F Speleman

Ghent University, Gand, Flanders, Belgium

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Publications (169)660.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The MYB oncogene is a leucine zipper transcription factor essential for normal and malignant hematopoiesis. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), elevated MYB levels can arise directly through T-cell receptor mediated MYB translocations, genomic MYB duplications or enhanced TAL1 complex binding at the MYB locus, or indirectly through the TAL1/miR-223/FBXW7 regulatory axis. In this study, we used an unbiased MYB 3'UTR - microRNA library screen and identified 33 putative MYB targeting microRNAs. Subsequently, transcriptome data from two independent T-ALL cohorts and different subsets of normal T-cells were used to select microRNAs with relevance in the context of normal and malignant T-cell transformation. Hereby, miR-193b-3p was identified as a novel bona fide tumor suppressor microRNA that targets MYB during malignant T-cell transformation thereby offering an entry point for efficient MYB targeting oriented therapies for human T-ALL.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 18 September 2014. doi:10.1038/leu.2014.276.
    Leukemia. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer that originates from neural crest-derived cells, is the most common deadly solid tumor of infancy. Amplification of the MYCN oncogene, which occurs in approximately 20-25% of human neuroblastomas, is the most prominent genetic marker of high-stage disease. The availability of valid preclinical in vivo models is a prerequisite to develop novel targeted therapies. We here report on the generation of transgenic mice with Cre-conditional induction of MYCN in dopamine β-hydroxylase-expressing cells, termed LSL-MYCN;Dbh-iCre. These mice develop neuroblastic tumors with an incidence of >75%, regardless of strain background. Molecular profiling of tumors revealed upregulation of the MYCN-dependent miR-17-92 cluster as well as expression of neuroblastoma marker genes, including tyrosine hydroxylase and the neural cell adhesion molecule 1. Gene set enrichment analyses demonstrated significant correlation with MYC-associated expression patterns. Array comparative genome hybridization showed that chromosomal aberrations in LSL-MYCN;Dbh-iCre tumors were syntenic to those observed in human neuroblastomas. Treatment of a cell line established from a tumor derived from a LSL-MYCN;Dbh-iCre mouse with JQ1 or MLN8237 reduced cell viability and demonstrated oncogene addiction to MYCN. Here we report establishment of the first Cre-conditional human MYCN-driven mouse model for neuroblastoma that closely recapitulates the human disease with respect to tumor localization, histology, marker expression and genomic make up. This mouse model is a valuable tool for further functional studies and to assess the effect of targeted therapies.Oncogene advance online publication, 1 September 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.269.
    Oncogene 09/2014; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 03/2013; · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Using mRNA expression-derived signatures as predictors of individual patient outcome has been a goal ever since the introduction of microarrays. Here, we addressed whether analyses of tumour mRNA at the exon level can improve on the predictive power and classification accuracy of gene-based expression profiles using neuroblastoma as a model.Methods:In a patient cohort comprising 113 primary neuroblastoma specimens expression profiling using exon-level analyses was performed to define predictive signatures using various machine-learning techniques. Alternative transcript use was calculated from relative exon expression. Validation of alternative transcripts was achieved using qPCR- and cell-based approaches.Results:Both predictors derived from the gene or the exon levels resulted in prediction accuracies >80% for both event-free and overall survival and proved as independent prognostic markers in multivariate analyses. Alternative transcript use was most prominently linked to the amplification status of the MYCN oncogene, expression of the TrkA/NTRK1 neurotrophin receptor and survival.Conclusion:As exon level-based prediction yields comparable, but not significantly better, prediction accuracy than gene expression-based predictors, gene-based assays seem to be sufficiently precise for predicting outcome of neuroblastoma patients. However, exon-level analyses provide added knowledge by identifying alternative transcript use, which should deepen the understanding of neuroblastoma biology.
