Eric J Nestler

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Manhattan, New York, United States

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Publications (514)4285.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Stable changes in neuronal gene expression have been studied as mediators of addicted states. Of particular interest is the transcription factor ΔFosB, a truncated and stable FosB gene product whose expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key reward region, is induced by chronic exposure to virtually all drugs of abuse and regulates their psychomotor and rewarding effects. Phosphorylation at Ser(27) contributes to ΔFosB's stability and accumulation following repeated exposure to drugs, and our recent work demonstrates that the protein kinase CaMKIIα phosphorylates ΔFosB at Ser(27) and regulates its stability in vivo. Here, we identify two additional sites on ΔFosB that are phosphorylated in vitro by CaMKIIα, Thr(149) and Thr(180), and demonstrate their regulation in vivo by chronic cocaine. We show that phosphomimetic mutation of Thr(149) (T149D) dramatically increases AP-1 transcriptional activity while alanine mutation does not affect transcriptional activity when compared with wild-type (WT) ΔFosB. Using in vivo viral-mediated gene transfer of ΔFosB-T149D or ΔFosB-T149A in mouse NAc, we determined that overexpression of ΔFosB-T149D in NAc leads to greater locomotor activity in response to an initial low dose of cocaine than does WT ΔFosB, while overexpression of ΔFosB-T149A does not produce the psychomotor sensitization to chronic low-dose cocaine seen after overexpression of WT ΔFosB and abrogates the sensitization seen in control animals at higher cocaine doses. We further demonstrate that mutation of Thr(149) does not affect the stability of ΔFosB overexpressed in mouse NAc, suggesting that the behavioral effects of these mutations are driven by their altered transcriptional properties.
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 08/2014; 34(34):11461-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia remains among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders, and current treatment options are accompanied by unwanted side effects. New treatments that better address core features of the disease with minimal side effects are needed.
    Psychopharmacology 08/2014; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drugs of abuse modulate the function and activity of the mesolimbic dopamine circuit. To identify novel mediators of drug-induced neuroadaptations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), we performed RNA sequencing analysis on VTA samples from mice administered repeated saline, morphine, or cocaine injections. One gene that was similarly upregulated by both drugs was serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). SGK1 activity, as measured by phosphorylation of its substrate N-myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG), was also increased robustly by chronic drug treatment. Increased NDRG phosphorylation was evident 1 but not 24 hours after the last drug injection. SGK1 phosphorylation itself was similarly modulated. To determine the role of increased SGK1 activity on drug-related behaviors, we overexpressed constitutively-active (CA) SGK1 in the VTA. SGK1-CA expression reduced locomotor sensitization elicited by repeated cocaine, but surprisingly had the opposite effect and promoted locomotor sensitization to morphine, without affecting the initial locomotor responses to either drug. SGK1-CA expression did not significantly affect morphine or cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), although there was a trend towards increased CPP with both drugs. Further characterizing the role of this kinase in drug-induced changes in VTA may lead to improved understanding of neuroadaptations critical to drug dependence and addiction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2014; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repeated Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration produces cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) desensitization and downregulation, as well as tolerance to its in vivo pharmacological effects. However, the magnitude of CB1R desensitization varies by brain region, with CB1Rs in the striatum and its output nuclei undergoing less desensitization than other regions. A growing body of data indicates that regional differences in CB1R desensitization are produced, in part, by THC-mediated induction of the stable transcription factor, ΔFosB, and subsequent regulation of CB1Rs. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether THC-mediated induction of ΔFosB in the striatum inhibits CB1R desensitization in the striatum and output nuclei. This hypothesis was tested using bitransgenic mice with inducible expression of ΔFosB or ΔcJun, a dominant negative inhibitor of AP-1-mediated transcription, in specific forebrain regions. Mice were treated repeatedly with escalating doses of THC or vehicle for 6.5 days, and CB1R-mediated G-protein activation was assessed using CP55,940-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography. Overexpression of ΔFosB in striatal dopamine type 1 receptor-containing (D1R) medium spiny neurons (MSNs) attenuated CB1R desensitization in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area (VTA) and amygdala. Expression of ΔcJun in striatal D1R- and dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R)-containing MSNs enhanced CB1R desensitization in the caudate-putamen and attenuated desensitization in the hippocampus and VTA. THC-mediated in vivo pharmacological effects were then assessed in ΔcJun-expressing mice. Tolerance to THC-mediated hypomotility was enhanced in ΔcJun-expressing mice. These data reveal that ΔFosB and possibly other AP-1 binding proteins regulate CB1R signaling and adaptation in the striatum and limbic system.
