Fouad M Sharabi

Alexandria University, Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

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Publications (16)39.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives  This study aims to further elucidate the role of adrenergic transmission in erection and to highlight whether adrenergic transmission in the penis modulates sildenafil's action. Methods  measurement of intracavernosal pressure in the anesthetized rat model. Key findings  Guanethidine (3 and 6 mg/kg) potentiated intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) rises in response to cavernous nerve stimulation by 4.375 ± 0.425 and 18.375 ± 1.085% respectively. Propranolol did the opposite. In presence of guanethidine, sildenafil (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg) potentiated ICP/MAP responses by 81.571 ± 4.918%, 147.83 ± 10.864% and 279.285 ± 23.053% at 1 Hz compared to 22.277 ± 2.139%, 123.571 ± 8.443% and 186.25 ± 13.542% respectively in the absence of guanethidine. Propranolol inhibited the effect sildenafil at all frequencies of stimulation. Verapamil exhibited a pro-erectile action and potentiated the effect of sildenafil (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg) on erectile responses corresponding to 85.25 ± 6.716%, 146 ± 11.288% and 221.571 ± 19.032% respectively compared to 26.011 ± 1.911%, 87.142 ± 8.73% and 182.2 ± 16.921% in its absence. Conclusions  This study provides functional evidence that inhibition of sympathetic tone peripherally results in enhancement of erectile function. β-adrenergic receptors seem to play an important role in erection. The combination of sildenafil and guanethidine or verapamil could have a potential advantage on erectile function but propranolol may mask the effect of sildenafil on erectile function.
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 11/2012; 64(11):1659-66.
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    ABSTRACT: The functional role of cholinergic transmission in erection is still far from being fully elucidated. This work aims to further elucidate the modulatory role of neostigmine on NO in the corpus cavernosum and to highlight whether cholinergic transmission in the penis modulates sildenafil action. The isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum and measurement of intracavernosal pressure in the anesthetized rat model were used. Neostigmine (0.02 mg/kg) reduced increase of intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) next to cavernous nerve stimulation. Higher doses (0.06 and 0.4 mg/kg) potentiated ICP/MAP rise and atropine (1.5 and 10 mg/kg) did the opposite. In vitro, neostigmine (10⁻⁵ and 10⁻⁴ M) potentiated neurogenic relaxations and this effect was significantly inhibited by hexamethonium (10⁻⁴ M) or N(ω)-propyl-L-arginine (3 × 10⁻⁵ M) and partially but significantly reduced in the presence of atropine. Lower dose neostigmine (10⁻⁷ M), inhibited electrically induced relaxation over the range of 1-4 Hz, atropine (10⁻⁶ M) almost abolished this inhibitory effect as well as N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (10⁻⁵ M). It was also significantly reduced by selective nNOS inhibitor N(ω)-propyl-L-arginine (3 × 10⁻⁵ M). Nicotine (10⁻⁴ M) significantly potentiated electrically induced relaxations amounting to 84.625 ± 8.06% at 1 Hz and potentiated the effect of sildenafil synergistically. Hexamthonium did the opposite. The potentiatory effect of sildenafil on neurogenic erection was significantly reduced by low dose neostigmine both in vitro and in vivo. This study provides evidence that muscarinic receptors may modulate NO synthesis in nitrergic nerves by inhibiting nNOS and high level of cholinergic stimulation may activate nicotinic receptors to promote erection probably by potentiating NO synthesis in nitrergic nerves.
