[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental research has always been the cornerstone of pathophysiological and therapeutic advances in critical care medicine, where clinical observations and basic research mutually fed each other in a so-called translational approach. The objective of this review is to address the different aspects of translational research in the field of critical care medicine. We herein highlighted some demonstrative examples including the animal-to-human approach to study host-pathogen interactions, the human-to-animal approach for sepsis-induced immunosuppression, the still restrictive human approach to study critical illness-related neuromyopathy, and the technological developments to assess the microcirculatory changes in critically ill patients. These examples not only emphasize how translational research resulted in major improvements in the comprehension of the pathophysiology of severe clinical conditions and offered promising perspectives in critical care medicine but also point out the obstacles to translate such achievements into clinical practice.
Annals of Intensive Care 12/2015; 5(1). DOI:10.1186/s13613-015-0050-3 · 3.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most studies about septic shock report a crude mortality rate that neither distinguishes between early and late deaths nor addresses the direct causes of death. We herein aimed to determine the modalities of death in septic shock.
This was a 6-year (2008-2013) monocenter retrospective study. All consecutive patients diagnosed for septic shock within the first 48 h of intensive care unit (ICU) admission were included. Early and late deaths were defined as occurring within or after 3 days following ICU admission, respectively. The main cause of death in the ICU was determined from medical files. A multinomial logistic regression analysis using the status alive as the reference category was performed to identify the prognostic factors associated with early and late deaths.
Five hundred forty-three patients were included, with a mean age of 66 ± 15 years and a high proportion (67 %) of comorbidities. The in-ICU and in-hospital mortality rates were 37.2 and 45 %, respectively. Deaths occurred early for 78 (32 %) and later on for 166 (68 %) patients in the ICU (n = 124) or in the hospital (n = 42). Early deaths were mainly attributable to intractable multiple organ failure related to the primary infection (82 %) and to mesenteric ischemia (6.4 %). In-ICU late deaths were directly related to end-of-life decisions in 29 % of patients and otherwise mostly related to ICU-acquired complications, including nosocomial infections (20.4 %) and mesenteric ischemia (16.6 %). Independent determinants of early death were age, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, no pathogen identification, and initial severity. Among 3-day survivors, independent risk factors for late death were age, cirrhosis, no pathogen identification, and previous corticosteroid treatment.
Our study provides a comprehensive assessment of septic shock-related deaths. Identification of risk factors of early and late deaths may determine differential prognostic patterns.
Annals of Intensive Care 12/2015; 5(1):58. DOI:10.1186/s13613-015-0058-8 · 3.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) are prone to disease-specific or treatment-related life-threatening complications that may warrant intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We assessed the characteristics and current outcome of patients with SSc admitted to the ICU.
We performed a single-center retrospective study over 6 years (November 2006-December 2012). All patients with SSc admitted to the ICU were enrolled. Short-term (in-ICU and in-hospital) and longterm (6-mo and 1-yr) mortality rates were studied, and the prognostic factors were analyzed.
Forty-one patients with a median age of 50 years [interquartile range (IQR) 40-65] were included. Twenty-nine patients (72.5%) displayed diffuse cutaneous SSc. The time from diagnosis to ICU admission was 78 months (IQR 34-128). Twenty-eight patients (71.7%) previously had pulmonary fibrosis, and 12 (31.5%) had pulmonary hypertension. The main reason for ICU admission was acute respiratory failure in 27 patients (65.8%). Noninvasive ventilation was first attempted in 13 patients (31.7%) and was successful in 8 of them, whereas others required endotracheal intubation within 24 h. Altogether, 13 patients (31.7%) required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The overall in-ICU, in-hospital, 6-month, and 1-year mortality rates were 31.8%, 39.0%, 46.4%, and 61.0%, respectively. Invasive mechanical ventilation was the worst prognostic factor, associated with an in-hospital mortality rate of 84.6%.
This study provides reliable prognostic data in patients with SSc who required ICU admission. The devastating outcome of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with SSc requires a reappraisal of indications for ICU admission and early identification of patients likely to benefit from noninvasive ventilation.
The Journal of Rheumatology 07/2015; 42(8). DOI:10.3899/jrheum.141617 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strongyloides stercoralis may lead to overwhelming infestation [Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS)]. We aimed at describing a case series of patients admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) with SHS and report a literature review of such cases.
Retrospective multicenter study of 11 patients admitted to the ICU of tertiary hospitals with SHS between 2000 and 2013. Literature review with Pubmed retrieved 122 cases. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictive factors of ICU mortality and shock occurrence.