    Biochemical pharmacology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 has been implicated in 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID), a motor complication affecting Parkinson's disease patients subjected to standard pharmacotherapy. We examined the involvement of mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), a downstream target of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, and an important regulator of transcription in LID.
    Biological psychiatry. 07/2014;
  • Yan Dong, Eric J Nestler
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    ABSTRACT: A leading hypothesis guiding current molecular and cellular research into drug addiction conceptualizes key aspects of addiction as a form of memory in which common neuroplasticity mechanisms that mediate normal learning and memory processes are 'hijacked' by exposure to drugs of abuse to produce pathologic addiction-related memories. Such addiction-related memories are particularly robust and long-lasting and once formed are less amenable to updating. Here we propose a neural rejuvenation hypothesis of cocaine addiction. According to this hypothesis, repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces some plasticity mechanisms normally associated with brain development within the reward circuitry that mediate the highly efficient and unusually stable memory abnormalities that characterize addiction.
    Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 06/2014; · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in the mechanism of action of drugs of abuse. The major neuronal type within the NAc is the GABAergic medium spiny neuron (MSN), with two major subpopulations defined-termed D1-type and D2-type MSNs-based on the predominant dopamine receptor expressed. However, very little is known about the contribution of altered GABAergic function in NAc MSNs to the neural and behavioral plasticity that contributes to the lasting actions of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we show that GABAergic activity is selectively modulated in D1-type MSNs of the NAc by signaling of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), and that such adaptations control rewarding responses to morphine. Optical activation of D1-type MSNs, or the knockout of TrkB from D1-type MSNs (D1-TrkB KO), enhances morphine reward, effects not seen for D2-type MSNs. In addition, D1-TrkB KO mice, but not D2-TrkB KO mice, display decreased GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit expression and reduced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in D1-type, but not D2-type, MSNs in the NAc. Furthermore, we found that GABAAR antagonism in the NAc enhances morphine reward and that morphine exposure decreases TrkB expression as well as GABAergic activity in D1-type MSNs. Together, these data provide evidence for the enhancement of morphine reward through reduction of inhibitory GABAAR responses, an adaptation mediated by morphine-induced reduction of BDNF-TrkB signaling in D1-type MSNs.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 23 May 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.118.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 05/2014; · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence supports a role for altered gene expression in mediating the lasting effects of cocaine on the brain, and recent work has demonstrated the involvement of chromatin modifications in these alterations. However, all such studies to date have been restricted by their reliance on microarray technologies that have intrinsic limitations. We use next generation sequencing methods, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq for RNA polymerase II and several histone methylation marks, to obtain a more complete view of cocaine-induced changes in gene expression and associated adaptations in numerous modes of chromatin regulation in the mouse nucleus accumbens, a key brain reward region. We demonstrate an unexpectedly large number of pre-mRNA splicing alterations in response to repeated cocaine treatment. In addition, we identify combinations of chromatin changes, or signatures, that correlate with cocaine-dependent regulation of gene expression, including those involving pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Through bioinformatic prediction and biological validation, we identify one particular splicing factor, A2BP1(Rbfox1/Fox-1), which is enriched at genes that display certain chromatin signatures and contributes to drug-induced behavioral abnormalities. Together, this delineation of the cocaine-induced epigenome in the nucleus accumbens reveals several novel modes of regulation by which cocaine alters the brain. We establish combinatorial chromatin and transcriptional profiles in mouse nucleus accumbens after repeated cocaine treatment. These results serve as an important resource for the field and provide a template for the analysis of other systems to reveal new transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of neuronal regulation.
