F. H. Ebetino

Warner Chilcott, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (51)193.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Differences in the binding affinities of bisphosphonates for bone mineral have been proposed to determine their localizations and duration of action within bone. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that mineral binding affinity affects bisphosphonate distribution at the basic multicellular unit (BMU) level within both cortical and cancellous bone. To accomplish this objective, skeletally mature female rabbits (n = 8) were injected simultaneously with both low- and high-affinity bisphosphonate analogs bound to different fluorophores. Skeletal distribution was assessed in the rib, tibia, and vertebra using confocal microscopy. The staining intensity ratio between osteocytes contained within the cement line of newly formed rib osteons or within the reversal line of hemiosteons in vertebral trabeculae compared to osteocytes outside the cement/reversal line was greater for the high-affinity compared to the low-affinity compound. This indicates that the low-affinity compound distributes more equally across the cement/reversal line compared to a high-affinity compound, which concentrates mostly near surfaces. These data, from an animal model that undergoes intracortical remodeling similar to humans, demonstrate that the affinity of bisphosphonates for the bone determines the reach of the drugs in both cortical and cancellous bone.
    Calcified Tissue International 03/2012; 90(3):202-10. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The described ability of phosphonocarboxylate analogues of bisphosphonates (BPs) to inhibit Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT) is thought to be the mechanism underlying their cellular effects, including their ability to reduce macrophage cell viability and to inhibit osteoclast-mediated resorption. However, until now the possibility that at least some of the effects of these drugs may be mediated through other targets has not been excluded. Since RGGT is the most distal enzyme in the process of Rab prenylation, it has not proved possible to confirm the mechanism underlying the effects of these drugs by adding back downstream intermediates of the mevalonate pathway, the approach used to demonstrate that bisphosphonates act through this pathway. We now confirm that RGGT is the major pharmacological target of phosphonocarboxylates by using several alternative approaches. Firstly, analysis of several different phosphonocarboxylate drugs demonstrates a very good correlation between the ability of these drugs to inhibit RGGT with their ability to: (a) reduce macrophage cell viability; (b) induce apoptosis; and (c) induce vacuolation in rabbit osteoclasts. Secondly, we have found that cells from the gunmetal (gm/gm) mouse, which bear a homozygous mutation in RGGT that results in ~80% reduced activity of this enzyme compared to wild-type or heterozygous mice, are more sensitive to the effects of active phosphonocarboxylates (including reducing macrophage cell viability, inhibiting osteoclast formation and inhibiting fluid-phase endocytosis), confirming that these effects are mediated through inhibition of RGGT. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that all of the pharmacological effects of phosphonocarboxylates found thus far appear to be mediated through the specific inhibition of RGGT, highlighting the potential therapeutic value of this class of drugs.
    Bone 03/2011; 49(1):111-21. · 3.82 Impact Factor
  • Bone 01/2011; 48. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether standard clinical doses of risedronate affect osteocyte viability. This study examined osteocyte viability and bone remodeling rate in early postmenopausal women (1-5 years after menopause) who were treated with a standard clinical dose of risedronate (5 mg/day, orally) for 1 year. Paired transiliac bone biopsies were obtained from 19 postmenopausal women at baseline and after 1-year treatment with placebo (n = 8, mean age 52.9 ± 3.4 years) or risedronate 5 mg/day (n = 11, mean age 52.5 ± 3.4 years). In these samples, we measured osteocyte- and bone remodeling-related variables in trabecular bone. In both the placebo and risedronate groups, empty lacunae were significantly decreased after 1-year treatment compared to baseline. There were no significant differences in osteocyte-related variables between placebo and risedronate. Risedronate significantly reduced bone-remodeling indices including mineralizing surface (MS/BS), bone formation rate (BFR/BS), and activation frequency (Ac.f). Risedronate treatment caused significantly lower MS/BS and Ac.f than placebo administration. In conclusion, risedronate 5 mg/day effectively inhibited bone remodeling but did not significantly reduce osteocyte viability in trabecular bone.
