[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conclusion:
Targeted efforts by health care professionals and governments are needed to optimise diagnostic and management approaches for PKU in Southern and Eastern Europe. "What is Known" • PKU must be detected early and optimally managed throughout life to avoid poor outcomes, yet newborn screening is not universal and diagnostic and management practices for PKU are known to vary widely between different centres and countries. • Targeted efforts by health care professionals and governments are needed to optimise diagnostic and management approaches. "What is New" • PKU management practices are documented in 19 South and Eastern European countries indicating a heterogeneous situation across the region. • Key areas for improvement identified in surveyed centres include a need for comprehensive screening in all countries, increased number of metabolic dietitians and specialised adult PKU clinics, delayed time to treatment initiation, appropriate Phe thresholds, Phe targets and monitoring frequencies, and universal access to currently available treatment options.
European Journal of Pediatrics 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00431-015-2622-5 · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Lysosomal acid lipase is an essential lipid-metabolizing enzyme that breaks down endocytosed lipid particles and regulates lipid metabolism. We conducted a phase 3 trial of enzyme-replacement therapy in children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency, an underappreciated cause of cirrhosis and severe dyslipidemia. Methods In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 66 patients, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of enzyme-replacement therapy with sebelipase alfa (administered intravenously at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight every other week); the placebo-controlled phase of the study was 20 weeks long and was followed by open-label treatment for all patients. The primary end point was normalization of the alanine aminotransferase level. Secondary end points included additional disease-related efficacy assessments, safety, and side-effect profile. Results Substantial disease burden at baseline included a very high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (≥190 mg per deciliter) in 38 of 66 patients (58%) and cirrhosis in 10 of 32 patients (31%) who underwent biopsy. A total of 65 of the 66 patients who underwent randomization completed the double-blind portion of the trial and continued with open-label treatment. At 20 weeks, the alanine aminotransferase level was normal in 11 of 36 patients (31%) in the sebelipase alfa group and in 2 of 30 (7%) in the placebo group (P=0.03), with mean changes from baseline of -58 U per liter versus -7 U per liter (P<0.001). With respect to prespecified key secondary efficacy end points, we observed improvements in lipid levels and reduction in hepatic fat content (P<0.001 for all comparisons, except P=0.04 for triglycerides). The number of patients with adverse events was similar in the two groups; most events were mild and were considered by the investigator to be unrelated to treatment. Conclusions Sebelipase alfa therapy resulted in a reduction in multiple disease-related hepatic and lipid abnormalities in children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency. (Funded by Synageva BioPharma and others; ARISE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01757184 .).
New England Journal of Medicine 09/2015; 373(11):1010-1020. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1501365 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II) is associated with a broad spectrum of chronic and progressive, life-limiting symptoms. Idursulfase is approved for MPS II enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in over 50 countries. This retrospective study evaluated the MPS II burden, organization of clinical care, and effects of idursulfase treatment on the disease in France.
MPS II patients who had received idursulfase ERT in the French healthcare system were enrolled. In addition to clinician and patient questionnaires, the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I); Patient Global Impression-Improvement (PGI-I); KIDSCREEN-27, and EuroQoL-5D for adult patients scales were used to assess quality of life (QoL) and efficacy.
Fifty-two patients were enrolled from 5 sites in France. The majority of patients (69.2%) presented a severe MPS II phenotype with progressive neurocognitive impairment. Major impacts on QoL were apparent, with at least 1 member of the family having to reorganize working hours (45.5%) or to stop working (22.7%). KIDSCREEN-27 and EuroQoL-5D scale scores were well below those for referent (control) populations. Most families (70.0%) experienced a diagnostic delay of at least 3 years after the initial observation of symptoms. The MPS II diagnosis was often delivered without adequate sensitivity, psychological support, or comprehensive information about the disease. The study population had received a mean of 3.8 ± 1.3 years ERT. Forty-four percent of patients with the attenuated phenotype (without progressive neurocognitive impairment) showed symptom improvement during both the first year (Period 1) and from the end of the first year of treatment to "the present" (Period 2), as measured by CGI-I/PGI-I. 30.3% and 9.1% of severe patients experienced symptom improvement during Periods 1 and 2, respectively, while 63.6% and 51.5% displayed no change. The most common adverse reactions reported were skin rash and other infusion-associated reactions.
