Eric Fombonne

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States

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Publications (189)1156.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are two of the most common and vexing neurodevelopmental disorders among children. Although the two disorders share many behavioral and neuropsychological characteristics, most MRI studies examine only one of the disorders at a time. Using graph theory combined with structural and functional connectivity, we examined the large-scale network organization among three groups of children: a group with ADHD (8–12 years, n = 20), a group with ASD (7–13 years, n = 16), and typically developing controls (TD) (8–12 years, n = 20). We apply the concept of the rich-club organization, whereby central, highly connected hub regions are also highly connected to themselves. We examine the brain into two different network domains: (1) inside a rich-club network phenomena and (2) outside a rich-club network phenomena. The ASD and ADHD groups had markedly different patterns of rich club and non rich-club connections in both functional and structural data. The ASD group exhibited higher connectivity in structural and functional networks but only inside the rich-club networks. These findings were replicated using the autism brain imaging data exchange dataset with ASD (n = 85) and TD (n = 101). The ADHD group exhibited a lower generalized fractional anisotropy and functional connectivity inside the rich-club networks, but a higher number of axonal fibers and correlation coefficient values outside the rich club. Despite some shared biological features and frequent comorbity, these data suggest ADHD and ASD exhibit distinct large-scale connectivity patterns in middle childhood. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 08/2014; · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about patterns of cognitive impairment in depression comorbid with conduct disorder. The study included clinically depressed children with (N = 23) or without conduct disorder (N = 29), and controls without psychiatric disorder (N = 37). Cognitive biases typical of depression and patterns of social information processing were assessed. Both depressed groups had substantially higher rates of negative cognitive distortions, attributional biases and ruminative responses than non-depressed children. Children in the comorbid group made more hostile attributions and suggested more aggressive responses for dealing with threatening social situations, whilst children with depression only were more likely to be unassertive. Depression has a number of similar depressotypic cognitive biases whether or not complicated by conduct disorder, and may be potentially susceptible to similar interventions. The results also highlight the importance of recognising social information processing deficits when they occur and targeting those too, especially in comorbid presentations.
    Journal of adolescence. 07/2014; 37(5):622-31.
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    ABSTRACT: The latent class structure of autism symptoms from the time of diagnosis to age 6 years was examined in a sample of 280 children with autism spectrum disorder. Factor mixture modeling was performed on 26 algorithm items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised at diagnosis (Time 1) and again at age 6 (Time 2). At Time 1, a "2-factor/3-class" model provided the best fit to the data. At Time 2, a "2-factor/2-class" model provided the best fit to the data. Longitudinal (repeated measures) analysis of variance showed that the "2-factor/3-class" model derived at the time of diagnosis allows for the identification of a subgroup of children (9 % of sample) who exhibit notable reduction in symptom severity.
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The proximal region of chromosome 15 is one of the genomic hotspots for copy number variants (CNVs). Among the rearrangements observed in this region, CNVs from the interval between the common breakpoints 1 and 2 (BP1 and BP2) have been reported cosegregating with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although evidence supporting an association between BP1-BP2 CNVs and autism accumulates, the magnitude of the effect of BP1-BP2 CNVs remains elusive, posing a great challenge to recurrence-risk counseling. To gain further insight into their pathogenicity for ASD, we estimated the penetrance of the BP1-BP2 CNVs for ASD as well as their effects on ASD-related phenotypes in a well-characterized ASD sample (n = 2525 families). Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant preferential transmission only for the duplicated chromosome in probands (20T:9NT). The penetrance of the BP1-BP2 CNVs for ASD was low, conferring additional risks of 0.3% (deletion) and 0.8% (duplication). Stepwise regression analyses suggest a greater effect of the CNVs on ASD-related phenotype in males and when maternally inherited. Taken together, the results are consistent with BP1-BP2 CNVs as risk factors for autism. However, their effect is modest, more akin to that seen for common variants. To be consistent with the current American College of Medical Genetics guidelines for interpretation of postnatal CNV, the BP1-BP2 deletion and duplication CNVs would probably best be classified as variants of uncertain significance (VOUS): they appear to have an impact on risk, but one so modest that these CNVs do not merit pathogenic status. Autism Res 2014, ●: ●●–●●. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Autism Research 06/2014; · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and structural language impairment (LI) may be at risk of more adverse social-developmental outcomes. We examined trajectories of early social competence (using the Vineland-II) in 330 children aged 2-4 years recently diagnosed with ASD, and compared 3 subgroups classified by: language impairment (ASD/LI); intellectual disability (ASD/ID) and ASD without LI or ID (ASD/alone). Children with ASD/LI were significantly more socially impaired at baseline than the ASD/alone subgroup, and less impaired than those with ASD/ID. Growth in social competence was significantly slower for the ASD/ID group. Many preschool-aged children with ASD/LI at time of diagnosis resembled "late talkers" who appeared to catch up linguistically. Children with ASD/ID were more severely impaired and continued to lag further behind.