    Pharmacological Research 12/2011; 65(3):303-11. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical observations have suggested that dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of male sexual responses, including erection. Apomorphine was initially reported to exert its erectogenic effects by modifying central dopaminergic activity. This study aimed primarily at evaluating and investigating the effect of apomorphine on erectile functions in rats and its potential effects on the cardiovascular system, as well as the possible role of dopaminergic stimulation in the peripheral control of erection. Measurement of intracavernosal pressure changes elicited by electrical stimulation of the cavernosal nerve in anaesthetized rats and mating tests were used. SCH23390, the D1 receptor antagonist, attenuated penile response to electrical stimulation. Intravenous administration of apomorphine in low dose (100 microg/kg), but not in high dose, significantly potentiated erectile responses to electrical stimulation. Intracavernosally injected apomorphine (50 microg/kg) significantly potentiated the filling rate of the corpora cavernosa 5 min. after injection, and did not induce erection in absence of electrical stimulation. In addition, apomorphine amplified the male sexual and copulatory behaviour by reducing ejaculation, mount and intromission latencies, and significantly increasing the number of ejaculations per session. However, apomorphine produced rapid and long-lasting hypotension and potentiated the hypotension and tachycardia associated with nerve-stimulated penile erection. Our results suggest that D1-dopaminergic receptors may be functionally involved in the peripheral mediation of penile erection. Apomorphine may amplify sexual and copulatory behaviour and may also, by a complementary role, amplify neurogenically mediated erections by acting in the periphery.
    Basic &amp Clinical Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 05/2007; 100(4):225-32. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the role of endothelium- and smooth muscle-dependent mechanisms in the interaction of cyclosporine (CyA), an immunosuppressant drug, with beta-adrenoceptor (isoprenaline)-mediated relaxations in isolated rat aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. CyA effects were assessed in the absence and presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), methylene blue (guanylate cyclase inhibitor), or propranolol (beta-adrenoceptor antagonist). In aortas with intact endothelium (E+), pretreatment with L-NAME or methylene blue significantly reduced isoprenaline (1 x 10(-9) to 1 x 10(-7)M) relaxations in contrast to no effect for tetraethylammonium (K+ channel blocker), or diclophenac (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), suggesting a major role for the nitric oxide-guanylate cyclase (NO-GC) pathway, but not endothelial hyperpolarizing factor or vasodilator prostanoids, in isoprenaline responses. Isoprenaline relaxations were still evident, though significantly attenuated, in endothelium-denuded aortas (E-) and were resistant to L-NAME or methylene blue. Acute exposure to CyA (2 microM) caused propranolol-sensitive reductions in isoprenaline responses in E+ and E- aortas. The CyA-induced attenuation of isoprenaline responses in E+ aortas largely disappeared in L-NAME-treated aortas and after supplementation with L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide. CyA also reduced the endothelium-independent, GC-dependent aortic relaxations evoked by sodium nitroprusside, an effect that was virtually abolished by methylene blue. We conclude that: (i) endothelial and smooth muscle mechanisms contribute to aortic beta-adrenoceptor relaxations and both components are negatively influenced by CyA, and (ii) NO-GC signaling plays an integral role in the vascular CyA-beta-adrenoceptor interaction. The clinical relevance of the present study is warranted given the established role of impaired vascular function in CyA toxicity.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 03/2007; 73(3):359-67. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Modulation of the adrenergic activity and interfering with channels such as potassium channels may affect relaxation and contraction of the corpus cavernosum. Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, proven effective in treating erectile dysfunction. In this study, the effect of sildenafil citrate on alpha-receptors modulation and potassium channels was tested. The direct relaxant effect of sildenafil citrate was studied by measuring changes in isometric tension in isolated strips of rabbit corpus cavernosum and rat aortic ring precontracted with phenylephrine or KCl compared to that of diazoxide in the presence and absence of tetraethylammonium. The inhibitory effect of sildenafil on electrical field stimulation-induced contraction of rabbit corpus cavernosum and rat anococcygeus muscle was also studied compared to that of phentolamine. Muscle relaxant effect of sildenafil (1 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-6) M on phenylephrine-precontracted rabbit corpus cavernosum strips was not attenuated by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (3 x 10(-5) M). Cumulative addition of sildenafil (1 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-6) M) and phentolamine (1 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-6) M) to the organ bath dose-dependently inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced contraction of rabbit corpus cavernosum and rat anococcygeus muscle, with almost similar EC(50) values. Sildenafil (1 x 10(-7) M) also inhibited phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat aortic rings by 39.83+/-3.01%. In addition, tetraethylammonium (1 x 10(-3) M) significantly attenuated the muscle relaxant effect of sildenafil (1 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-6) M) on phenylephrine-precontracted strips of rabbit corpus cavernosum. Sildenafil citrate is capable of producing cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation by an additional mechanism that may involve alpha-receptors and potassium channel opening.