    Calcified Tissue International 11/2010; 87(5):392-7. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present here a study of a eukaryotic trans-prenylsynthase from the malaria pathogen Plasmodium vivax. Based on the results of biochemical assays and contrary to previous indications, this enzyme catalyzes the production of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) rather than farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). Structural analysis shows that the product length is constrained by a hydrophobic cavity formed primarily by a set of residues from the same subunit as the product as well as at least one other from the dimeric partner. Furthermore, Plasmodium GGPP synthase (GGPPS) can bind nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) strongly with the energetically favorable cooperation of three Mg(2+), resulting in inhibition by this class of compounds at IC(50) concentrations below 100 nM. In contrast, human and yeast GGPPSs do not accommodate a third magnesium atom in the same manner, resulting in their insusceptibility to N-BPs. This differentiation is in part attributable to a deviation in a conserved motif known as the second aspartate-rich motif: whereas the aspartates at the start and end of the five-residue motif in FFPP synthases and P. vivax GGPPSs both participate in the coordination of the third Mg(2+), an asparagine is featured as the last residue in human and yeast GGPPSs, resulting in a different manner of interaction with nitrogen-containing ligands.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2010; 286(5):3315-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) are widely used to block bone destruction associated with bone metastasis because they are effective inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. More specifically, once internalized by osteoclasts, N-BPs block the activity of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. In addition to their antiresorptive activity, preclinical evidence shows that N-BPs have antiangiogenic properties. However, the exact reasons for which N-BPs inhibit angiogenesis remain largely unknown. Using different angiogenesis models, we examined here the effects of zoledronate, risedronate and three structural analogs of risedronate (NE-58025, NE-58051 and NE-10790) with lower potencies to inhibit FPPS activity. Risedronate and zoledronate were much more potent than NE-compounds at inhibiting both endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and vessel sprouting in the chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In addition, only risedronate and zoledronate inhibited the revascularization of the prostate gland in testosterone-stimulated castrated rats. Moreover, as opposed to NE-compounds, risedronate and zoledronate induced intracellular accumulation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) in endothelial cells by blocking the activity of the IPP-consuming enzyme FPPS. Thus, these results indicated that N-BPs inhibited angiogenesis in a FPPS-dependent manner. However, drug concentrations used to inhibit angiogenesis, both in vitro and in the CAM and prostate gland assays, were high. In contrast, a low concentration of risedronate (1 μM) was sufficient to inhibit blood vessel formation in the ex vivo rat aortic ring assay. Moreover, NE-58025 (which had a 7-fold lower potency than risedronate to inhibit FPPS activity) was as effective as risedronate to reduce angiogenesis in the rat aortic ring assay. In conclusion, our results suggest that low concentrations of N-BPs inhibit angiogenesis in a FPPS-independent manner, whereas higher drug concentrations were required to inhibit FPPS activity in vivo.
    Bone 10/2010; 48(2):259-66. · 3.82 Impact Factor
  • Bone 01/2010; 47. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are the leading drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis. In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), alendronate, risedronate, and zoledronate have shown to reduce the risk of vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fractures, whereas RCTs with ibandronate show antifracture efficacy at vertebral sites. Bisphosphonates are generally well tolerated and safe. Nevertheless, adverse events have been noted, and it is important to consider the strength of the evidence for causal relationships. Effects on the gastrointestinal tract and kidney function are well recognized, as are transient acute-phase reactions. Atrial fibrillation was first identified as a potential adverse event in a zoledronate trial, but subsequent trials and analyses failed to substantiate an association with bisphosphonates. Case reports have suggested a relationship between oral bisphosphonates and esophageal cancer, but this has not been demonstrated in epidemiologic studies. A possible association between bisphosphonate use and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has also been suggested. However, the risk of ONJ in patients with osteoporosis appears to be very low, with no evidence from prospective RCTs of a causal association. There are reports of occasional occurrence of subtrochanteric or diaphyseal fractures in osteoporotic patients, but an association with bisphosphonate therapy is not substantiated by epidemiologic studies or prospective RCTs.
    Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 01/2010; 6:325-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of diseases involving excessive bone resorption, such as osteoporosis, cancer-associated bone disease, and Paget's disease of bone. They target to the skeleton due to their calcium-chelating properties, where they primarily act by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The simple bisphosphonates, clodronate, etidronate and tiludronate, are intracellularly metabolised to cytotoxic ATP analogues, while the more potent, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates act by inhibiting the enzyme FPP synthase, thereby preventing the prenylation of small GTPases that are necessary for the normal function and survival of osteoclasts. In recent years, these concepts have been refined, with an increased understanding of the exact mode of inhibition of FPP synthase and the consequences of inhibiting this enzyme. Recent studies further suggest that the R2 side chain, as well as determining the potency for inhibiting the target enzyme FPP synthase, also influences bone mineral binding, which may influence distribution within bone and duration of action. While bisphosphonates primarily affect the function of resorbing osteoclasts, it is becoming increasingly clear that bisphosphonates may also target the osteocyte network and prevent osteocyte apoptosis, which could contribute to their anti-fracture effects. Furthermore, increasing evidence implicates monocytes and macrophages as direct targets of bisphosphonate action, which may explain the acute phase response and the anti-tumour activity in certain animal models. Bone mineral affinity is likely to influence the extent of any such effects of these agents on non-osteoclast cells. While alternative anti-resorptive therapeutics are becoming available for clinical use, bisphosphonates currently remain the principle drugs used to treat excessive bone resorption.