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in autism diagnostic criteria found in DSM-5 may affect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence, research findings, diagnostic processes, and eligibility for clinical and other services. Using our published, total-population Korean prevalence data, we compute DSM-5 ASD and social communication disorder (SCD) prevalence and compare them with DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) prevalence estimates. We also describe individuals previously diagnosed with DSM-IV PDD when diagnoses change with DSM-5 criteria. The target population was all children from 7 to 12 years of age in a South Korean community (N = 55,266), those in regular and special education schools, and a disability registry. We used the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire for systematic, multi-informant screening. Parents of screen-positive children were offered comprehensive assessments using standardized diagnostic procedures, including the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Best-estimate clinical diagnoses were made using DSM-IV PDD and DSM-5 ASD and SCD criteria. DSM-5 ASD estimated prevalence was 2.20% (95% confidence interval = 1.77-3.64). Combined DSM-5 ASD and SCD prevalence was virtually the same as DSM-IV PDD prevalence (2.64%). Most children with autistic disorder (99%), Asperger disorder (92%), and PDD-NOS (63%) met DSM-5 ASD criteria, whereas 1%, 8%, and 32%, respectively, met SCD criteria. All remaining children (2%) had other psychopathology, principally attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder. Our findings suggest that most individuals with a prior DSM-IV PDD meet DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD. PDD, ASD or SCD; extant diagnostic criteria identify a large, clinically meaningful group of individuals and families who require evidence-based services.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 05/2014; 53(5):500-8. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parent-teacher cross-informant agreement, although usually modest, may provide important clinical information. Using data for 27,962 children from 21 societies, we asked the following: (a) Do parents report more problems than teachers, and does this vary by society, age, gender, or type of problem? (b) Does parent-teacher agreement vary across different problem scales or across societies? (c) How well do parents and teachers in different societies agree on problem item ratings? (d) How much do parent-teacher dyads in different societies vary in within-dyad agreement on problem items? (e) How well do parents and teachers in 21 societies agree on whether the child's problem level exceeds a deviance threshold? We used five methods to test agreement for Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) ratings. CBCL scores were higher than TRF scores on most scales, but the informant differences varied in magnitude across the societies studied. Cross-informant correlations for problem scale scores varied moderately across societies studied and were significantly higher for Externalizing than Internalizing problems. Parents and teachers tended to rate the same items as low, medium, or high, but within-dyad item agreement varied widely in every society studied. In all societies studied, both parental noncorroboration of teacher-reported deviance and teacher noncorroboration of parent-reported deviance were common. Our findings underscore the importance of obtaining information from parents and teachers when evaluating and treating children, highlight the need to use multiple methods of quantifying cross-informant agreement, and provide comprehensive baselines for patterns of parent-teacher agreement across 21 societies.
    Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 04/2014; · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and childhood obesity (OBY) are rising public health concerns. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight (OWT) and OBY in a sample of 388 Oregon children with ASD, and to assess correlates of OWT and OBY in this sample. We used descriptive statistics, bivariate, and focused multivariate analyses to determine whether demographic characteristics, cognitive and adaptive functioning, behavioral problems, ASD symptoms, and medication use were associated with OWT and OBY in ASD. Overall, 33.8% of children met criteria for OWT and 16.5% met criteria for OBY. OBY was associated with sleep difficulties, melatonin use, and affective problems. Interventions that consider unique needs of children with ASD may hold promise for improving weight status among children with ASD. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-014-2050-9
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 03/2014; in press. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Path analysis within a structural equation modeling framework was employed to examine the relationships between two types of parent stress and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors over a 4-year period, in a sample of 184 mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Parent stress was measured with the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and child behavior was measured with Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5. Across all time points, parent general distress predicted both types of child behaviors, but not vice versa. In addition, there was modest evidence of a bidirectional relationship between parenting distress and both types of child behaviors from 12 months post-diagnosis to age 6. Results are compared to previous work in this area, with implications for early intervention.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 02/2014; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since 1966, over 80 epidemiological surveys of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been conducted in more than 20 countries. In this chapter, we review existing prevalence estimates for ASDs and discuss methodological factors impacting the estimation of prevalence and the interpretation of changes in prevalence estimates over time. Possible explanations for an increase in the prevalence of ASD within and across populations are considered. Increases in ASD diagnostic rates cannot currently be attributed to a true increase in the incidence of ASD due to multiple confounding factors. It remains to be seen how changes to diagnostic criteria introduced in the DSM-5 will impact estimates of ASD prevalence going forward.
    02/2014; , ISBN: 978-1-118-10703-4
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    Canadian Medical Association Journal 01/2014; · 6.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aggressive behavior problems (ABP) are frequent yet poorly understood in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and are likely to co-vary significantly with comorbid problems. We examined the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of ABP in a clinical sample of children with ASD (N = 400; 2–16.9 years). We also investigated whether children with ABP experience more intensive medical interventions, greater impairments in behavioral functioning, and more severe comorbid problems than children with ASD who do not have ABP. One in four children with ASD had Child Behavior Checklist scores on the Aggressive Behavior scale in the clinical range (T-scores ≥ 70). Sociodemographic factors (age, gender, parent education, race, ethnicity) were unrelated to ABP status. The presence of ABP was significantly associated with increased use of psychotropic drugs and melatonin, lower cognitive functioning, lower ASD severity, and greater comorbid sleep, internalizing, and attention problems. In multivariate models, sleep, internalizing, and attention problems were most strongly associated with ABP. These comorbid problems may hold promise as targets for treatment to decrease aggressive behavior and proactively identify high-risk profiles for prevention.