MPS II adversely affects multiple domains of QoL for patients and families, requiring multiple healthcare services and social aid programs. The majority of patients with either phenotype experienced either improvement or stability in their symptoms during the first year of ERT, but this was clearly less so for patients with the severe phenotype after the first year of treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sapropterin dihydrochloride (Kuvan(®)), a synthetic 6R-diastereoisomer of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), is approved in Europe for the treatment of patients aged ≥4 years with hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA) due to BH4-responsive phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency, in conjunction with a phenylalanine-restricted diet, and also for the treatment of patients with BH4 deficiency.
KAMPER is an ongoing, observational, multicentre registry with the primary objective of providing information over 15 years on long-term safety of sapropterin dihydrochloride treatment in patients with HPA. Here we report initial data on characteristics from patients recruited by the time of the third interim analysis and results at 1 year.
Overall, 325 patients from 55 sites in seven European countries were included in the analysis: 296 (91.1%) patients with PAH deficiency (median [Q1, Q3] age, 10.3 [7.2, 15.0] years) and 29 (8.9%) with BH4 deficiency (12.8 [6.6, 18.9] years). Fifty-nine patients (18.2%) were aged ≥18 years; 4 patients were pregnant. No elderly patients (aged ≥65 years) or patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency were enroled in the study. Twelve-month data were available for 164 patients with PAH deficiency and 16 with BH4 deficiency. No new safety concerns were identified as of May 2013.
Initial data from KAMPER show that sapropterin dihydrochloride has a favourable safety profile. Registry data collected over time will provide insight into the management and outcomes of patients with PAH deficiency and BH4 deficiency, including long-term safety, impact on growth and neurocognitive outcomes and the effect of sapropterin dihydrochloride treatment on populations of special interest.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neonatal loading studies with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) are used to detect hyperphenylalaninemia due to BH4 deficiency by evaluating decreases in blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations post BH4 load. BH4 responsiveness in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH)-deficient patients introduced a new diagnostic aspect for this test. In older children, a broad spectrum of different levels of responsiveness has been described. The primary objective of this study was to develop a pharmacodynamic model to improve the description of individual sensitivity to BH4 in the neonatal period. Secondary objectives were to evaluate BH4 responsiveness in a large number of PAH-deficient patients from a neonatal screening program and in patients with various confirmed BH4 deficiencies from the BIODEF database.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene(FBP1). Disease is mainly revealed by hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis, both symptoms being characteristic for an enzymatic block in the last steps of the gluconeogenesis. Twelve patients with FBPase deficiency were diagnosed in France in the 2001-2013 period, using a diagnostic system based on a single blood sample which allows simultaneous enzyme activity measurement on mononuclear white blood cells and molecular analysis. Sequencing of exons and intron-exon junctions of FBP1 gene was completed in unsolved cases by a gene dosage assay developed for each exon. For most patients, first metabolic decompensation occurred before two years of age with a similar sequence: the triggering factors were fever, fasting, or decrease of food intake. However, diagnosis was made late at a mean age of 3 years, as mitochondrial defects or glycogen storage diseases were firstly suspected. Enzyme activity in leukocytes was dramatically decreased (<10 %). Twelve different mutations were identified in 22 alleles among them seven were novels: one missense mutation c.472C > T, one point deletion c.48del, one point duplication c.865dupA, one deletion-insertion, and two splice mutations (c.427-1del and c.825 + 1G > A). We described the first intragenic deletion in FBP1 (g.97,364,754_97,382,011del) in homozygous state. Our report also confirms that this very rare disease is misdiagnosed, as other energetic defects are firstly suspected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In phenylketonuria, genetic heterogeneity, frequent compound heterozygosity, and the lack of functional data for phenylalanine hydroxylase genotypes hamper reliable phenotype prediction and individualised treatment.
