. Mortality and grades 3 to 4 morbidity rates were 0.8% and 31.3%, respectively. The median overall survivals were 35.4 months and 45.7 months for advanced and recurrent EOC, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall survival between patients with chemosensitive and with chemoresistant recurrence. Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) that evaluated disease extent was the strongest independent prognostic factor for overall and disease-free survival in all groups.
For advanced and recurrent EOC, curative therapeutic approach combining optimal CRS and HIPEC should be considered as it may achieve long-term survival in patients with a severe prognosis disease, even in patients with chemoresistant disease. PCI should be used for patient's selection.
European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 01/2013; 39(12):1435–1443. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pure Tubular Carcinoma (PTC) of the breast is a rare histological subtype of invasive breast cancer characterized by a low rate of lymph node involvement. Currently there is no consensus on less surgical axillary node staging according to this histological subtype. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multi-institutional study. Inclusion criteria were PTC, sentinel lymph node detection (SLND) and conservative breast surgery. RESULTS: From January 1999 to December 2006, 234 patients were included in the study from 9 institutions. The median pathological tumor size was 9.59 (1-22) mm. SLN were successfully detected in 98% (229/234) of patients. Among the 234 patients, a macrometastasis was found in 6 cases (2.5%), micrometastasis in 15 cases (6.4%), and isolated cells in 2 cases (0.8%). In the case of patients with SLND macrometastasis, half of them had macrometastasis in the complementary axillary lymphadenectomy, and none in the case of SLN only micrometastasis or isolated cells. Of the 122 patients with a pathological tumor size <10 mm, none had sentinel node macrometastasis. According to a multivariate analysis, pathological tumor size (>10 mm) was the only parameter significatively linked to the risk of lymph node involvement (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: In a large multi-institutional series with SLND, we have shown that the risk of axillary lymph node involvement in PTC is very low. In the case of PTC <10 mm, we suggest that surgical axillary evaluation, even with SLND, may not be warranted.
European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 12/2012; · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of radiofrequency and laser ablation in head and neck oncology and to describe the management of a case of laryngeal chondrosarcoma in a 90-year-old patient. CASE REPORT: A 90-year-old man, WHO performance status 3, with low-grade laryngeal chondrosarcoma was seen in the outpatients department at the end of 2008 for assessment of dysphonia. Total laryngectomy was considered to be too invasive and was consequently excluded. The patient was initially tracheotomized under local anaesthesia to relieve dyspnoea and was subsequently managed symptomatically by radiofrequency and laser ablation to ensure laryngeal disobstruction, allowing the patient to be extubated followed by speech therapy and oral feeding rehabilitation. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This patient received symptomatic palliative treatment with a combination of radiofrequency and laser. Radiofrequency ablation can be applied in head and neck oncology as an alternative treatment to surgery allowing improvement of quality of life and survival.
European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases 09/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Near infrared fluorescence offers several advantages for tissue and in vivo imaging thanks to deeper photon penetration. In this article, we review a promising class of near infrared emitting probes based on semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which have the potential to considerably improve in vivo fluorescence imaging thanks to their high brightness and stability. We discuss in particular the different criteria to optimize the design of near infrared QDs. We present the recent developments in the synthesis of novel QD materials and their different in vivo imaging applications, including lymph node localization, vasculature imaging, tumor localization, as well as cell tracking and QD-based multimodal probes.
Advanced drug delivery reviews 09/2012; · 11.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although considerable progresses were made in the field of medically assisted procreation, surgery keeps its place in the therapeutic armamentarium of female infertility. Indeed, its results are very interesting, both in its tubal, myometrial and endometriosis indications. Laparotomy is the first step in the development of any surgical technique. Laparoscopy brings benefits concerning recovery, but also in terms of fertility because of the reduction of postoperative adhesions. Nevertheless, comfort of the surgeon, so the ease of skills, are often altered, especially for complex operations such as those implicated in infertility treatment. Robot-assistance takes here all its interest. It allows indeed a quality in the realization of precise and complex skills, and results at least as interesting as standard laparoscopy can be provided. An overview of robot-assistance in surgery of female infertility is here presented. A review of world literature furnished multiple studies evaluating the tubal robotic surgery, and demonstrating its interesting results. Other indications could, according to us, emerge and be evaluated in this area, such as myomectomy and endometriosis surgery.
Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 06/2012; 41(5):409-17. · 0.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeSurgical resection remains the standard treatment for patients with resectable retroperitoneal sarcomas. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the outcomes of patients with primary retroperitoneal sarcoma.Patients and methodsWe analysed data of 50 patients with primary retroperitoneal sarcoma who underwent curative-intent resection from 1975 to 2008. External beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy were delivered postoperatively. Demographics, surgical, pathological variables and chemo/radiation therapy were analysed as prognosis factors.ResultsThere were 22 males and 28 females (mean age 54 ± 13 years). Surgery required visceral resections in 30 patients. There were 16 leiomyosarcomas, 25 liposarcomas and eight other sub-types. Twenty-one patients had clear surgical margins. Twenty-eight patients received postoperative external beam radiotherapy (median 45 Gy) and 15 received chemotherapy. At the end of the follow-up (median 55 months), local recurrence occurred in 39% (n = 14) among R0/R1 resection group (n = 36). Postoperative external beam radiotherapy tends to increase the time of local recurrence from surgery (27 vs. 13 months, P = 0.05). The overall survival rates were 81%, 55% and 46% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Although R0 resection (P = 0.01), well tumour differentiation (P = 0.004) and postoperative external beam radiotherapy (P = 0.02) significantly influenced overall survival in univariate analysis, only R0 resection was an independent prognostic factor in a multivariate analysis.Conclusion
We confirm the pre-eminence of radical surgery with negative margins as major prognostic factor and the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical resection remains the standard treatment for patients with resectable retroperitoneal sarcomas. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the outcomes of patients with primary retroperitoneal sarcoma.
We analysed data of 50 patients with primary retroperitoneal sarcoma who underwent curative-intent resection from 1975 to 2008. External beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy were delivered postoperatively. Demographics, surgical, pathological variables and chemo/radiation therapy were analysed as prognosis factors.
There were 22 males and 28 females (mean age 54 ± 13 years). Surgery required visceral resections in 30 patients. There were 16 leiomyosarcomas, 25 liposarcomas and eight other sub-types. Twenty-one patients had clear surgical margins. Twenty-eight patients received postoperative external beam radiotherapy (median 45 Gy) and 15 received chemotherapy. At the end of the follow-up (median 55 months), local recurrence occurred in 39% (n=14) among R0/R1 resection group (n=36). Postoperative external beam radiotherapy tends to increase the time of local recurrence from surgery (27 vs. 13 months, P=0.05). The overall survival rates were 81%, 55% and 46% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Although R0 resection (P=0.01), well tumour differentiation (P=0.004) and postoperative external beam radiotherapy (P=0.02) significantly influenced overall survival in univariate analysis, only R0 resection was an independent prognostic factor in a multivariate analysis.
We confirm the pre-eminence of radical surgery with negative margins as major prognostic factor and the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to its non-invasiveness, high temporal resolution and lower cost, fluorescence imaging is an interesting alternative to the current method (blue dye and radiocolloid) of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer. Near-infrared (NIR) emitting cadmium-based Quantum Dots (QDs) could be used for this purpose; however, their wide application is limited because of the toxicity of heavy metals composing the core. Our recent work demonstrated that indium-based QDs exhibit a weak acute local toxicity in vivo compared to their cadmium-based counterparts. In the present study we confirmed the weak toxicity of CuInS(2)/ZnS QDs in different in vitro models. Further in vivo studies in healthy mice showed that In-based QDs could be visualised in SLN in a few minutes after administration with a progressive increase in fluorescence until 8 h. The quantity of indium was assessed in selected organs and tissues by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) as a function of post-injection time. QD levels decrease rapidly at the injection point in the first hours after administration with a parallel increase in the lymph nodes and to a lesser extent in the liver and spleen. In addition, we observed that 3.5% of the injected indium dose was excreted in faeces in the first 4 days, with only trace quantities in the urine. Metastatic spread to the lymph nodes may hamper its visualisation. Therefore, we further performed non-invasive fluorescence measurement of QDs in SLN in tumour-bearing mice. Metastatic status was assessed by immunohistology and molecular techniques and revealed the utmost metastatic invasion of 36% of SLN. Fluorescence signal was the same irrespective of SLN status. Thus, near-infrared emitting cadmium-free QDs could be an excellent SLN tracer.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e44433. · 3.53 Impact Factor