    British Journal of Cancer 10/2012; 107(8):1409-17. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:In the INRG dataset, the hypothesis that any segmental chromosomal alteration might be of prognostic impact in neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification (MNA) was tested.Methods:The presence of any segmental chromosomal alteration (chromosome 1p deletion, 11q deletion and/or chromosome 17q gain) defined a segmental genomic profile. Only tumours with a confirmed unaltered status for all three chromosome arms were considered as having no segmental chromosomal alterations.Results:Among the 8800 patients in the INRG database, a genomic type could be attributed for 505 patients without MNA: 397 cases had a segmental genomic type, whereas 108 cases had an absence of any segmental alteration. A segmental genomic type was more frequent in patients >18 months and in stage 4 disease (P<0.0001). In univariate analysis, 11q deletion, 17q gain and a segmental genomic type were associated with a poorer event-free survival (EFS) (P<0.0001, P=0.0002 and P<0.0001, respectively). In multivariate analysis modelling EFS, the parameters age, stage and a segmental genomic type were retained in the model, whereas the individual genetic markers were not (P<0.0001 and RR=2.56; P=0.0002 and RR=1.8; P=0.01 and RR=1.7, respectively).Conclusion:A segmental genomic profile, rather than the single genetic markers, adds prognostic information to the clinical markers age and stage in neuroblastoma patients without MNA, underlining the importance of pangenomic studies.
    British Journal of Cancer 09/2012; 107(8):1418-22. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of cancer, including the pediatric cancer neuroblastoma, but the underlying mechanisms leading to altered miRNA expression are often unknown. Here, a novel integrated approach for analyzing DNA methylation coupled with miRNA and mRNA expression data sets identified 67 epigenetically regulated miRNA in neuroblastoma. A large proportion (42%) of these miRNAs was associated with poor patient survival when underexpressed in tumors. Moreover, we demonstrate that this panel of epigenetically silenced miRNAs targets a large set of genes that are overexpressed in tumors from patients with poor survival in a highly redundant manner. The genes targeted by the epigenetically regulated miRNAs are enriched for a number of biological processes, including regulation of cell differentiation. Functional studies involving ectopic overexpression of several of the epigenetically silenced miRNAs had a negative impact on neuroblastoma cell viability, providing further support to the concept that inactivation of these miRNAs is important for neuroblastoma disease pathogenesis. One locus, miR-340, induced either differentiation or apoptosis in a cell context dependent manner, indicating a tumor suppressive function for this miRNA. Intriguingly, it was determined that miR-340 is upregulated by demethylation of an upstream genomic region that occurs during the process of neuroblastoma cell differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Further biological studies of miR-340 revealed that it directly represses the SOX2 transcription factor by targeting of its 3'-untranslated region, explaining the mechanism by which SOX2 is downregulated by ATRA. Although SOX2 contributes to the maintenance of stem cells in an undifferentiated state, we demonstrate that miR-340-mediated downregulation of SOX2 is not required for ATRA induced differentiation to occur. In summary, our results exemplify the dynamic nature of the miRNA epigenome and identify a remarkable network of miRNA/mRNA interactions that significantly contribute to neuroblastoma disease pathogenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 16 July 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.311.