A literature search revealed 690 different phenylalanine hydroxylase genotypes in 3066 phenylketonuria patients from Europe and the Middle East. We determined phenylalanine hydroxylase function of 30 frequent homozygous and compound heterozygous genotypes covering 55% of the study population, generated activity landscapes, and assessed the phenylalanine hydroxylase working range in the metabolic (phenylalanine) and therapeutic (tetrahydrobiopterin) space.
Shared patterns in genotype-specific functional landscapes were linked to biochemical and pharmacological phenotypes, where (1) residual activity below 3.5% was associated with classical phenylketonuria unresponsive to pharmacological treatment; (2) lack of defined peak activity induced loss of response to tetrahydrobiopterin; (3) a higher cofactor need was linked to inconsistent clinical phenotypes and low rates of tetrahydrobiopterin response; and (4) residual activity above 5%, a defined peak of activity, and a normal cofactor need were associated with pharmacologically treatable mild phenotypes. In addition, we provide a web application for retrieving country-specific information on genotypes and genotype-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase function that warrants continuous extension, updates, and research on demand.
The combination of genotype-specific functional analyses with biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic data of individual patients may serve as a powerful tool to enable phenotype prediction and to establish personalised medicine strategies for dietary regimens and pharmacological treatment in phenylketonuria.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2015; 52(3). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2014-102621 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is no longer considered merely a pediatric concern; current guidelines recommend life-long treatment. However, information on the adult PKU patient population is scarce. A survey was initiated on behalf of the European PKU Group (EPG) that focused specifically on early-treated adult patients diagnosed by neonatal screening. The online survey was sent via email to 204 healthcare professionals (HCPs) in 33 countries. Eighty-one HCPs from 24 countries responded. The main findings were that the majority of adult patients with PKU in active follow-up are under 30 years of age and are managed in centers that also treat children. Seventy-eight percent of adult PKU patients in follow-up receive treatment, mainly by diet (71 %), with BH4 treatment rarely used in adulthood. Only 26 % of responding HCPs perform routine neurocognitive testing in all their adult patients. There was little consensus regarding target blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations, although the majority of respondents reported that their patients achieved blood Phe concentrations below 1200 μmol/l.
Conclusion: This survey highlights the need for blood Phe concentration target recommendations and consensus guidelines, more research into adult PKU patient management, and the need to identify those patients lost to follow-up to ensure PKU is managed for life.
European Journal of Pediatrics 12/2014; 174(1). DOI:10.1007/s00431-014-2458-4 · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epileptic encephalopathy (EE) refers to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe disorders characterized by seizures, abnormal interictal electro-encephalogram, psychomotor delay, and/or cognitive deterioration. We ascertained two multiplex families (including one consanguineous family) consistent with an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern of EE. All seven affected individuals developed subclinical seizures as early as the first day of life, severe epileptic disease, and profound developmental delay with no facial dysmorphism. Given the similarity in clinical presentation in the two families, we hypothesized that the observed phenotype was due to mutations in the same gene, and we performed exome sequencing in three affected individuals. Analysis of rare variants in genes consistent with an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance led to identification of mutations in SLC13A5, which encodes the cytoplasmic sodium-dependent citrate carrier, notably expressed in neurons. Disease association was confirmed by cosegregation analysis in additional family members. Screening of 68 additional unrelated individuals with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy for SLC13A5 mutations led to identification of one additional subject with compound heterozygous mutations of SLC13A5 and a similar clinical presentation as the index subjects. Mutations affected key residues for sodium binding, which is critical for citrate transport. These findings underline the value of careful clinical characterization for genetic investigations in highly heterogeneous conditions such as EE and further highlight the role of citrate metabolism in epilepsy.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 07/2014; 95(1):113-20. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.06.006 · 10.