E. T. Young

Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (192)473.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory, carrying a 2.5 m telescope onboard a heavily modified Boeing 747SP aircraft. SOFIA is optimized for operation at infrared wavelengths, much of which is obscured for ground-based observatories by atmospheric water vapor. The SOFIA science instrument complement consists of seven instruments: FORCAST (Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope), GREAT (German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies), HIPO (High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations), FLITECAM (First Light Infrared Test Experiment CAMera), FIFI-LS (Far-Infrared Field-Imaging Line Spectrometer), EXES (Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph), and HAWC (High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera). FORCAST is a 5-40 μm imager with grism spectroscopy, developed at Cornell University. GREAT is a heterodyne spectrometer providing high-resolution spectroscopy in several bands from 60-240 μm, developed at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy. HIPO is a 0.3-1.1 μm imager, developed at Lowell Observatory. FLITECAM is a 1-5 μm wide-field imager with grism spectroscopy, developed at UCLA. FIFI-LS is a 42-210 μm integral field imaging grating spectrometer, developed at the University of Stuttgart. EXES is a 5-28 μm high-resolution spectrograph, developed at UC Davis and NASA ARC. HAWC is a 50-240 μm imager, developed at the University of Chicago, and undergoing an upgrade at JPL to add polarimetry capability and substantially larger GSFC detectors. We describe the capabilities, performance, and status of each instrument, highlighting science results obtained using FORCAST, GREAT, and HIPO during SOFIA Early Science observations conducted in 2011.
    Proc SPIE 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter provides basic information on infrared astronomy as practiced from the ground, in the air, and in space. The focus in this chapter is on atmospheric and background limitations, basic data reduction techniques, absolute calibration, and photometry.
    Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems. Volume 2: Astronomical Techniques, Software and Data. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds undertaken with the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board Spitzer. In total, five distinct fields were mapped, covering 9 deg{sup 2} in five mid-IR bands spanning 3-24 {mu}m. The survey includes the Orion Nebula Cluster, the Lynds 1641, 1630, and 1622 dark clouds, and the NGC 2023, 2024, 2068, and 2071 nebulae. These data are merged with the Two Micron All Sky Survey point source catalog to generate a catalog of eight-band photometry. We identify 3479 dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Orion molecular clouds by searching for point sources with mid-IR colors indicative of reprocessed light from dusty disks or infalling envelopes. The YSOs are subsequently classified on the basis of their mid-IR colors and their spatial distributions are presented. We classify 2991 of the YSOs as pre-main-sequence stars with disks and 488 as likely protostars. Most of the sources were observed with IRAC in two to three epochs over six months; we search for variability between the epochs by looking for correlated variability in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. We find that 50% of the dusty YSOs show variability. The variations are typically small ({approx}0.2 mag) with the protostars showing a higher incidence of variability and larger variations. The observed correlations between the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 {mu}m variability suggests that we are observing variations in the heating of the inner disk due to changes in the accretion luminosity or rotating accretion hot spots.
    The Astronomical Journal 12/2012; 144:192. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds undertaken with the IRAC and MIPS instruments onboard Spitzer. In total, five distinct fields were mapped covering 9 sq. degrees in five mid-IR bands spanning 3-24 microns. The survey includes the Orion Nebula Cluster, the Lynds 1641, 1630 and 1622 dark clouds, and the NGC 2023, 2024, 2068 and 2071 nebulae. These data are merged with the 2MASS point source catalog to generate a catalog of eight band photometry. We identify 3479 dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Orion molecular clouds by searching for point sources with mid-IR colors indicative of reprocessed light from dusty disks or infalling envelopes. The YSOs are subsequently classified on the basis of their mid-IR colors and their spatial distributions are presented. We classify 2991 of the YSOs as pre-main sequence stars with disks and 488 as likely protostars. Most of the sources were observed with IRAC in 2-3 epochs over 6 months; we search for variability between the epochs by looking for correlated variability in the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands. We find that 50% of the dusty YSOs show variability. The variations are typically small (0.2 mag.) with the protostars showing a higher incidence of variability and larger variations. The observed correlations between the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8 micron variability suggests that we are observing variations in the heating of the inner disk due to changes in the accretion luminosity or rotating accretion hot spots.