    Oncogene 07/2012; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1/KDM1A) has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in solid cancers and more recently in acute myeloid leukemia. However, the potential side effects of a LSD1-inhibitory therapy remain elusive. Here, we show, with a newly established conditional in vivo knockdown model, that LSD1 represents a central regulator of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. LSD1 knockdown (LSD1-kd) expanded progenitor numbers by enhancing their proliferative behavior. LSD1-kd led to an extensive expansion of granulomonocytic, erythroid and megakaryocytic progenitors. In contrast, terminal granulopoiesis, erythropoiesis and platelet production were severely inhibited. The only exception was monopoiesis, which was promoted by LSD1 deficiency. Importantly, we showed that peripheral blood granulocytopenia, monocytosis, anemia and thrombocytopenia were reversible after LSD1-kd termination. Extramedullary splenic hematopoiesis contributed to the phenotypic reversion, and progenitor populations remained expanded. LSD1-kd was associated with the upregulation of key hematopoietic genes, including Gfi1b, Hoxa9 and Meis1, which are known regulators of the HSC/progenitor compartment. We also demonstrated that LSD1-kd abrogated Gfi1b-negative autoregulation by crossing LSD1-kd with Gfi1b:GFP mice. Taken together, our findings distinguish LSD1 as a critical regulator of hematopoiesis and point to severe, but reversible, side effects of a LSD1-targeted therapy.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 06/2012; 26(9):2039-51. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor with a heterogeneous clinical course. The tumor is presumed to be derived from the neural crest, but the cells of origin remain to be determined. To date, few recurrent genetic changes contributing to neuroblastoma formation, such as amplification of the MYCN oncogene and activating mutations of the ALK oncogene, have been identified. The possibility to model neuroblastoma in mice allows investigation of the cell of origin hypothesis in further detail. Here we present the evidence that murine neural crest progenitor cells can give rise to neuroblastoma upon transformation with MYCN or ALK(F1174L). For this purpose we used JoMa1, a multipotent neural crest progenitor cell line, which is kept in a viable and undifferentiated state by a tamoxifen-activated c-Myc transgene (c-MycER(T)). Expression of MYCN or ALK(F1174L), one of the oncogenic ALK variants identified in primary neuroblastomas, enabled these cells to grow independently of c-MycER(T) activity in vitro and caused formation of neuroblastoma-like tumors in vivo in contrast to parental JoMa1 cells and JoMa1 cells-expressing TrkA or GFP. Tumorigenicity was enhanced upon serial transplantation of tumor-derived cells, and tumor cells remained susceptible to the MYC-inhibitor, NBT-272, indicating that cell growth depended on functional MYCN. Our findings support neural crest progenitor cells as the precursor cells of neuroblastoma, and indicate that neuroblastomas arise as their malignant progeny.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 April 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.106.
    Oncogene 04/2012; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EWS-FLI1 is a chromosome translocation-derived chimeric transcription factor that has a central and rate-limiting role in the pathogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma. Although the EWS-FLI1 transcriptomic signature has been extensively characterized on the mRNA level, information on its impact on non-coding RNA expression is lacking. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of microRNAs affected by RNAi-mediated silencing of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma cell lines, and differentially expressed between primary Ewing's sarcoma and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Here, we report on the identification of hsa-mir-145 as the top EWS-FLI1-repressed microRNA. Upon knockdown of EWS-FLI1, hsa-mir-145 expression dramatically increases in all Ewing's sarcoma cell lines tested. Vice versa, ectopic expression of the microRNA in Ewing's sarcoma cell lines strongly reduced EWS-FLI1 protein, whereas transfection of an anti-mir to hsa-mir-145 increased the EWS-FLI1 levels. Reporter gene assays revealed that this modulation of EWS-FLI1 protein was mediated by the microRNA targeting the FLI1 3'-untranslated region. Mutual regulations of EWS-FLI1 and hsa-mir-145 were mirrored by an inverse correlation between their expression levels in four of the Ewing's sarcoma cell lines tested. Consistent with the role of EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma growth regulation, forced hsa-mir-145 expression halted Ewing's sarcoma cell line growth. These results identify feedback regulation between EWS-FLI1 and hsa-mir-145 as an important component of the EWS-FLI1-mediated Ewing's sarcomagenesis that may open a new avenue to future microRNA-mediated therapy of this devastating malignant disease.
