Elizabeth M Wilson

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (63)293.1 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor coregulator Casein kinase II-binding protein 2 or CR6-interacting factor 1 (CKBP2/CRIF1) binds the androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer cells and in response to dihydrotestosterone localizes with AR on the prostate-specific antigen gene enhancer, but does not bind DNA suggesting CKBP2/CRIF1 localization in chromatin is determined by AR. In this study we show also that CKBP2/CRIF1 inhibits wild-type AR and AR N-terminal transcriptional activity, binds to the AR C-terminal region, inhibits interaction of the AR N- and C-terminal domains (N/C interaction) and competes with p160 coactivator binding to the AR C-terminal domain, suggesting CKBP2/CRIF1 interferes with AR activation functions 1 and 2. CKBP2/CRIF1 is expressed mainly in stromal cells of benign prostatic hyperplasia and in stroma and epithelium of prostate cancer. CKBP2/CRIF1 protein is increased in epithelium of androgen-dependent prostate cancer compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia and decreased slightly in castration recurrent epithelium compared to androgen-dependent prostate cancer. The multifunctional CKBP2/CRIF1 is a STAT3 interacting protein and reported to be a coactivator of STAT3. CKBP2/CRIF1 is expressed with STAT3 in prostate cancer where STAT3 may help to offset the AR repressor effect of CKBP2/CRIF1 and allow AR regulation of prostate cancer growth.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 10/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MAGEA11 is a cancer germline (CG) antigen and androgen receptor coactivator. Its expression in cancers other than prostate, and its mechanism of activation, has not been reported. In silico analyses reveal that MAGEA11 is frequently expressed in human cancers, is increased during tumor progression, and correlates with poor prognosis and survival. In prostate and epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC), MAGEA11 expression was associated with promoter and global DNA hypomethylation, and with activation of other CG genes. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and/or histone deacetylases (HDACs) activated MAGEA11 in a cell line specific manner. MAGEA11 promoter activity was directly repressed by DNA methylation, and partially depended on Sp1, as pharmacological or genetic targeting of Sp1 reduced MAGEA11 promoter activity and endogenous gene expression. Importantly, DNA methylation regulated nucleosome occupancy specifically at the -1 positioned nucleosome of MAGEA11. Methylation of a single Ets site near the transcriptional start site (TSS) correlated with -1 nucleosome occupancy and, by itself, strongly repressed MAGEA11 promoter activity. Thus, DNA methylation regulates nucleosome occupancy at MAGEA11, and this appears to function cooperatively with sequence-specific transcription factors to regulate gene expression. MAGEA11 regulation is highly instructive for understanding mechanisms regulating CG antigen genes in human cancer.
    Epigenetics 07/2013; 8(8). · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma antigen-A11 (MAGE-A11) is a low abundance primate-specific steroid receptor coregulator in normal tissues of the human reproductive tract that is expressed at higher levels in prostate cancer. Increased expression of MAGE-A11 enhances androgen receptor transcriptional activity and promotes prostate cancer cell growth. Further investigation into the mechanisms of MAGE-A11 function in prostate cancer demonstrated interactions with the retinoblastoma-related protein p107 and Rb tumor suppressor, but no interaction with p130 of the Rb family. MAGE-A11 interaction with p107 was associated with transcriptional repression in cells with low MAGE-A11 and transcriptional activation in cells with higher MAGE-A11. Selective interaction of MAGE-A11 with retinoblastoma family members suggested regulation of E2F transcription factors. MAGE-A11 stabilized p107 by inhibition of ubiquitination and linked p107 to hypophosphorylated E2F1 in association with the stabilization and activation of E2F1. The androgen receptor and MAGE-A11 modulated endogenous expression of the E2F1-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. The ability of MAGE-A11 to increase E2F1 transcriptional activity was similar to the activity of adenovirus early oncoprotein E1A and depended on MAGE-A11 interactions with p107 and p300. Immunoreactivity of p107 and MAGE-A11 was greater in advanced prostate cancer than in benign prostate, and knockdown with small inhibitory RNA showed that p107 is a transcriptional activator in prostate cancer cells. The results suggest that MAGE-A11 is a proto-oncogene whose increased expression in prostate cancer reverses retinoblastoma-related protein p107 from transcriptional repressor to transcriptional activator of the androgen receptor and E2F1.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MAGEA11 is a cancer germline (CG) antigen and androgen receptor co-activator. Its expression in cancers other than prostate, and its mechanism of activation, has not been reported. In silico analyses reveal that MAGEA11 is frequently expressed in human cancers, is increased during tumor progression, and correlates with poor prognosis and survival. In prostate and epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC), MAGEA11 expression was associated with promoter and global DNA hypomethylation, and with activation of other CG genes. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and/or histone deacetylases (HDACs) activated MAGEA11 in a cell line specific manner. MAGEA11 promoter activity was directly repressed by DNA methylation, and partially depended on Sp1, as pharmacological or genetic targeting of Sp1 reduced MAGEA11 promoter activity and endogenous gene expression. Importantly, DNA methylation regulated nucleosome occupancy specifically at the -1 positioned nucleosome of MAGEA11. Methylation of a single Ets site near the transcriptional start site (TSS) correlated with -1 nucleosome occupancy and, by itself, strongly repressed MAGEA11 promoter activity. Thus, DNA methylation regulates nucleosome occupancy at MAGEA11, and this appears to function cooperatively with sequence-specific transcription factors to regulate gene expression. MAGEA11 regulation is highly instructive for understanding mechanisms regulating CG antigen genes in human cancer.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 07/2013; 8(8). · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer growth and progression depend on androgen receptor (AR) signaling through transcriptional mechanisms that require interactions with coregulatory proteins, one of which is the primate-specific steroid receptor coregulator, melanoma antigen-A11 (MAGE-11). In this report, we provide evidence how increased expression of MAGE-11 during prostate cancer progression enhances AR signaling and prostate cancer growth. MAGE-11 protein levels are highest in castration-recurrent prostate cancer. The cyclic AMP-induced increase in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent AR transcriptional activity correlates with an increase in MAGE-11 and is inhibited by silencing MAGE-11 expression. MAGE-11 mediates synergistic AR transcriptional activity in LAPC-4 prostate cancer cells. The ability of MAGE-11 to rescue transcriptional activity of complementary inactive AR mutants and promote coimmunoprecipitation between unlike forms of AR suggests that MAGE-11 links transcriptionally active AR dimers. A model for the AR-MAGE-11 multidimeric complex is proposed in which one AR FXXLF motif of the AR dimer engages in the androgen-dependent AR NH2- and carboxyl-terminal interaction, while the second FXXLF motif region of the AR dimer interacts with dimeric MAGE-11. The AR-MAGE-11 multidimeric complex accounts for the dual functions of the AR FXXLF motif in the androgen-dependent AR NH2- and carboxyl-terminal interaction and binding MAGE-11, and for synergy between reported AR splice variants and full-length AR. We conclude that the increased expression of MAGE-11 in castration-recurrent prostate cancer, which is enhanced by cyclic AMP signaling, increases AR-dependent growth of prostate cancer by MAGE-11 forming a molecular bridge between transcriptionally active AR dimers.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progesterone acting through the progesterone receptor (PR) and its coregulators prepares the human endometrium for receptivity to embryo implantation and maintains pregnancy. The menstrual cycle-dependent expression of melanoma antigen-A11 (MAGE-11) in the mid-secretory human endometrium suggested a novel function in human PR signaling. Here we show that MAGE-11 is an isoform-specific coregulator responsible for the greater transcriptional activity of human PR-B relative to PR-A. PR was recruited to progesterone response regions of progesterone-regulated FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) immunophilin and small Ras family G protein cell growth inhibitor RASD1 genes. Expression of MAGE-11 lentivirus shRNA in human endometrial Ishikawa cells expressing PR-B showed that MAGE-11 is required for isoform-specific PR-B up-regulation of FKBP5. In contrast, MAGE-11 was not required for progesterone up-regulation of RASD1 in endometrial cells expressing the PR-A/B heterodimer. Target gene specificity of PR-B depended on the synergistic actions of MAGE-11 and p300 mediated by the unique PR-B NH(2)-terminal (110)LLXXVLXXLL(119) motif that interacts with the MAGE-11 F-box region in a phosphorylation- and ubiquitinylation-dependent manner. A progesterone-dependent mechanism is proposed in which MAGE-11 and p300 increase PR-B up-regulation of the FKBP5 gene. MAGE-11 down-regulates PR-B, similar to the effects of progesterone, and interacts with FKBP5 to stabilize a complex with PR-B. We conclude that the coregulator function of MAGE-11 extends to isoform-specific regulation of PR-B during the cyclic development of the human endometrium.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; 287(41):34809-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Milu T Cherian, Elizabeth M Wilson, David J Shapiro