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 01/2014; 8(9):1121–1133. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Changes in autism diagnostic criteria found in DSM5 may affect Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) prevalence, research findings, diagnostic processes and eligibility for clinical and other services. Utilizing our published, total-population Korean prevalence data, we compute DSM5 ASD and Social Communication Disorder (SCD) prevalence and compare them to DSMIV Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) prevalence estimates. We also describe individuals previously diagnosed with DSMIV PDD when diagnoses change with DSM-5 criteria. Method The target population was all 7-12-year-old children in a South Korean community (N= 55,266), those in regular and special education schools and a disability registry. We utilized the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire for systematic, multi-informant screening. Parents of screen-positive children were offered comprehensive assessments using standardized diagnostic procedures, including the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Best estimate clinical diagnoses were made using DSMIV PDD and DSM5 ASD and SCD criteria. Results DSM5 ASD estimated prevalence is 2.20% (CI: 1.77-3.64). Combined DSM-5 ASD and SCD prevalence is virtually same as DSM-IV PDD prevalence (2.64%). Most children with Autistic Disorder (99%), Asperger Disorder (92%), and PDD NOS (63%) met DSM-5 ASD criteria, whereas 1%, 8% and 32%, respectively, met SCD criteria. All remaining children (2% ) had other psychopathology, principally Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and anxiety disorder. Conclusion Our findings suggest that most individuals with a prior DSMIV PDD meet DSM5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD. PDD, ASD or SCD, extant diagnostic criteria identify a large, clinically meaningful group of individuals and families who require evidence-based services.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 01/2014;
  • Catherine Hambly, Eric Fombonne
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored bilingual exposure, language, social impairment and cognitive factors that could influence second language (L2) expressive vocabulary size as measured on the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories (various languages) in 33 children (mean age = 60 months) diagnosed with ASD. In the 23 children with L2 vocabularies, recent language exposure estimates accounted for 69% of the variation in L2 vocabulary size, and the VABS-II expressive scale score explained an additional 13% of the difference. The complete sample was then subgrouped into three levels of L2 vocabulary size to compare children with no L2 vocabularies (NON-B, n = 10), low L2 word counts (LOW-B, n = 11) and high L2 counts (HIGH-B, n = 12), as determined by a median split procedure. The HIGH-B group had significantly larger L1 vocabularies than both the LOW-B (p = .045) and the NON-B (p = .003) groups, and higher VABS-II expressive scale scores than both the LOW-B (p = .008) and the NON-B (p = .012) groups. Social impairment did not significantly differ across groups and cognitive impairment did not preclude the development of L2 vocabularies. Expressive bilingualism in this population appears related to high levels of recent direct L2 exposure in combination with stronger dominant language abilities.
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 01/2014; 8(9):1079–1089. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background To increase limited epidemiological knowledge of early childhood psychopathology, a study of prevalence estimates and demographic correlates of psychiatric disorders was conducted in a sample of preschool children. Methods In a two-stage study, parents of 339 children aged 4–6 years who came for a medical check-up at three primary care centres in Reykjavik were invited to participate. First, the participants were screened with Brigance Screens and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for parents and teachers. Subsequently, the children were tested with a short version of Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence – Revised and their parents were interviewed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children Present and Lifetime Version. Weighted prevalence estimates were calculated and logistic regression was used to analyse the association between risk factors and psychiatric disorders. Results Of those invited to participate, 317 (93.5%) were included in the screening and of those, 131 received a full diagnostic assessment. The final study sample included 151 girls (47.6%) and 166 boys (52.4%) who represented 11.6% of the total birth cohort in Reykjavik. Weighted prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders was 10.1% (95% CI 6.7–13.5%) and 57/317 or 18.0% (95% CI 13.8–22.2%), including elimination disorders. Anxiety disorders (5.7%) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (3.8%) were the most common disorders in this preschool sample. Poor physical health of parents and higher education was associated with DSM-IV psychiatric disorders of the children. SDQ Total Difficulties score was associated with male gender and poor physical health of parents. Conclusions This study indicates that psychiatric disorders in preschool children are common and may be correlated with parental health factors.
    Child and Adolescent Mental Health 11/2013; 18(4):210-217. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the link between childhood attention problems (AP) and substance use 18 years later. This cohort study was conducted in a community sample of 1103 French youths followed from 1991 to 2009. Exposures and covariates were childhood behavioral problems (based on parental report at baseline), early substance use, school difficulties, and family adversity. Outcome measures were regular tobacco smoking, alcohol problems, problematic cannabis use, and lifetime cocaine use (based on youth reports at follow-up). Individuals with high levels of childhood AP had higher rates of substance use (regular tobacco smoking, alcohol problems, problematic cannabis use, and lifetime cocaine use). However, when taking into account other childhood behavioral problems, early substance use, school difficulties, and family adversity, childhood AP were related only to regular tobacco smoking and lifetime cocaine use. Early cannabis exposure was the strongest risk factor for all substance use problems. This longitudinal community-based study shows that, except for tobacco and cocaine, the association between childhood AP and substance use is confounded by a range of early risk factors. Early cannabis exposure plays a central role in later substance use.