    Oncogene 01/2011; 30(18):2173-80. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several microRNA (miRNA) loci are found within genomic regions frequently deleted in primary neuroblastoma, including miR-885-5p at 3p25.3. In this study, we demonstrate that miR-885-5p is downregulated on loss of 3p25.3 region in neuroblastoma. Experimentally enforced miR-885-5p expression in neuroblastoma cell lines inhibits proliferation triggering cell cycle arrest, senescence and/or apoptosis. miR-885-5p leads to the accumulation of p53 protein and activates the p53 pathway, resulting in upregulation of p53 targets. Enforced miR-885-5p expression consistently leads to downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2) and mini-chromosome maintenance protein (MCM5). Both genes are targeted by miR-885-5p via predicted binding sites within the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of CDK2 and MCM5. Transcript profiling after miR-885-5p introduction in neuroblastoma cells reveals alterations in expression of multiple genes, including several p53 target genes and a number of factors involved in p53 pathway activity. Taken together, these data provide evidence that miR-885-5p has a tumor suppressive role in neuroblastoma interfering with cell cycle progression and cell survival.
    Cell death and differentiation 01/2011; 18(6):974-84. · 8.24 Impact Factor
  • Blood 01/2011; 118(21):599-599. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Risk-adjusted treatment stratification in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) is currently based only on early response to chemotherapy. We investigated the prognostic implication of hyperactivation of NOTCH pathway resulting from mutations of NOTCH1 or FBXW7 in children with T-ALL enrolled in EORTC-CLG trials. Overall, 80 out of 134 (60%) patients were NOTCH+ (NOTCH1 and/or FBXW7 mutated). Although clinical presentations were not significantly associated with NOTCH status, NOTCH+ patients showed a better early response to chemotherapy as compared with NOTCH- patients, according to the rate of poor pre-phase 'responders' (25% versus 44%; P=0.02) and the incidence of high minimal residual disease (MRD) levels (11% (7/62) versus 32% (10/31); P=0.01) at completion of induction. However, the outcome of NOTCH+ patients was similar to that of NOTCH- patients, with a 5-year event-free survival (EFS) of 73% and 70% (P=0.82), and 5-year overall survival of 82% and 79% (P=0.62), respectively. In patients with high MRD levels, the 5-year EFS rate was 0% (NOTCH+) versus 42% (NOTCH-), whereas in those with low MRD levels, the outcome was similar: 76% (NOTCH+) versus 78% (NOTCH-). The incidence of isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapses was relatively high in NOTCH1+ patients (8.3%), which could be related to a higher propensity of NOTCH+ leukemic blasts to target the CNS.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 12/2010; 24(12):2023-31. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of function mutations and deletions encompassing the plant homeodomain finger 6 (PHF6) gene are present in about 20% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs). Here, we report the identification of recurrent mutations in PHF6 in 10/353 adult acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Genetic lesions in PHF6 found in AMLs are frameshift and nonsense mutations distributed through the gene or point mutations involving the second plant homeodomain (PHD)-like domain of the protein. As in the case of T-ALL, where PHF6 alterations are found almost exclusively in males, mutations in PHF6 were seven times more prevalent in males than in females with AML. Overall, these results identify PHF6 as a tumor suppressor gene mutated in AML and extend the role of this X-linked tumor suppressor gene in the pathogenesis of hematologic tumors.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 10/2010; 25(1):130-4. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Different classes of non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, have recently been implicated in the process of tumourigenesis. In this study, we examined the expression and putative functions of a novel class of non-coding RNAs known as transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) in neuroblastoma. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed correlations between specific T-UCR expression levels and important clinicogenetic parameters such as MYCN amplification status. A functional genomics approach based on the integration of multi-level transcriptome data was adapted to gain insights into T-UCR functions. Assignments of T-UCRs to cellular processes such as TP53 response, differentiation and proliferation were verified using various cellular model systems. For the first time, our results define a T-UCR expression landscape in neuroblastoma and suggest widespread T-UCR involvement in diverse cellular processes that are deregulated in the process of tumourigenesis.