    Genome biology 04/2014; 15(4):R65. · 10.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the relationship between the millions of functional DNA elements and their protein regulators, and how they work in conjunction to manifest diverse phenotypes, is key to advancing our understanding of the mammalian genome. Next-generation sequencing technology is now used widely to probe these protein-DNA interactions and to profile gene expression at a genome-wide scale. As the cost of DNA sequencing continues to fall, the interpretation of the ever increasing amount of data generated represents a considerable challenge. We have developed ngs.plot - a standalone program to visualize enrichment patterns of DNA-interacting proteins at functionally important regions based on next-generation sequencing data. We demonstrate that ngs.plot is not only efficient but also scalable. We use a few examples to demonstrate that ngs.plot is easy to use and yet very powerful to generate figures that are publication ready. We conclude that ngs.plot is a useful tool to help fill the gap between massive datasets and genomic information in this era of big sequencing data.
    BMC Genomics 04/2014; 15(1):284. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of disorders such as depression and addiction, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress or prior drug exposure are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Such exposure to environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental and adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression and addiction can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations (e.g., chronic-stress, drug administration). Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is revealing new insight into disease mechanisms in humans.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2014; · 3.91 Impact Factor
  • Daniel Geschwind, Eric J Nestler
    Biological psychiatry 04/2014; 75(7):518-9. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Fosb gene encodes subunits of the activator protein-1 transcription factor complex. Two mature mRNAs, Fosb and ΔFosb, encoding full-length FOSB and ΔFOSB proteins respectively, are formed by alternative splicing of Fosb mRNA. Fosb products are expressed in several brain regions. Moreover, Fosb-null mice exhibit depressive-like behaviors and adult-onset spontaneous epilepsy, demonstrating important roles in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Study of Fosb products has focused almost exclusively on neurons; their function in glial cells remains to be explored. In this study, we found that microglia express equivalent levels of Fosb and ΔFosb mRNAs to hippocampal neurons and, using microarray analysis, we identified six microglial genes whose expression is dependent on Fosb products. Of these genes, we focused on C5ar1 and C5ar2, which encode receptors for complement C5a. In isolated Fosb-null microglia, chemotactic responsiveness toward the truncated form of C5a was significantly lower than that in wild-type cells. Fosb-null mice were significantly resistant to kainate-induced seizures compared with wild-type mice. C5ar1 mRNA levels and C5aR1 immunoreactivity were increased in wild-type hippocampus 24 hours after kainate administration; however, such induction was significantly reduced in Fosb-null hippocampus. Furthermore, microglial activation after kainate administration was significantly diminished in Fosb-null hippocampus, as shown by significant reductions in CD68 immunoreactivity, morphological change and reduced levels of Il6 and Tnf mRNAs, although no change in the number of Iba-1-positive cells was observed. These findings demonstrate that, under excitotoxicity, Fosb products contribute to a neuroinflammatory response in the hippocampus through regulation of microglial C5ar1 and C5ar2 expression. GLIA 2014
    Glia 04/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluoxetine treatment in adulthood evokes antidepressant and anxiolytic responses. Paradoxically, postnatal fluoxetine (PNFlx) induces persistent depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. The mechanistic underpinnings of this paradox remain poorly understood. Here, we examined specific molecular changes in the rat hippocampus that accompany perturbed emotionality observed across life following PNFlx. PNFlx-induced hippocampal gene regulation observed in microarray and quantitative PCR studies indicate functional enrichment of genes involved in response to organic substances, protein kinase pathways, DNA binding and transcriptional repression. We noted specific transcripts (Hdac4, mTOR, Gnai1, Prkcc, Hcn1) that were consistently dysregulated across life, and selectively influenced by postnatal, but not adult, fluoxetine. Increased histone deacetylase-4 (HDAC4) recruitment, accompanied by decreased activating histone acetylation marks at the mTOR and Gnai1 promoters, indicate a role for HDAC4 in PNFlx-mediated gene dysregulation. Strikingly, co-administration of the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate with PNFlx prevented the dysregulation of Hdac4 and mTOR, and the emergence of depression- and anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, we also find that re-treatment of PNFlx animals with fluoxetine in adulthood reversed the increased Hdac4 expression, prevented HDAC4 recruitment to the mTOR and Gnai1 promoters, and attenuated the decline in mTOR and Gnai1 expression, coincident with normalization of PNFlx-evoked depression- and anxiety-like behavior. Further, we show that viral-mediated hippocampal overexpression of Hdac4 was sufficient to induce depression-, but not anxiety-, like behavior in adulthood. Our results highlight the unique nature of molecular signatures evoked by PNFlx, and implicate HDAC4 in the dysregulated gene expression and emergence of perturbed emotionality following fluoxetine exposure in early life.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 25 March 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.73.