    09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is an airborne observatory with a 2.7-m telescope that is under development by NASA and the German Aerospace Center DLR. From late 2010 and through the end of 2011, SOFIA conducted a series of science demonstration flights, Early Science, using FORCAST (the Faint Object InfraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope), HIPO (the High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations), and GREAT (the German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies). Flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft), SOFIA operates above more than 99.8% of the water vapor in the Earth’s atmosphere, opening up most of the far-infrared and sub-millimeter parts of the spectrum. During Early Science, 30 science missions were flown with results in solar system astronomy, star formation, the interstellar medium, the Galactic Center, and extragalactic studies. Many of these investigations were conducted by the first group of SOFIA General Investigators, demonstrating the operation of SOFIA as a facility for the astronomical community. This paper presents some recent highlights from Early Science.
    Proc SPIE 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 μm to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2012; 749(2):L17. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A micro-Faraday array detector (row of miniature 32 thin film strip electrodes wire bonded to an on-chip integrated capacitance transimpedance amplifier) was tested for use in a multiple collector secondary ion mass spectrometry. The detector was mounted on a standard IMS3f SIMS instrument in place of a microchannel plate. The measurements were performed by using a silicon sample bombarded by either or Cs+ primary ions with or without D2O flooding and detecting secondary ions of Si±, SiH±, O-, SiD−, OD−. A parallel detection of near masses of 29Si and 28SiH or 18O and 16OD was demonstrated at a sensitivity level 230 counts/s.
    Analytical Letters 04/2011; 44(6):1050-1057. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a joint U.S./German project, is a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope carried by a Boeing 747-SP that flies in the stratosphere at altitudes as high as 45,000 feet (13.72 km). This facility is capable of observing from 0.3 {\mu}m to 1.6 mm with an average transmission greater than 80 percent. SOFIA will be staged out of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center aircraft operations facility at Palmdale, CA. The SOFIA Science Mission Operations (SMO) will be located at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. First science flights began in 2010 and a full operations schedule of up to one hundred 8 to 10 hour flights per year will be reached by 2014. The observatory is expected to operate until the mid 2030's. SOFIAs initial complement of seven focal plane instruments includes broadband imagers, moderate-resolution spectrographs that will resolve broad features due to dust and large molecules, and high-resolution spectrometers capable of studying the kinematics of atomic and molecular gas at sub-km/s resolution. We describe the SOFIA facility and outline the opportunities for observations by the general scientific community and for future instrumentation development. The operational characteristics of the SOFIA first-generation instruments are summarized. The status of the flight test program is discussed and we show First Light images obtained at wavelengths from 5.4 to 37 \"im with the FORCAST imaging camera. Additional information about SOFIA is available at http://www.sofia.usra.edu and http://www.sofia.usra.edu/Science/docs/SofiaScienceVision051809-1.pdf
    Advances in Space Research 02/2011; 48(6). · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present one of the new generations of observatories, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This is an airborne observatory consisting of a 2.7-m telescope mounted on a modified Boeing B747-SP airplane. Flying at an up to 45,000 ft (14 km) altitude, SOFIA will observe above more than 99 percent of the Earth's atmospheric water vapor allowing observations in the normally obscured far-infrared. We outline the observatory capabilities and goals. The first-generation science instruments flying on board SOFIA and their main astronomical goals are also presented. Comment: Proceedings SF2A-2010: Meeting held in Marseille, France. June 21-25, 2010. Eds: S. Boissier, M. Heydari-Malayeri, R. Samadi and D. Valls-Gabaud
    10/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The U.S./German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP, will conduct 0.3 - 1,600 mum photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging observations from altitudes as high as 45,000 ft., where the average atmospheric transmission is greater than 80 percent. SOFIA's first light cameras and spectrometers, as well as future generations of instruments, will enable SOFIA to make unique contributions to the characterization of the physical properties of proto-planetary disks around young stellar objects and of the atmospheres of exoplanets that transit their parent stars. We describe several types of experiments that are being contemplated.