    Oncogene 04/2010; 29(24):3583-92. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the availability of effective anti-EGFR therapies for various solid malignancies, such as non-cell small lung cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, the knowledge of EGFR and K-RAS status becomes clinically important. The aim of this study was to analyse EGFR expression, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR and K-RAS mutations in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas, specifically anal canal and tonsil carcinomas. Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from anal and tonsil carcinoma were used. EGFR protein expression and EGFR gene copy number were analysed by means of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The somatic status of the EGFR gene was investigated by PCR using primers specific for exons 18 through 21. For the K-RAS gene, PCR was performed using exon 2 specific primers. EGFR immunoreactivity was present in 36/43 (83.7%) of anal canal and in 20/24 (83.3%) of tonsil squamous cell carcinomas. EGFR amplification was absent in anal canal tumours (0/23), but could be identified in 4 of 24 tonsil tumours.From 38 anal canal specimens, 26 specimens were successfully analysed for exon 18, 30 for exon 19, 34 for exon 20 and 30 for exon 21. No EGFR mutations were found in the investigated samples. Thirty samples were sequenced for K-RAS exon 2 and no mutation was identified. From 24 tonsil specimens, 22 were successfully analysed for exon 18 and all 24 specimens for exon 19, 20 and 21. No EGFR mutations were found. Twenty-two samples were sequenced for K-RAS exon 2 and one mutation c.53C > A was identified. EGFR mutations were absent from squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and tonsils, but EGFR protein expression was detected in the majority of the cases. EGFR amplification was seen in tonsil but not in anal canal carcinomas. In our investigated panel, only one mutation in the K-RAS gene of a tonsil squamous cell carcinoma was identified. This indicates that EGFR and K-RAS mutation analysis is not useful as a screening test for sensitivity to anti-EGFR therapy in anal canal and tonsil squamous cell carcinoma.
    BMC Cancer 01/2010; 10:189. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Klinische Padiatrie - KLIN PADIAT. 01/2010; 222(03).
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    ABSTRACT: Increased activity of MYC protein-family members is a common feature in many cancers. Using neuroblastoma as a tumor model, we established a microRNA (miRNA) signature for activated MYCN/c-MYC signaling in two independent primary neuroblastoma tumor cohorts and provide evidence that c-MYC and MYCN have overlapping functions. On the basis of an integrated approach including miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression data we show that miRNA activation contributes to widespread mRNA repression, both in c-MYC- and MYCN-activated tumors. c-MYC/MYCN-induced miRNA activation was shown to be dependent on c-MYC/MYCN promoter binding as evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Finally, we show that pathways, repressed through c-MYC/MYCN miRNA activation, are highly correlated to tumor aggressiveness and are conserved across different tumor entities suggesting that c-MYC/MYCN activate a core set of miRNAs for cooperative repression of common transcriptional programs related to disease aggressiveness. Our results uncover a widespread correlation between miRNA activation and c-MYC/MYCN-mediated coding gene expression modulation and further substantiate the overlapping functions of c-MYC and MYCN in the process of tumorigenesis.
    Oncogene 11/2009; 29(9):1394-404. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A primary failsafe program against unrestrained proliferation and oncogenesis is provided by the p53 tumor suppressor protein, inactivation of which is considered as a hallmark of cancer. Intriguingly, mutations of the TP53 gene are rarely encountered in neuroblastoma tumors, suggesting that alternative p53-inactivating lesions account for escape from p53 control in this childhood malignancy. Several recent studies have shed light on the mechanisms by which neuroblastoma cells circumvent the p53-driven antitumor barrier. We review here these mechanisms for evasion of p53-mediated growth control and conclude that deregulation of the p14(ARF)-MDM2-p53 axis seems to be the principal mode of p53 inactivation in neuroblastoma, opening new perspectives for targeted therapeutic intervention.