133 patients [median age 53 (39, 64), 72.2 % males] were included. Underlying immunosuppression was present in 127 patients, mostly long-term corticosteroid treatment in 111 (83.5 %) patients. Fever (80.8 %), respiratory (88.6 %), and gastrointestinal (71.2 %) symptoms were common clinical manifestations. Shock occurred in 75 (57.3 %) patients and mechanical ventilation was required in 89 (67.9 %) patients. Hypereosinophilia and a concomitant bacterial infection were observed in 34 (34.3 %) and 51 (38.4 %) patients, respectively. The in-ICU mortality rate was 60.3 %. Predictive factors of ICU mortality were shock occurrence [Odds ratio (OR) 18.1, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 3.03-107.6, p < 0.01] and mechanical ventilation (OR 28.1, 95 % CI 3.6-217, p < 0.01). Hypereosinophilia (OR 0.21, 95 % CI 0.06-0.7, p = 0.01) and a concomitant bacterial infection (OR 4.68, 95 % CI 1.3-16.8, p = 0.02) were independent predictors of shock occurrence.
SHS remains associated with a poor outcome, especially when associated with shock and mechanical ventilation. Deterioration to shock is often related to concomitant bacterial infection. The poor outcome of established SHS pleads for a large application of antiparasitic primary prophylaxis in at-risk patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with high mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Whether mortality has decreased recently is unknown. The 497 adult allogeneic HSCT recipients admitted to three ICUs between 1997 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Two hundred and nine patients admitted between 1997 and 2003 were compared with the 288 patients admitted from 2004 to 2011. Factors associated with 90-day mortality were identified. The recent cohort was characterized by older age, lower conditioning intensity, and greater use of peripheral blood or unrelated-donor graft. In the recent cohort, ICU was used more often for patients in hematological remission (67% vs 44%; P<0.0001) and without GVHD (73% vs 48%; P<0.0001) or invasive fungal infection (85% vs 73%; P=0.0003) despite a stable admission rate (21.7%). These changes were associated with significantly better 90-day survival (49% vs 31%). Independent predictors of hospital mortality were GVHD, mechanical ventilation (MV) and renal replacement therapy (RRT). Among patients who required MV or RRT, survival was 29% and 18%, respectively, but dropped to 18% and 6% in those with GVHD. The use of ICU admission has changed and translated into improved survival, but advanced life support in patients with GVHD usually provides no benefits.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 23 March 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.55.
Bone marrow transplantation 03/2015; 50(6). DOI:10.1038/bmt.2015.55 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although sudden cardiac death has been broadly studied, little is known on cerebrovascular events revealed by out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We aimed to describe clinical features and prognosis of these patients and identify characteristics that could suggest a cerebrovascular etiology of the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Retrospective review (1999-2012) of databases of three regional referral ICU centers for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Patients admitted to ICU for management of successfully resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Patients were included when subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, sub/epidural hematoma, or cerebral thrombophlebitis was identified as the primary cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Traumatic or infectious causes were excluded. Patients were compared with a group of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of nonneurological origin.
All medical records of the three prospective ICU databases, registered according to the Utstein style, were reviewed.
Among 3,710 patients admitted for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, 86 were included (mainly subarachnoid hemorrhage, n = 73). Prodromes were mostly neurological but falsely evoked a cardiac origin in six patients. Electrocardiogram displayed abnormalities in 64% of patients, with 23% of pseudoischemic pattern (ST-segment elevation or left bundle branch block). Mortality rate was 100%, with brain death as the leading cause. In comparison with the nonneurological out-of-hospital cardiac arrest group, female gender, onset of neurological prodromes, lack of other prodromes, initial nonshockable rhythm, and unspecific electrocardiogram repolarization abnormalities were independent predictive factors of a primary cerebrovascular etiology. When present, the combination of these elements displayed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.91).
Presentation of cerebrovascular event complicated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest may mimic coronary etiology, but several clinical elements may help to identify brain causes. Even if survival is null, the high proportion of brain deaths provides opportunity for organ donation.
Critical Care Medicine 02/2015; 43(2):453-60. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000722 · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The availability of circulating biomarkers that helps to identify early out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors who are at increased risk of long-term mortality remains challenging. Our aim was to prospectively study the association between copeptin and 1-year mortality in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest admitted in a tertiary cardiac arrest center.
Retrospective monocenter study.
Tertiary cardiac arrest center in Paris, France.
Copeptin was assessed at admission and day 3. Pre- and intrahospital factors associated with 1-year mortality were analyzed by multivariate Cox proportional analysis.
Two hundred ninety-eight consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients (70.3% male; median age, 60.2 yr [49.9-71.4]) were admitted in a tertiary cardiac arrest center in Paris (France). After multivariate analysis, higher admission copeptin was associated with 1-year mortality with a threshold effect (hazard ratio5th vs 1st quintile = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.05-2.58; p = 0.03). Day 3 copeptin was associated with 1-year mortality in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratio2nd vs 1st quintile = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.00-3.49; p = 0.05; hazard ratio3rd vs 1st quintile = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.02-3.64; p = 0.04; hazard ratio4th vs 1st quintile = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.14-3.93; p = 0.02; and hazard ratio5th vs 1st quintile = 2.75; 95% CI, 1.47-5.15; p < 0.01; p for trend < 0.01). For both admission and day 3 copeptin, association with 1-year mortality existed for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin only (p for interaction = 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). When admission and day 3 copeptin were mutually adjusted, only day 3 copeptin remained associated with 1-year mortality in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend = 0.01).
