[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe hypoglycaemia associated with diabetes management is a potential risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect and mechanism of hypoglycaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis remains largely unknown. As a first step towards elucidating the above, we investigated the effect of hypoglycaemia on monocyte-endothelial interaction.
Insulin was injected intraperitoneally once every 3 days for 5 weeks in Goto-Kakizaki rats, a non-obese rat model of type 2 diabetes. We counted the number of monocytes adherent to the endothelium of thoracic aorta as an index of early atherosclerogenesis. Cultured HUVEC were used to investigate the mechanism of action.
Insulin treatment increased the number of monocytes adherent to the vascular endothelium. This increase was abrogated by injection of glucose with insulin. Amosulalol, an α-1 and β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, suppressed monocyte adhesion to endothelium and levels of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) in the endothelial surface, which had been enhanced by insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In HUVEC, adrenaline (epinephrine) significantly increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and levels of adhesion molecules, effects that were abrogated following addition of SQ22536, a specific adenyl cyclase inhibitor.
Our data indicate that repetitive hypoglycaemia induced by insulin enhanced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in Goto-Kakizaki rat aorta through enhanced adrenaline activity and that the latter stimulated intracellular cAMP, leading to nuclear translocation of NF-κB with subsequent production of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectopic activation of hedgehog (HH) signalling in pancreas induces various abnormal morphogenetic events in the pancreas. This study analysed the dose-dependent requirement of patched homologue 1 (PTCH1), a negative regulator of HH signalling on pancreatic development.
We used a recessive spontaneous mutant mouse denoted as mes which carries a mutated Ptch1 resulting in deletion of the most carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the PTCH1 protein. In this study, we analysed pancreatic morphology in Ptch1 ( +/+ ), Ptch1 ( +/mes ), Ptch1 (+/-), Ptch1 ( mes/me ) (s) and Ptch1 (-/mes ) mouse embryos, as well as the islet mass in adult Ptch1 (+/+), Ptch1 (+/mes ) and Ptch1 (+/-) mice.
Until embryonic day (E) 12.5, no obvious abnormality of pancreas was observed in any of the Ptch1 mutants. The levels of PDX1 and glucagon were also not evidently different among the mice genotypes studied. Thereafter, morphological abnormalities appeared in the Ptch1 mutant mice. The beta, alpha and exocrine cell masses decreased at E18.5 in parallel with increased HH signalling, with beta cell mass showing the highest sensitivity to HH signalling with a significant decrease even in Ptch1 (+/mes ) mice. Adult Ptch1 (+/-) mice also showed a significant decrease in beta cell mass compared with wild-type mice.
Our findings indicate that the carboxy-terminal domain of Ptch1 is essential for pancreatic development. In addition, the loss of Ptch1 function decreases both the endocrine and exocrine cell mass in a dose-dependent manner, with beta cells particularly sensitive to changes in HH signalling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have identified the involvement of inhibitor IkappaB kinase (IKK) in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. To investigate the mechanism involved, we examined the role of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), the distal target of IKK, in hepatic glucose metabolism.
To inhibit NF-kappaB activity, db/db mice were infected with adenovirus expressing the IkappaBalpha super-repressor.
The IkappaBalpha super-repressor adenovirus infection caused a moderate reduction of NF-kappaB activity in liver. The treatment was associated with improved glucose tolerance, reduction in the serum insulin level, and increased hepatic triacylglycerol and glycogen contents, but had no effect on insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. On the other hand, quantification of mRNA in the liver revealed marked reduction of expression of gluconeogenic genes, such as those encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase, concurrent with reduced expression of gene encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PPARGC1A, also known as PGC-1alpha). Furthermore, the production of super-repressor IkappaBalpha suppressed the increase in blood glucose level after pyruvate injection.
Our results indicate that moderate inhibition of NF-kappaB improved glucose tolerance through decreased gluconeogenesis associated with reduced PGC-1alpha gene expression in db/db mice, and suggest that inhibition of NF-kappaB activity in liver is a potentially suitable strategy for the normalisation of blood glucose concentration in type 2 diabetes.