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2014; · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activity is associated with social defeat-induced depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the decreased mPFC activity and its prodepressant role remain unknown. We show here that induction of the transcription factor ΔFosB in mPFC, specifically in the prelimbic (PrL) area, mediates susceptibility to stress. ΔFosB induction in PrL occurred selectively in susceptible mice after chronic social defeat stress, and overexpression of ΔFosB in this region, but not in the nearby infralimbic (IL) area, enhanced stress susceptibility. ΔFosB produced these effects partly through induction of the cholecystokinin (CCK)-B receptor: CCKB blockade in mPFC induces a resilient phenotype, whereas CCK administration into mPFC mimics the anxiogenic- and depressant-like effects of social stress. We previously found that optogenetic stimulation of mPFC neurons in susceptible mice reverses several behavioral abnormalities seen after chronic social defeat stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that optogenetic stimulation of cortical projections would rescue the pathological effects of CCK in mPFC. After CCK infusion in mPFC, we optogenetically stimulated mPFC projections to basolateral amygdala or nucleus accumbens, two subcortical structures involved in mood regulation. Stimulation of corticoamygdala projections blocked the anxiogenic effect of CCK, although no effect was observed on other symptoms of social defeat. Conversely, stimulation of corticoaccumbens projections reversed CCK-induced social avoidance and sucrose preference deficits but not anxiogenic-like effects. Together, these results indicate that social stress-induced behavioral deficits are mediated partly by molecular adaptations in mPFC involving ΔFosB and CCK through cortical projections to distinct subcortical targets.
    Journal of Neuroscience 03/2014; 34(11):3878-87. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cocaine-mediated repression of the histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a has recently been implicated in transcriptional, morphological and behavioral responses to chronic cocaine administration. Here, using a ribosomal affinity purification approach, we found that G9a repression by cocaine occurred in both Drd1-expressing (striatonigral) and Drd2-expressing (striatopallidal) medium spiny neurons. Conditional knockout and overexpression of G9a within these distinct cell types, however, revealed divergent behavioral phenotypes in response to repeated cocaine treatment. Our studies further indicated that such developmental deletion of G9a selectively in Drd2 neurons resulted in the unsilencing of transcriptional programs normally specific to striatonigral neurons and in the acquisition of Drd1-associated projection and electrophysiological properties. This partial striatopallidal to striatonigral 'switching' phenotype in mice indicates a new role for G9a in contributing to neuronal subtype identity and suggests a critical function for cell type-specific histone methylation patterns in the regulation of behavioral responses to environmental stimuli.
    Nature Neuroscience 03/2014; · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many of the long-term effects of cocaine on the brain's reward circuitry have been shown to be mediated by alterations in gene expression. Several chromatin modifications, including histone acetylation and methylation, have been implicated in this regulation, but the effect of other histone modifications remains poorly understood. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a ubiquitous and abundant nuclear protein, catalyzes the synthesis of a negatively charged polymer called poly(ADP-ribose) or PAR on histones and other substrate proteins and forms transcriptional regulatory complexes with several other chromatin proteins. Here, we identify an essential role for PARP-1 in cocaine-induced molecular, neural, and behavioral plasticity. Repeated cocaine administration, including self-administration, increased global levels of PARP-1 and its mark PAR in mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region. Using PARP-1 inhibitors and viral-mediated gene transfer, we established that PARP-1 induction in NAc mediates enhanced behavioral responses to cocaine, including increased self-administration of the drug. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we demonstrated a global, genome-wide enrichment of PARP-1 in NAc of cocaine-exposed mice and identified several PARP-1 target genes that could contribute to the lasting effects of cocaine. Specifically, we identified sidekick-1-important for synaptic connections during development-as a critical PARP-1 target gene involved in cocaine's behavioral effects as well as in its ability to induce dendritic spines on NAc neurons. These findings establish the involvement of PARP-1 and PARylation in the long-term actions of cocaine.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the enduring neurobiological consequences of antidepressant exposure during adolescence are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the long-term effects of exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during adolescence on behavioral reactivity to emotion-eliciting stimuli. We administered FLX (10 mg/kg, bi-daily, for 15 d) to male adolescent [postnatal day 35 (P35) to P49] C57BL/6 mice. Three weeks after treatment (P70), reactivity to aversive stimuli (i.e., social defeat stress, forced swimming, and elevated plus maze) was assessed. We also examined the effects of FLX on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2-related signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of adolescent mice and Sprague Dawley rats. Adolescent FLX exposure suppressed depression-like behavior, as measured by the social interaction and forced swim tests, while enhancing anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus maze in adulthood. This complex behavioral profile was accompanied by decreases in ERK2 mRNA and protein phosphorylation within the VTA, while stress alone resulted in opposite neurobiological effects. Pharmacological (U0126) inhibition, as well as virus-mediated downregulation of ERK within the VTA mimicked the antidepressant-like profile observed after juvenile FLX treatment. Conversely, overexpression of ERK2 induced a depressive-like response, regardless of FLX pre-exposure. These findings demonstrate that exposure to FLX during adolescence modulates responsiveness to emotion-eliciting stimuli in adulthood, at least partially, via long-lasting adaptations in ERK-related signaling within the VTA. Our results further delineate the role ERK plays in regulating mood-related behaviors across the lifespan.