High levels of copeptin were associated with 1-year mortality independently from prehospital and intrahospital risk factors, especially in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin. Day 3 copeptin was superior to admission copeptin: this could permit identification of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors at increased risk of mortality and allow for close observation of such patients.
Critical Care Medicine 02/2015; 43(2):422-9. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000716 · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis of critically ill cancer patients has improved recently. Controversies remain as regard to the specific prognosis impact of neutropenia in critically ill cancer patients. The primary objective of this study was to assess hospital outcome of critically ill neutropenic cancer patients admitted into the ICU. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors for unfavorable outcome in this population of patients and specific impact of neutropenia.
We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospectively collected database. The study was carried out in 17 university or university-affiliated centers in France and Belgium. Neutropenia was defined as a neutrophil count lower than 500/mm(3).
Among the 1,011 patients admitted into the ICU during the study period 289 were neutropenic at the time of admission. Overall, 131 patients died during their hospital stay (hospital mortality 45.3 %). Four variables were associated with a poor outcome, namely allogeneic transplantation (OR 3.83; 95 % CI 1.75-8.35), need for mechanical ventilation (MV) (OR 6.57; 95 % CI 3.51-12.32), microbiological documentation (OR 2.33; CI 1.27-4.26), and need for renal replacement therapy (OR 2.77; 95 % CI 1.34-5.74). Two variables were associated with hospital survival, namely age younger than 70 (OR 0.22; 95 % CI 0.1-0.52) and neutropenic enterocolitis (OR 0.37; 95 % CI 0.15-0.9). A case-control analysis was also performed with patients of the initial database; after adjustment, neutropenia was not associated with hospital mortality (OR 1.27; 95 % CI 0.86-1.89).
Hospital survival was closely associated with younger age and neutropenic enterocolitis. Conversely, need for conventional MV, for renal replacement therapy, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were associated with poor outcome.
Intensive Care Medicine 01/2015; 41(2). DOI:10.1007/s00134-014-3615-y · 7.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cardiac involvement is a major cause of mortality in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). However, diagnosis remains underestimated and delayed, owing to subclinical injuries. Cardiac troponin-I measurement (cTnI) on admission could improve the early diagnosis of cardiac involvement and have prognostic value.Objectives
To assess the predictive value of cTnI in patients with TTP for death or refractoriness.Patients/Methods
The study involved a prospective cohort of adult TTP patients with acquired severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency (< 10%) and included in the registry of the French Reference Center for Thrombotic Microangiopathies. Centralized cTnI measurements were performed on frozen serum on admission.ResultsBetween January 2003 and December 2011, 133 patients with TTP (mean age, 48 ± 17 years) had available cTnI measurements on admission. Thirty-two patients (24%) had clinical and/or electrocardiogram features. Nineteen (14.3%) had cardiac symptoms, mainly congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction. Electrocardiogram changes, mainly repolarization disorders, were present in 13 cases. An increased cTnI level (> 0.1 μg L−1) was present in 78 patients (59%), of whom 46 (59%) had no clinical cardiac involvement. The main outcomes were death (25%) and refractoriness (17%). Age (P = 0.02) and cTnI level (P = 0.002) showed the greatest impact on survival. A cTnI level of > 0.25 μg L−1 was the only independent factor in predicting death (odds ratio [OR] 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.22; P = 0.024) and/or refractoriness (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.27-7.3; P = 0.01).ConclusionsA CTnI level of > 0.25 μg L−1 at presentation in patients with TTP appears to be an independent factor associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of death or refractoriness. Therefore, cTnI level should be considered as a prognostic indicator in patients diagnosed with TTP.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 11/2014; 13(2). DOI:10.1111/jth.12790 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infectious diseases remain a major public health issue in both developing and developed countries. For instance, there is still a high rate of morbidity and mortality due to seasonal influenza outbreaks and severe bacterial sepsis, despite major advances in their prevention and treatment. It is now clear that severe influenza and bacterial infections promote susceptibility for superinfections worsening the prognosis. Various immune defects acquired during severe infection may result in complex immunosuppression and may affect both innate and adaptive components. Some animal models of these common clinical situations have demonstrated the increased susceptibility of infected hosts to secondary infectious insult and allowed assessing the regulatory mechanisms. Such pathophysiological advances may help create new immunomodulatory therapeutics for infected patients exposed to severe secondary sepsis.