    Pathways Towards Habitable Planets; 10/2010
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    ABSTRACT: SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is a specially modified Boeing 747SP aircraft with a 2.7- m telescope. Flying above more than 99% of the water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, SOFIA will enable observations of large regions of the infrared and submillimeter that are normally opaque to terrestrial observatories. A joint project of NASA and DLR, SOFIA has completed a series of major flight tests leading up to the Initial Science Flights this year. In particular, SOFIA has recently completed its first observations through the telescope. This paper gives an overview of the facility and reports on the recent progress in the development of this major astronomical facility including the First Light observations with the FORCAST infrared camera.
    Proc SPIE 07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint U.S./German Project to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP that flies in the stratosphere at altitudes as high as 45,000 and is capable of observations from 0.3 microns to 1.6 mm with an average transmission greater than 80 percent. SOFIA will be staged out of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center aircraft operations facility at Palmdale, CA and the SOFIA Science Mission Operations Center (SSMOC) will be located at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. First science flights will begin in 2010, and the number of flights will ramp up annually with a flight rate of over 100 8 to 10 hour flights per year expected by 2014. The observatory is expected to operate until the mid 2030's. SOFIA will initially fly with eight focal plane instruments that include broadband imagers, moderate resolution spectrographs that will resolve broad features due to dust and large molecules, and high resolution spectrometers capable of studying the kinematics of molecular and atomic gas lines at km/s resolution. We describe the SOFIA facility and outline the opportunities for observations by the general scientific community and future instrumentation developments. The operational characteristics of the SOFIA first-generation instruments are summarized and we give several specific examples of the types of scientific studies to which these instruments are expected to make fundamental scientific contributions.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a Spitzer IRAC and MIPS survey of NGC 2451A and B, two open clusters in the 50-80 Myr age range. We complement these data with extensive ground-based photometry and spectroscopy to identify the cluster members in the Spitzer survey field. We find only two members with 8 μm excesses. The incidence of excesses at 24 μm is much higher, i.e., 11 of 31 solar-like stars and 1 of 7 early-type (A) stars. This work nearly completes the debris disk surveys with Spitzer of clusters in the 30-130 Myr range. This range is of interest because it is when large planetesimal collisions may have still been relatively common (as indicated by the one that led to the formation of the Moon during this period of the evolution of the solar system). We review the full set of surveys and find that there are only three possible cases out of about 250 roughly solar-mass stars where very large excesses suggest that such collisions have occurred recently.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2009; 698(2):1989. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2MASS 6x observations were conducted using the same freeze-frame scanning technique used for the 2MASS (Skrutskie et al. 2006, Cat. VII/233) but employed exposures 6 times longer. Imaging of the Pleiades with Spitzer was obtained in 2004 April as part of a joint GTO program conducted by the IRAC instrument team and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) instrument team. (4 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 05/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: This white paper is submitted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey (Astro2010)1 Committee on the State of the Profession to emphasize the potential of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) to contribute to the training of instrumentalists and observers, and to related technology developments. This potential goes beyond the primary mission of SOFIA, which is to carry out unique, high priority astronomical research. SOFIA is a Boeing 747SP aircraft with a 2.5 meter telescope. It will enable astronomical observations anywhere, any time, and at most wavelengths between 0.3 microns and 1.6 mm not accessible from ground-based observatories. These attributes, accruing from the mobility and flight altitude of SOFIA, guarantee a wealth of scientific return. Its instrument teams (nine in the first generation) and guest investigators will do suborbital astronomy in a shirt-sleeve environment. The project will invest $10M per year in science instrument development over a lifetime of 20 years. This, frequent flight opportunities, and operation that enables rapid changes of science instruments and hands-on in-flight access to the instruments, assure a unique and extensive potential - both for training young instrumentalists and for encouraging and deploying nascent technologies. Novel instruments covering optical, infrared, and submillimeter bands can be developed for and tested on SOFIA by their developers (including apprentices) for their own observations and for those of guest observers, to validate technologies and maximize observational effectiveness.