    The Journal of pediatrics 08/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17–29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn’s disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.
    Nature Genetics 08/2013; AOP. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between lifetime socioeconomic position and alcohol use in young adults. The participants (n = 1103, age 22-35 years in 2009) were the French TEMPO cohort, offspring of employees (all French nationals) of the French national gas and electricity company (GAZEL) who were in a previous cohort study. Alcohol use was assessed by the WHO AUDIT questionnaire (none, low or intermediate alcohol use, alcohol abuse). Childhood socioeconomic position was measured using parental income documented in the GAZEL study in 1989 (low: ≤2592€/month vs. intermediate/high: >2592€/month). Adult socioeconomic position was measured by participants' educational level (≤high school degree vs. >high school degree). Combining family income and educational attainment, we ascertained participants' social trajectory (stable high, upward, downward and stable low). Data were analyzed using multinomial regression analyses controlled for demographic, social, psychological and family characteristics. Compared with participants with a stable high social trajectory, those with an upward, downward or low social trajectory were more likely to abstain from alcohol (compared with a stable high social trajectory, sex and age-adjusted ORs: OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.35-3.65 for an upward social trajectory; OR = 3.20, 95% CI 1.78-5.73 for a downward social trajectory; OR = 3.27, 95% CI 1.75-6.12 for a stable low social trajectory). Additionally, participants with a downward social trajectory were disproportionately likely to abuse alcohol (sex- and age-adjusted OR: 1.48, 95% CI 0.89-2.48). In multivariate analyses, social trajectory remained associated with alcohol use. Lifelong socioeconomic position may shape patterns of alcohol use early in life.
    Alcohol and Alcoholism 07/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Brain development follows a different trajectory in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than in typically developing children. A proxy for neurodevelopment could be head circumference (HC), but studies assessing HC and its clinical correlates in ASD have been inconsistent. This study investigates HC and clinical correlates in the Simons Simplex Collection cohort. METHODS: We used a mixed linear model to estimate effects of covariates and the deviation from the expected HC given parental HC (genetic deviation). After excluding individuals with incomplete data, 7225 individuals in 1891 families remained for analysis. We examined the relationship between HC/genetic deviation of HC and clinical parameters. RESULTS: Gender, age, height, weight, genetic ancestry, and ASD status were significant predictors of HC (estimate of the ASD effect = .2 cm). HC was approximately normally distributed in probands and unaffected relatives, with only a few outliers. Genetic deviation of HC was also normally distributed, consistent with a random sampling of parental genes. Whereas larger HC than expected was associated with ASD symptom severity and regression, IQ decreased with the absolute value of the genetic deviation of HC. CONCLUSIONS: Measured against expected values derived from covariates of ASD subjects, statistical outliers for HC were uncommon. HC is a strongly heritable trait, and population norms for HC would be far more accurate if covariates including genetic ancestry, height, and age were taken into account. The association of diminishing IQ with absolute deviation from predicted HC values suggests HC could reflect subtle underlying brain development and warrants further investigation.
    Biological psychiatry 06/2013; · 8.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,156.67 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Portland, Oregon, United States
    • University of Bordeaux
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 2011–2013
    • SickKids
      • Program in Genetics and Genome Biology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Cardiff University
      • MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics & Genomics
      Cardiff, WLS, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2013
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology (ECP)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2012
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research
      Stanford, California, United States
    • Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin
      Versailles, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008–2012
    • Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 2004–2012
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2010
    • Université de Montréal
      • Department of Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007–2010
    • McGill University Health Centre
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1991–2010
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009
    • Centre jeunesse de Montréal-Institut universitaire
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1992–2009
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2005–2008
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2001–2008
    • King's College London
      • • MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre
      • • Centre for the Economics of Mental and Physical Health
      • • Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • University of Toulouse II - Le Mirail
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France