    International Journal of Impotence Research 01/2007; 19(6):551-7. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effect of acute exposure to cyclosporine A (CyA) on renal vasodilations evoked by the DA(1) dopaminergic agonist SKF38393 and whether dopamine DA(1) receptors are directly involved in the interaction. Changes evoked by CyA in SKF38393 vasodilations were evaluated in phenylephrine-preconstricted isolated perfused rat kidneys in the absence and presence of SCH23390, a DA(1) receptor antagonist. SKF38393 (3 x 10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) mol) produced dose-dependent reductions in the renal perfusion pressure that were significantly attenuated in tissues pretreated with SCH23390 or CyA. Unlike SKF38393, the vasodilatory action of sodium nitroprusside, a nitrovasodilator, was not altered by CyA. The attenuating effect of CyA on SKF38393 vasodilations was preserved in preparations pretreated with SCH23390, suggesting that sites other than DA(1) receptors may be involved in CyA-SKF38393 interaction. The study was then extended to investigate the possible involvement of renal alpha1-adrenoceptors in the interaction. Blockade of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors by prazosin (30 nmol/L) significantly reduced the vasodilatory effect of SKF38393 and virtually abolished the CyA-induced attenuation of SKF38393 responses. Further, CyA failed to alter SKF38393 vasodilations when the renal tone was raised with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha), a vasoconstrictor whose effect is independent of alpha(1)-adenoceptors. Together, these findings support earlier reports that both DA(1) and alpha(1)-receptors mediate the renal vasodilatory action of SKF38393 and suggest that CyA interacts selectively with the alpha(1)-receptor component to compromise SKF38393 responses.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 01/2006; 83(12):1129-36. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sildenafil, a highly selective inhibitor of PDE 5, is effective in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Penile erection involves relaxation of smooth muscle of corpus cavernosum and its associated arterioles. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sildenafil on nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP)-dependent relaxation of rat aortic rings. The contribution of sildenafil to the vasorelaxation of rat aortic rings was also investigated. Sildenafil produced significant potentiation of acetylcholine (ACh, 2 x 10(-6) m)-induced relaxation at concentration > or =1 x 10(-8) m. Addition of sildenafil (1 x 10(-7) m) to aortic rings failed to alter the effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (l-NNA, 3 x 10(-5) m) or methylene blue (MB, 3 x 10(-5) m) on ACh response. Similarly, sildenafil (1 x 10(-7) m) augmented significantly the vasorelaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside over the range of 1 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-8) m. When added to phenylephrine (3 x 10(-6) m)-precontracted rat aortic rings, sildenafil (1 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-4) m) induced concentration-dependent relaxation reaching a maximum of 96.48 +/- 1.44%. These relaxations were not significantly attenuated by previous incubation with L-NNA (3 x 10(-5) m) or MB (3 x 10(-5) m). Denudation did not significantly affect the vasorelaxant effect of sildenafil. Sildenafil may act in the rat aortic rings through the amplification of NO/cGMP pathway. It may augment both basal endothelial NO function and exogenous NO-dependent vasodilatation. However, sildenafil may act by a mechanism independent of NO/cGMP pathway and this mechanism contributes to its smooth muscle relaxant effect.
    Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 09/2005; 19(4):449-56. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the acute effects of the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A on vasorelaxations evoked via activation of adenosine receptors in the phenylephrine-preconstricted rat perfused kidney and isolated aorta. The roles of endothelial relaxing factors in this interaction were also evaluated. The adenosine analogue 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA; kidney, 6 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-7) mol; aorta, 1 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-5) M) elicited dose-dependent vasorelaxations. In the perfused kidney, NECA responses were similarly and significantly attenuated by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or tetraethylammonium (K channel blocker) versus no effect for diclophenac (cyclooxygenase inhibitor). NECA relaxations in the aorta were reduced by the three inhibitors; the reduction in the response evoked by the highest dose of NECA (1 x 10(-5) M) amounted to 37.7 +/- 2.0% (L-NAME), 19.8 +/- 1.7% (tetraethylammonium), and 29.4 +/- 1.1% (diclophenac). A combination of the three inhibitors almost abolished NECA relaxations in the two preparations. Cyclosporine (2 microM) reduced NECA relaxations in the two preparations. In the aorta, cyclosporine attenuation of NECA responses was significantly reduced after exposure to L-NAME or diclophenac but not tetraethyl-ammonium, suggesting selective involvement of nitric oxide and vasodilator prostanoids in the interaction. In contrast, the cyclosporine attenuation of NECA responses in the kidney was reduced by L-NAME or tetraethylammonium. L-arginine, a nitric oxide substrate, partially restored NECA relaxations in cyclosporine-treated preparations. These findings demonstrate that cyclosporine attenuates endothelium-dependent vasorelaxations elicited via activation of adenosine receptors and highlight the interesting possibility that the relative contribution of the endothelial relaxing factors to cyclosporine-NECA interaction is largely region dependent.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 05/2004; 43(4):562-73. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Penile erection involves relaxation of smooth muscle of corpus cavernosum and associated arterioles. Sildenafil, a highly selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5, is effective in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of sildenafil on smooth muscle of the rabbit corpus cavernosum (RCC) and to compare its effect with those of phentolamine, yohimbine and L-arginine. The effects of sildenafil, phentolamine, yohimbine and L-arginine were studied on the response of the RCC to electrical field stimulation (EFS) as well as on the phenylephrine (PE, 3 x 10(-6) M)-induced tone. EFS caused transient, frequency-dependent relaxation of the RCC that was inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (3 x 10(-5) M). Sildenafil (1 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-6) M) and phentolamine (1 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-6) M) enhanced the EFS-induced relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner with ED50 of 0.056 +/- 0.004 and 0.572 +/-0.035 microM at 8 Hz, respectively, yohimbine (3 x 10(-7)-3 x 10(-5) M) and L-arginine (3 x 10(-6)-3 x 10(-4) M) did not show significant effects (ED50 at 8 Hz = 35.84 +/-2.24 and 2.164 +/- 0.174 microM, respectively). Sildenafil (1 x 10(-9) and 1 x 10(-8) M) potentiated the EFS-induced relaxation caused by L-arginine (3 x 10(-5) m). Sildenafil, phentolamine, yohimbine and L-arginine reduced the PE-induced tone to different extents; the ED50 values were 0.81 +/- 0.097, 0.49 +/- 0.025 and 13.97 +/- 1.10 microM, respectively. Maximum concentration of L-arginine used failed to produce 50% relaxation (ED20 = 221.82 +/- 15.71 microM). The muscle relaxant effects of different combinations of sildenafil and L-arginine on PE-induced tone did not differ significantly from the sum of the individual effects. The results demonstrate that sildenafil, when compared to other drugs used in penile erection dysfunction, shows the highest potency on the nitrergic transmission in the RCC. On the other hand, phentolamine was found to possess the highest potency in inducing relaxation of RCC proving that its action is independent on the stimulated neurogenic system. In addition, the combination of less effective doses of sildenafil and L-arginine has a potential advantage on erectile functions. The importance of this combination remains to be solved clinically.
    Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 05/2004; 18(2):187-94. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular toxicity is a major adverse effect for the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A. The present study sought to characterize the relative roles of the endothelium-derived relaxing factors (nitric oxide, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor [EDHF], and prostaglandins) in the cyclosporine-induced impairment of renovascular responsiveness to acetylcholine receptor or beta-adrenoceptor activation. Changes evoked by cyclosporine in the responses to either vasorelaxant were evaluated in phenylephrine-preconstricted isolated perfused rat kidneys in the absence and presence of N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), tetraethylammonium (K(+) channel blocker), or diclophenac (cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Acetylcholine (0.03-2 nmol) vasodilations were significantly inhibited by prior treatment with l-NAME, tetraethylammonium, or diclophenac, suggesting a role for nitric oxide, EDHF, and prostaglandins in acetylcholine vasodilations. Isoprenaline (0.125-4 micromol) vasodilations were inhibited by l-NAME and tetraethylammonium versus no effect for diclophenac. Cyclosporine (1-4 microM) produced a concentration-related inhibition of vasodilations relaxations produced by either vasodilator. Cyclosporine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine vasodilations was attenuated in tissues pretreated with l-NAME or tetraethylammonium but not diclophenac, implicating nitric oxide and EDHF in cyclosporine-acetylcholine interaction. On the other hand, the inhibition of isoprenaline vasodilations by cyclosporine was virtually abolished by l-NAME. In cyclosporine-treated kidneys, exposure to l-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide synthesis, fully restored isoprenaline vasodilations to control levels and significantly increased acetylcholine vasodilations. It is concluded that the identity and relative contributions of endothelial factors to renal vasodilatory responses as well as to the inhibition of these responses by cyclosporine largely depend on the vasodilator stimulus.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 04/2004; 487(1-3):149-58. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine causes nephrotoxicity mainly via alterations of renovascular reactivity. This study investigated whether this effect of cyclosporine is modulated by the male gonadal hormone testosterone. The endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations evoked by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were evaluated in phenylephrine-preconstricted isolated perfused kidneys obtained from sham-operated, castrated, and testosterone-replaced castrated (CAS+T) male rats in the absence and presence of cyclosporine. Compared with sham-operated values, short-term (10 days) castration or cyclosporine treatment caused significant and equivalent reductions in plasma testosterone levels and vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine. Treatment of castrated rats with cyclosporine caused no further attenuation of acetylcholine relaxations. Testosterone replacement of castrated (CAS+T) or cyclosporine-treated castrated (CAS+CyA+T) rats restored plasma testosterone and acetylcholine relaxations to near-sham-operated levels. On the other hand, castration caused significant increases in nitroprusside relaxations versus no effect for cyclosporine. The relaxant responses to nitroprusside in castrated rats were restored to sham-operated levels after testosterone replacement. Plasma urea and creatinine were not affected by castration but were significantly increased by cyclosporine. These findings suggest that testosterone exerts directionally opposite modulatory effects on endothelium-dependent and -independent renal relaxations. Further, the results demonstrate that testosterone depletion may contribute, at least partly, to the inhibitory effect of cyclosporine on renovascular endothelial function. These data are clinically important because endothelial dysfunction contributes to vascular abnormalities associating cyclosporine therapy.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 06/2003; 468(3):217-24. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclosporine A (CyA), an immunosuppressant drug, has been shown to attenuate the baroreflex control of heart rate (HR). This study investigated whether or not the CyA-induced baroreflex dysfunction is due to alterations in the autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) control of the heart. We evaluated the effect of muscarinic or beta-adrenergic blockade by atropine and propranolol, respectively, on reflex HR responses in conscious rats treated with CyA (20 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) dissolved in sesame oil) for 11-13 days or the vehicle. Baroreflex curves relating changes in HR to increases or decreases in blood pressure (BP) evoked by phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (NP), respectively, were constructed and the slopes of the curves were taken as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS(PE) and BRS(NP)). Intravenous administration of PE and NP produced dose-related increases and decreases in BP, respectively, that were associated with reciprocal changes in HR. CyA caused significant (P < 0.05) reductions in reflex HR responses as indicated by the smaller BRS(PE) (-0.97 +/- 0.07 versus -1.47 +/- 0.10 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1) (1 mmHg = 133.322 Pa)) and BRS(NP) (-2.49 +/- 0.29 versus -5.23 +/- 0.42 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)) in CyA-treated versus control rats. Vagal withdrawal evoked by muscarinic blockade elicited significantly lesser attenuation of BRS(PE) in CyA compared with control rats (40.2 +/- 8.0 versus 57.7 +/- 4.4%) and abolished the BRS(PE) difference between the two groups, suggesting that CyA reduces vagal activity. CyA also appears to impair cardiac sympathetic control because blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors by propranolol was less effective in reducing reflex tachycardic responses in CyA compared with control rats (41.6 +/- 4.2 versus 59.5 +/- 4.5%). These findings confirm earlier reports that CyA attenuates the baroreceptor control of HR. More importantly, the study provides the first pharmacological evidence that CyA attenuates reflex chronotropic responses via impairment of the autonomic modulation of the baroreceptor neural pathways.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 08/2002; 80(8):766-76. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A attenuates arterial baroreceptor function. This study investigated whether the modulatory effect of cyclosporine on baroreceptor function involves inhibition of the baroreflex-facilitatory effect of testosterone. The role of cardiac autonomic control in cyclosporine-testosterone baroreflex interaction was also investigated. Baroreflex curves relating bradycardic responses to increments in blood pressure evoked by phenylephrine were constructed in conscious, sham-operated, castrated rats and in testosterone-replaced castrated (CAS + T) rats in the absence and presence of cyclosporine. The slopes of the curves were taken as an index of the baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Short-term (11-13 days) cyclosporine treatment or castration reduced plasma testosterone levels and caused similar attenuation of the reflex bradycardia, as indicated by the significantly smaller BRS compared with sham-operated values (-0.97 +/- 0.07, -0.86 +/- 0.06, and -1.47 +/- 0.10 beats/min/mm Hg, respectively). The notion that androgens facilitate baroreflexes is further confirmed by the observation that testosterone replacement of castrated rats restored plasma testosterone and BRS to sham-operated levels. Cyclosporine had no effect on BRS in castrated rats but caused a significant reduction in CAS + T rats. Muscarinic blockade by atropine caused approximately 60% reduction in the BRS in sham-operated rats, an effect that was significantly and similarly diminished by castration, cyclosporine, or their combination. beta-Adrenergic blockade by propranolol caused no significant changes in BRS. These findings suggest that cyclosporine attenuates baroreflex responsiveness via, at least partly, inhibition of the testosterone-induced facilitation of cardiomotor vagal control.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/2002; 301(1):346-54. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reported clinical and experimental findings have shown that baroreflex control of heart rate is attenuated in women compared with men. This study investigated whether the sexual dimorphism in baroreflex function relates to the ability of the male hormone testosterone to facilitate baroreflex responsiveness. Relative contributions of the vagal and sympathetic autonomic components to testosterone modulation of baroreflex function were also investigated. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate to increases or decreases in blood pressure evoked by phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were constructed in sham-operated rats and castrated rats with and without testosterone replacement. Slope of the curves was taken as an index of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS PE and BRS NP ). Castration (for 10 days) significantly reduced plasma testosterone levels and attenuated reflex bradycardia, as indicated by significantly smaller BRS PE in castrated rats compared with values in sham-operated rats (-0.85 +/- 0.07 vs. -1.51 +/- 0.10 beats/min per mm Hg). Testosterone replacement in castrated rats restored plasma testosterone and BRS PE to levels similar to those of sham-operated rats. Muscarinic blockade by atropine caused 55% reduction in BRS PE in sham-operated rats, an effect that was significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated in castrated rats and restored to intact levels after testosterone supplementation. beta-Adrenergic blockade by propranolol caused slight and insignificant decreases in BRS PE. Castration and testosterone supplementation had no effect on BRS NP, ruling out a modulatory effect of testosterone on reflex tachycardia. These data provide the first experimental evidence of a favorable role for testosterone in baroreceptor control of reflex bradycardia. Further, baroreflex modulation by testosterone appears to be autonomically mediated and involves an enhancement of cardiomotor vagal activity.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 11/2001; 38(5):754-63. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the identity of presynaptic receptors involved in dopaminergic modulation of purinergic transmission in peripheral tissues including isolated rat vas deferens and urinary bladder. Isometric muscle twitches were established in the two tissues by low frequency electric field-stimulation (0.05 Hz, 1-ms duration, and supramaximal voltage). Exposure to prazosin, 50 nmol l-1 (vas deferens), or atropine, 3 micromol l-1 (urinary bladder), had no effect on the developed twitches. In contrast, desensitisation of P2X-purinoceptors by alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-mATP, 30 micromol l-1) abolished the twitches in both tissues, confirming their purinergic origin. Dopamine (1.8x10(-7) to 4.2x10(-5) mol l-1) reduced the twitch response in a concentration-related manner. Yohimbine (alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, 0.3 micromol l-1) significantly (P<0.05) attenuated the inhibitory effects of dopamine and caused an upward shift in the concentration-response curves in the vas deferens and the urinary bladder. On the other hand, a blockade of DA2-dopaminoceptors by domperidone (1 micromol l-1) produced significant (P<0.05) reductions in dopamine responses only in rat vas deferens, with no effect in the urinary bladder. These data suggest that dopamine exerts inhibitory influences on purinergically-mediated muscle twitches in rat vas deferens and urinary bladder. More importantly, the nature of presynaptic receptors (alpha2-adrenergic and/or DA2-dopaminergic) involved in mediating dopamine effects is dependent on the tissue under investigation.
    Pharmacological Research 02/1999; 39(1):11-9. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preliminary findings in our laboratory have shown that prazosin augmented the inhibitory effects of dopamine on the electrically-evoked muscle twitches in rat vas deferens. In this study, we opted to investigate the underlying mechanism and whether a prazosin-induced blockade of extraneuronal uptake process may be involved. Cumulative additions of dopamine (1.8 x 10(-7)-4.4 x 10(-5) M) elicited slight (< 30%) but dose-related inhibition of electrically-evoked (0.05 Hz, 1 ms duration and supramaximal voltage) muscle twitches of the vas deferens. Pretreatment with cocaine (10 microM), prazosin (50 nM) or oestradiol (10 microM) produced comparable potentiation of the inhibitory responses of dopamine; the pD2 values to dopamine amounted to 4.47 +/- 0.20, 4.72 +/- 0.21 and 4.56 +/- 0.19, respectively. A lower concentration of prazosin (5 nM) failed to alter dopaminergic responses. Further potentiation of dopamine responses was demonstrated in tissues preincubated with a combination of cocaine plus prazosin (50 nM), or cocaine plus oestradiol (pD2, 5.40 +/- 0.11 and 5.42 +/- 0.05, respectively). However, a mixture of all three drugs failed to elicit any further increase in dopamine responses, a finding that may suggest an extraneuronal uptake blocking activity for prazosin. Inhibition of muscle twitches evoked by bromocriptine, a dopaminoceptor agonist which is not a substrate for extraneuronal uptake, was not affected by prazosin (50 nM) pretreatment. The findings presented in this study emphasize the role of dopamine in modulating noradrenergic neurotransmission in rat vas deferens. More importantly, the results suggest that prazosin may act to block the extraneuronal uptake at noradrenergic sites, an effect that may account for its capability to facilitate dopaminergic modulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12/1995; 47(11):932-6. · 2.03 Impact Factor