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Las enfermedades mitocondriales constituyen el grupo más frecuente de enfermedades hereditarias del metabolismo. El conjunto de estas anomalías afecta a uno de cada 5.000-10.000 personas, dependiendo de los estudios. Estas enfermedades se relacionan con un déficit de la fosforilación oxidativa mitocondrial, que causa un déficit energético. Se expresan sobre todo en los órganos que consumen energía (corazón, músculo, cerebro, hígado, riñón, ojo, etc.) y una asociación no coherente o «ilegítima» de la afectación tisular con anomalías bioquímicas (hiperlactacidemia) o radiológicas (resonancia magnética cerebral) debe hacer que se sospeche una enfermedad mitocondrial. Pueden manifestarse a cualquier edad, desde el período prenatal a la edad adulta. El proceso diagnóstico suele ser largo, porque la sospecha clínica debe apoyarse en argumentos biológicos, anatomopatológicos y enzimológicos antes de llegar al diagnóstico. Estas afecciones presentan una gran heterogeneidad genética. Se relacionan con mutaciones del ácido desoxirribonucleico mitocondrial o de genes nucleares, la mayoría de los cuales aún se desconocen. La identificación de estas mutaciones es importante, tanto para el diagnóstico, como para el consejo genético y el diagnóstico prenatal. El pronóstico de estas enfermedades aún sigue siendo malo, porque el tratamiento etiológico es poco eficaz en la actualidad.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sapropterin dihydrochloride (SD) is the first drug treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU), but due to the lack of data, its use in maternal PKU must be undertaken with caution as noted in the FDA and EMEA labels. We collected data from eight pregnancies in PKU women treated with SD and we analysed the phenotypes of these patients, their tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) responsiveness, the indications for SD treatment, the efficacy (metabolic control, phenylalanine (Phe) tolerance and offspring outcome) and the safety data. Results showed that in the seven patients known to be responsive to BH4, the use of SD during pregnancy was efficient in terms of metabolic control and Phe tolerance. The indications for giving SD included the failure of the low-Phe diet (n = 3), the fact that some of these women had never experienced the low Phe diet (n = 2), one unexpected pregnancy in a woman currently on SD and one pregnancy where the foetus was known to have PKU. The offspring of these seven pregnancies were all normal babies with normal birth measurements and outcomes. No side effect related to SD was observed in these seven cases. In the eighth case, SD was prescribed as a rescue treatment without previous knowledge of the BH4 responsiveness to a woman who was already 8 weeks pregnant without diet. The birth occurred at 33 weeks of gestational age with Potter syndrome (probably related to the absence of metabolic control during the first trimester) and the baby died in the first hours of life. In conclusion, the data presented here provides the first evidence that treatment with pharmacological doses of SD appears to be efficient and safe in women with PKU during pregnancy. Its use should, however, be restricted to those women previously identified to be clear responders to BH4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin mononucleotide or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and many of them showed residual enzyme activity. One sequence change (R116Q), predicted to affect flavin mononucleotide binding and binding of the two PNPO dimers, and with high residual activity was found in Groups (ii) and (iii). This sequence change has been reported in the 1000 Genomes project suggesting it could be a polymorphism but alternatively it could be a common mutation, perhaps responsible for the susceptibility locus for genetic generalized epilepsy on 17q21.32 (close to rs72823592). We believe the reduction in PNPO activity and B6-responsive epilepsy in the patients reported here indicates that it contributes to the pathogenesis of epilepsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare genetic neurometabolic disease. It occurs in childhood with mental retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and epilepsy. Macrocephaly is present in half of the cases. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, biological and radiological findings, and molecular testing. Specific treatments can improve the spontaneous progression of the disease. We examined two independent patients who presented with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Clinical presentation led to cerebral MRI and urinary organic acid chromatography. The genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis. Under specific treatment, the progression of the disease was subsequently stopped. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria shares common symptoms with other genetic and metabolic diseases. However, the association of a distinct phenotype and typical MRI abnormalities (such as a high signal in the subcortical white matter, pallidum, and dentate nuclei) should draw the clinician's attention to this diagnosis. It can easily be suspected with a simple urinary analysis and can then be confirmed by genetic testing. With this case report, we show the importance of genetic identification to begin treatment with riboflavin. Early detection of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria based on MRI abnormalities can enable rapid initiation of treatment and prevent disease progression.
Archives de Pédiatrie 12/2013; · 0.41 Impact Factor