    Journal of Neuroscience 01/2014; 34(3):1007-21. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous observations show that chronic opiate administration, including self-administration, decrease the soma size of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rodents and humans, a morphological change correlated with increased firing rate and reward tolerance. Given that a general hallmark of drugs of abuse is to increase activity of the mesolimbic DA circuit, we sought to determine whether additional drug classes produced a similar morphological change. Sections containing VTA were obtained from rats that self-administered cocaine or ethanol and from mice that consumed nicotine. In contrast to opiates, we found no change in VTA DA soma size induced by any of these other drugs. These data suggest that VTA morphological changes are induced in a drug-specific manner and reinforce recent findings that some changes in mesolimbic signaling and neuroplasticity are drug-class dependent.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e95962. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis (left) and reward (right) circuitry are modulated by stress and drug exposure and appear to underlie psychiatric disorders such as depression and addiction.
    Journal of Molecular Biology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background The high rate of comorbidity between depression and cocaine addiction suggests shared molecular mechanisms and anatomical pathways. Limbic structures, such as the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc), play a crucial role in both disorders, yet how different cell types within these structures contribute to the pathogenesis remains elusive. Downregulation of p11 (S100A10) specifically in the NAc elicits depressive-like behaviors in mice but its role in drug addiction is unknown. Methods We combine mouse genetics and viral strategies to determine how the titration of p11 levels within the entire NAc affects the rewarding actions of cocaine on behavior (6 to 8 mice per group) and molecular correlates (3 experiments, 5 to 8 mice per group). Finally, the manipulation of p11 expression in distinct NAc dopaminoceptive neuronal subsets distinguished cell-type specific effects of p11 on cocaine reward (5 to 8 mice per group) Results We demonstrate that p11 knockout mice have enhanced cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), which is reproduced by the focal downregulation of p11 in the NAc of wild-type mice. In wild-type mice, cocaine reduced p11 expression in the NAc, while p11 overexpression exclusively in the NAc reduced cocaine CPP. Finally, we identify dopamine receptor-1 (D1) expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) as key mediators of p11’s effects on cocaine reward. Conclusions Our data provide evidence that disruption of p11 homeostasis in the NAc particularly in D1-expressing MSNs may underlie pathophysiological mechanisms of cocaine rewarding action. Treatments to counter maladaptation of p11 levels may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction.
    Biological psychiatry 01/2014; · 8.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

41k Citations
4,285.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • • Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics
      • • Department of Neuroscience
      Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • Michigan State University
      East Lansing, Michigan, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • University of Crete
      • • Division of Basic Sciences
      • • Laboratory of Pharmacology
      Retimo, Crete, Greece
  • 2006–2013
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Palo Alto, CA, United States
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • The Rockefeller University
      • Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2012
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • Florida State University
      • • Program in Neuroscience
      • • Department of Psychology
      Tallahassee, FL, United States
  • 2000–2012
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Division of Hypothalamic Research
      Dallas, TX, United States
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Institutionen för neurovetenskap
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2011
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      Richardson, Texas, United States
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Animal Biology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1985–2010
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1988–2006
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 2005
    • National Institute on Drug Abuse
      • Research Branch Behavioral Neuroscience
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2002
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2001
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1997
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
    • Loyola University Maryland
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States