    Current pharmaceutical design 01/2010; 16(27):2950-60. · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • Bone 01/2010; 47. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates (BPs) inhibit bone resorption and are widely used for the treatment of bone diseases, including osteoporosis. BPs are also being studied for their effects on hydroxyapatite (HAP)-containing biomaterials. There is a growing appreciation that there are hitherto unexpected differences among BPs in their mineral binding affinities that affect their pharmacological and biological properties. To study these differences, we have developed a method based on fast performance liquid chromatography using columns of HAP to which BPs and other phosphate-containing compounds can adsorb and be eluted by using phosphate buffer gradients at pH 6.8. The individual compounds emerge as discrete and reproducible peaks for a range of compounds with different affinities. For example, the peak retention times (min; mean +/- SEM) were 22.0 +/- 0.3 for zoledronate, 16.16 +/- 0.44 for risedronate, and 9.0 +/- 0.28 for its phosphonocarboxylate analog, NE10790. These results suggest that there are substantial differences among BPs in their binding to HAP. These differences may be exploited in the development of biomaterials and may also partly explain the extent of their relative skeletal retention and persistence of biological effects observed in both animal and clinical studies.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2009; 92(1):149-55. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidiosis is a neglected disease without a wholly effective drug. We present a study demonstrating nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) to be capable of inhibiting Cryptosporidium parvum at low micromolar concentrations in infected MDCK cells. Predictably, the mechanism of action is based on inhibition of biosynthesis of isoprenoids but the target enzyme is unexpectedly a distinctive C. parvum enzyme dubbed nonspecific polyprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (CpNPPPS). This enzyme produces various isoprenoid products larger than FPP and is inhibited by N-BPs at subnanomolar concentrations. It is part of an isoprenoid pathway in Cryptosporidium distinctly different from other organisms. The proposed mechanism of action is corroborated by crystal structures of the enzyme with risedronate and zoledronate bound showing how this enzyme's unique chain length determinant region enables it to accommodate larger substrates and products. These results, combined with existing data on their clinical use, demonstrate that N-BPs are very promising anticryptosporidial drug candidates.
    Chemistry & biology 01/2009; 15(12):1296-306. · 6.52 Impact Factor
  • Bone 01/2009; 44. · 3.82 Impact Factor
  • Bone 01/2009; 44. · 3.82 Impact Factor
  • Bone 01/2009; 44. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates decrease bone resorption and reduce significantly the rate of skeletal complications in patients with metastatic bone disease. Bisphosphonates have also been shown to exhibit antitumor activity in vitro but in vivo results have been equivocal. In the present study, we investigated the effects of bisphosphonate treatment alone or in combination with the cytostatic docetaxel on the growth of breast cancer cells in bone. Tumor gowth was studied in an athymic nude mice model inoculated with MDA-231-B/luc+ breast cancer cells. Two days after the inoculation, mice were treated with risedronate, zolendronate or docetaxel alone or with a combination of risedronate and docetaxel. Bone destruction and tumor growth were evaluated radiographically, histologically and by whole-body bioiluminescent reporter imaging (BLI). Five week treatment with high doses risedronate or zoledronate (37.5-150 microg/kg, 5 times/week), fully protected the bones from osteolysis, but did not affect tumour growth. Docetaxel (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg, 2 times/week) inhibited tumour growth dose-dependently and after 5 weeks treatment with the highest dose, there was no detectable tumour in bone. The combination of a dose of docetaxel (4 mg/kg) that demonstrated only a minimal effect on tumour growth, with risedronate (150 microg/kg), protected bone integrity and nearly completely inhibited the growth of the cancer cells. Risedronate and docetaxel act synergistically to protect bone and decrease tumour burden in an animal model of established bone metastases from breast cancer cells.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 12/2008; 118(2):307-13. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report synthesis of the first fluorescently labeled conjugates of risedronate (1), using an epoxide linker strategy enabling conjugation of 1 via its pyridyl nitrogen with the label (carboxyfluorescein). Unlike prior approaches to create fluorescent bisphosphonate probes, the new linking chemistry did not abolish the ability to inhibit protein prenylation in vitro, while significantly retaining hydroxyapatite affinity. The utility of a fluorescent 1 conjugate in visualizing osteoclast resorption in vitro was demonstrated.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 12/2008; 19(12):2308-10. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates (BPs) target bone due to their high affinity for calcium ions. During osteoclastic resorption, these drugs are released from the acidified bone surface and taken up by osteoclasts, where they act by inhibiting the prenylation of small GTPases essential for osteoclast function. However, it remains unclear exactly how osteoclasts internalise BPs from bone and whether other cells in the bone microenvironment can also take up BPs from the bone surface. We have investigated this using a novel fluorescently-labelled alendronate analogue (FL-ALN), and by examining changes in protein prenylation following treatment of cells with risedronate (RIS). Confocal microscopic analysis showed that FL-ALN was efficiently internalised from solution or from the surface of dentine by resorbing osteoclasts into intracellular vesicles. Accordingly, unprenylated Rap1A accumulated to the same extent whether osteoclasts were cultured on RIS-coated dentine or with RIS in solution. By contrast, J774 macrophages internalised FL-ALN and RIS from solution, but took up comparatively little from dentine, due to their inability to resorb the mineral. Calvarial osteoblasts and MCF-7 tumour cells internalised even less FL-ALN and RIS, both from solution and from the surface of dentine. Accordingly, the viability of J774 and MCF-7 cells was drastically reduced when cultured with RIS in solution, but not when cultured on dentine pre-coated with RIS. However, when J774 macrophages were co-cultured with rabbit osteoclasts, J774 cells that were adjacent to resorbing osteoclasts frequently internalised more FL-ALN than J774 cells more distant from osteoclasts. This was possibly a result of increased availability of BP to these J774 cells due to transcytosis through osteoclasts, since FL-ALN partially co-localised with trancytosed, resorbed matrix protein within osteoclasts. In addition, J774 cells occupying resorption pits internalised more FL-ALN than those on unresorbed surfaces. These data demonstrate that osteoclasts are able to take up large amounts of BP, due to their ability to release the BP from the dentine surface during resorption. By contrast, non-resorbing cells take up only small amounts of BP that becomes available due to natural desorption from the dentine surface. However, BP uptake by non-resorbing cells can be increased when cultured in the presence of resorbing osteoclasts.
    Bone 06/2008; 42(5):848-60. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates (BPs), which display a high affinity for calcium phosphate surfaces, are able to selectively target bone mineral, where they are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The dissolution of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been used previously as a model for BP effects on natural bone mineral. The present work examines the influence of BPs on carbonated apatite (CAP), which mimics natural bone more closely than does HAP. Constant composition dissolution experiments were performed at pH 5.50, physiological ionic strength (0.15M) and temperature (37°C). Selected BPs were added at (0.5 × 10-6) to (50.0 × 10-6)M, and adsorption affinity constants, KL, were calculated from the kinetics data. The BPs showed concentration-dependent inhibition of CAP dissolution, with significant differences in rank order zoledronate > alendronate > risedronate. In contrast, for HAP dissolution at pH 5.50, the differences between the individual BPs were considerably smaller. The extent of CAP dissolution was also dependent on the relative undersaturation, , and CAP dissolution rates increased with increasing carbonate content. These results demonstrate the importance of the presence of carbonate in mediating the dissolution of CAP, and the possible involvement of bone mineral carbonate in observed differences in bone affinities of BPs in clinical use.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 06/2008; 85A:993-1000. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are well established as the leading drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis. There is new knowledge about how they work. The differences that exist among individual BPs in terms of mineral binding and biochemical actions may explain differences in their clinical behavior and effectiveness. INTRODUCTION: The classical pharmacological effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) appear to be the result of two key properties: their affinity for bone mineral and their inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. DISCUSSION: There is new information about both properties. Mineral binding affinities differ among the clinically used BPs and may influence their differential distribution within bone, their biological potency, and their duration of action. The antiresorptive effects of the nitrogen-containing BPs (including alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, and zoledronate) appear to result from their inhibition of the enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) in osteoclasts. FPPS is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, which generates isoprenoid lipids utilized for the post-translational modification of small GTP-binding proteins that are essential for osteoclast function. Effects on other cellular targets, such as osteocytes, may also be important. BPs share several common properties as a drug class. However, as with other families of drugs, there are obvious chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological differences among the individual BPs. Each BP has a unique profile that may help to explain potential clinical differences among them, in terms of their speed and duration of action, and effects on fracture reduction.
    Osteoporosis International 02/2008; 19(6):733-59. · 4.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
193.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2012
    • Warner Chilcott
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 1998–2011
    • University of Aberdeen
      • • Division of Applied Medicine
      • • Institute of Medical Sciences
      Aberdeen, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 1997–2009
    • Procter & Gamble
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2008
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Chemistry
      Buffalo, NY, United States
  • 1998–2008
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1995
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
      Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1992
    • Norwich Pharmaceuticals
      Norwich, New York, United States