    Cell death and differentiation 09/2009; 16(12):1563-72. · 8.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma serves as a paradigm for utilising tumour genomic data for determining patient prognosis and treatment allocation. However, before the establishment of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Task Force in 2004, international consensus on markers, methodology, and data interpretation did not exist, compromising the reliability of decisive genetic markers and inhibiting translational research efforts. The objectives of the INRG Biology Committee were to identify highly prognostic genetic aberrations to be included in the new INRG risk classification schema and to develop precise definitions, decisive biomarkers, and technique standardisation. The review of the INRG database (n=8800 patients) by the INRG Task Force finally enabled the identification of the most significant neuroblastoma biomarkers. In addition, the Biology Committee compared the standard operating procedures of different cooperative groups to arrive at international consensus for methodology, nomenclature, and future directions. Consensus was reached to include MYCN status, 11q23 allelic status, and ploidy in the INRG classification system on the basis of an evidence-based review of the INRG database. Standardised operating procedures for analysing these genetic factors were adopted, and criteria for proper nomenclature were developed. Neuroblastoma treatment planning is highly dependant on tumour cell genomic features, and it is likely that a comprehensive panel of DNA-based biomarkers will be used in future risk assignment algorithms applying genome-wide techniques. Consensus on methodology and interpretation is essential for uniform INRG classification and will greatly facilitate international and cooperative clinical and translational research studies.
    British Journal of Cancer 06/2009; 100(9):1471-82. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent 15q13.3 microdeletions were recently identified with identical proximal (BP4) and distal (BP5) breakpoints and associated with mild to moderate mental retardation and epilepsy. To assess further the clinical implications of this novel 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome, 18 new probands with a deletion were molecularly and clinically characterised. In addition, we evaluated the characteristics of a family with a more proximal deletion between BP3 and BP4. Finally, four patients with a duplication in the BP3-BP4-BP5 region were included in this study to ascertain the clinical significance of duplications in this region. The 15q13.3 microdeletion in our series was associated with a highly variable intra- and inter-familial phenotype. At least 11 of the 18 deletions identified were inherited. Moreover, 7 of 10 siblings from four different families also had this deletion: one had a mild developmental delay, four had only learning problems during childhood, but functioned well in daily life as adults, whereas the other two had no learning problems at all. In contrast to previous findings, seizures were not a common feature in our series (only 2 of 17 living probands). Three patients with deletions had cardiac defects and deletion of the KLF13 gene, located in the critical region, may contribute to these abnormalities. The limited data from the single family with the more proximal BP3-BP4 deletion suggest this deletion may have little clinical significance. Patients with duplications of the BP3-BP4-BP5 region did not share a recognisable phenotype, but psychiatric disease was noted in 2 of 4 patients. Overall, our findings broaden the phenotypic spectrum associated with 15q13.3 deletions and suggest that, in some individuals, deletion of 15q13.3 is not sufficient to cause disease. The existence of microdeletion syndromes, associated with an unpredictable and variable phenotypic outcome, will pose the clinician with diagnostic difficulties and challenge the commonly used paradigm in the diagnostic setting that aberrations inherited from a phenotypically normal parent are usually without clinical consequences.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 05/2009; 46(8):511-23. · 5.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
660.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2014
    • Ghent University
      • • Center for Medical Genetics
      • • Department of Pediatrics and Medical Genetics
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Ghent
      • Centre for Medical Genetics
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2006
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
    • Hôpital Universitaire Necker
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004
    • Maastricht University
      • Genetica en Celbiologie
      Maastricht, Provincie Limburg, Netherlands
  • 2001
    • University of Grenoble
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2000
    • Queensland Institute of Medical Research
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 1994–2000
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1999
    • Newcastle University
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 1991–1999
    • University of Antwerp
      • Medische Genetica (MEDGEN)
      Antwerpen, VLG, Belgium
  • 1994–1998
    • University-Hospital Brugmann UVC
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
    • KU Leuven
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium
  • 1992
    • Università degli studi di Cagliari
      Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      • Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Molecolari e Scienze per la Salute
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
    • University of Cape Town
      • Division of Human Genetics
      Cape Town, Province of the Western Cape, South Africa