    04/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We present images of a 90''×90'' field centered on the Becklin-Neugebauer object (BN) in OMC-1, taken with the Near-Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrometer (NICMOS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The observed lines are H2 1-0 S(1), Paα, [Fe II] 1.64 μm, and the adjacent continua. The region is rich in interesting structures. The most remarkable are streamers of H2 emission that extend from 15'' to 50'' from IRc2, seen here in unprecedented detail. Unlike the northern H2 "fingers," these inner structures do not exhibit significant [Fe II] emission at their tips, which we suggest is due to lower excitation. These observations also show that the morphological details of the Paα and [Fe II] emission (both imaged for the first time in this region) bear a striking resemblance to that of the Hα and [S II] emission previously observed with WFPC2. This implies that these IR and optical lines are produced by radiative excitation on the surface of the molecular cloud. The Paα morphology of HH 202 is also very similar to its Hα and [O III] emission, again suggesting that the extended Paα emission in this object is photoexcited by the Trapezium, as has been suggested for the optical emission. We find evidence of shock-excited [Fe II] in HH 208, where it again closely follows the morphology of [S II]. There is also H2 coincident with the [S II] and [Fe II] emission, which may be associated with HH 208. Finally, we note some interesting continuum features: diffuse "tails" trailing from IRc3 and IRc4, more extensive observations of the "crescent" found by Stolovy et al., and new observations of a similar oval object nearby. We also find a V-shaped region that may be the boundary of a cavity being cleared by IRc2.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2009; 511(1):282. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NIRCam uses Teledyne H2RG 2048x2048 HgCdTe detector arrays. Eight arrays have a cut-off wavelength of 2.5 microns and two have a cut-off of 5 microns. We describe characterization testing of these arrays, including linearity, latent image, dark current, and read noise measurements at temperatures from 32-42K. We also present metrology measurements showing the surface flatness, coplanarity, and pixel locations in the 2x2 short wavelength mosaic arrays. These data sets will be used to calibrate early on-orbit images.
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We use the source counts measured with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer at 24, 70, and 160 μm to determine the 5 σ confusion limits due to extragalactic sources: 56 μJy, 3.2 mJy, and 40 mJy at 24, 70, and 160 μm, respectively. We also make predictions for confusion limits for a number of proposed far-infrared missions of larger aperture (3.5-10 m diameter).
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2008; 154(1):93. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained thermal images and spectra of comet and Centaur object 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 in late 2003 November. Images at 8, 24, and 70 μm reveal an extensive coma. At 24 μm the coma extends at least 8' from the nucleus and exhibits a single jet. The dust production rate is estimated as 50 kg s-1. The 24 to 70 μm color temperature of the coma is 160 K. The debris trail is also detected at 24 μm and has an optical depth of ~(7 ± 3) × 10-9. Thermal models fitted to photometry at 8, 24, and 70 μm indicate a nuclear radius of 27 ± 5 km, larger than all previous size estimates, and a geometric albedo of 0.025 ± 0.01, lower than any other Centaur object, but consistent with other comets. Analysis of the jet morphology indicates a rotation period in excess of 60 days. The spectra reveal features at 11.3 and 34 μm, which are tentatively identified as emission from olivine, including forsterite. This is the first identification of the minerology of the dust emitted by a Centaur object.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2008; 154(1):463. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present observations of the star formation region NGC 7129 taken with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). A significant population of sources, likely pre-main-sequence members of the young stellar cluster, are revealed outside the central photoionization region. Combining Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and ground-based near-infrared images, we have obtained colors and spectral energy distributions for some 60 objects. The [3.6]-[4.5] versus [8]-[24] color-color plane shows sources clustered at several different loci, which roughly correspond to the archetypal evolutionary sequence Class 0, I, II, and III. We obtain preliminary classifications for 36 objects and find significant numbers of both Class I and II objects. Most of the pre-main-sequence candidates are associated with the densest part of the molecular cloud surrounding the photoionization region, indicating active star formation over a broad area outside the central cluster. We discuss three Class II candidates that exhibit evidence of inner disk clearing, which would be some of the youngest known examples of a transition from accretion to optically thin quiescent disks.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2008; 154(1):379. · 16.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

990 Citations
473.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2012
    • Universities Space Research Association
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1984–2009
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2005
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002–2004
    • Indiana University Bloomington
      • Department of Chemistry
      Bloomington, IN, United States
  • 2003
    • Arizona State University
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 1992
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1986
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States