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    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) has a critical role in the growth and progression of androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancers. To identify novel inhibitors of AR transactivation that block growth of prostate cancer cells, a luciferase-based high-throughput screen of ~160,000 small molecules was performed in cells stably expressing AR and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-luciferase reporter. CPIC (1-(3-(2-chlorophenoxy) propyl)-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile) was identified as a small molecule that blocks AR transactivation to a greater extent than other steroid receptors. CPIC inhibited AR-mediated proliferation of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell lines, with minimal toxicity in AR-negative cell lines. CPIC treatment also reduced the anchorage-independent growth of LAPC-4 prostate cancer cells. CPIC functioned as a pure antagonist by inhibiting the expression of AR-regulated genes in LAPC-4 cells that express wild-type AR and exhibited weak agonist activity in LNCaP cells that express the mutant AR-T877A. CPIC treatment did not reduce AR levels or alter its nuclear localization. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify the site of action of CPIC. CPIC inhibited recruitment of androgen-bound AR to the PSA promoter and enhancer sites to a greater extent than bicalutamide. CPIC is a new therapeutic inhibitor that targets AR-mediated gene activation with potential to arrest the growth of prostate cancer.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2012; 287(28):23368-80. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The progesterone receptor (PR) plays a key role in reproduction and is important in cancers of the reproductive tract. Current PR antagonists usually compete for progestin binding in the PR ligand-binding pocket and often exhibit cross-binding with other members of the steroid receptor family. Using stably transfected cells expressing reporter genes, a set of ∼150 theophylline analogues were screened for their ability to inhibit progesterone, estrogen, glucocorticoid and androgen signaling. The structure-activity studies presented here identify branched 8-alkylthio-6-thio-substitutions of theophylline as selective PR inhibitors. 6-Thio-8-(2-ethylbutyl)thiotheophylline (51), the most extensively studied derivative, does not act by competing with progestins for binding in the ligand-binding pocket of PR. It demonstrated the ability to inhibit the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-luciferase reporter and endogenous PR-regulated alkaline phosphatase activity in T47D breast cancer cells. Compound 51 is the lead member of a novel class of PR inhibitors that act outside the PR ligand-binding pocket, thus serving as a novel probe to investigate PR action and a lead for further development.
    Steroids 03/2012; 77(6):596-601. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring germ line mutations in the X-linked human androgen receptor (AR) gene cause incomplete masculinization of the external genitalia by disrupting AR function in males with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Almost all AR missense mutations that cause androgen insensitivity syndrome are located in the highly structured DNA and ligand binding domains. In this report we investigate the functional defect associated with an AR exon 1 missense mutation, R405S, that caused partial androgen insensitivity. The 46,XX heterozygous maternal carrier had a wild-type Arg-405 CGC allele but transmitted an AGC mutant allele coding for Ser-405. At birth, the 46,XY proband had a bifid scrotum, hypospadias, and micropenis consistent with clinical stage 3 partial androgen insensitivity. Androgen-dependent transcriptional activity of AR-R405S expressed in CV1 cells was less than wild-type AR and refractory in androgen-dependent AR NH(2)- and carboxyl interaction transcription assays that depend on the coregulator effects of melanoma antigen-A11. This mutation created a Ser-405 phosphorylation site evident by the gel migration of an AR-R405S NH(2)-terminal fragment as a double band that converted to the wild-type single band after treatment with λ-phosphatase. Detrimental effects of the R405S mutation were related to the proximity of the AR WXXLF motif (433)WHTLF(437) required for melanoma antigen-A11 and p300 to stimulate transcriptional activity associated with the AR NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction. We conclude that the coregulator effects of melanoma antigen-A11 on the AR NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction amplify the androgen-dependent transcriptional response to p300 required for normal human male sex development in utero.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(14):10905-15. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (CaP) is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. Androgen deprivation therapy is initially effective in CaP treatment, but CaP recurs despite castrate levels of circulating androgen. Continued expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and its ligands has been linked to castration-recurrent CaP growth. In this report, the ligand-dependent dominant-negative ARΔ142-337 (ARΔTR) was expressed in castration-recurrent CWR-R1 cell and tumor models to elucidate the role of AR signaling. Expression of ARΔTR decreased CWR-R1 tumor growth in the presence and absence of exogenous testosterone (T) and improved survival in the presence of exogenous T. There was evidence for negative selection of ARΔTR transgene in T-treated mice. Mass spectrometry revealed castration-recurrent CaP dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels sufficient to activate AR and ARΔTR. In the absence of exogenous testosterone, CWR-R1-ARΔTR and control cells exhibited altered androgen profiles that implicated epithelial CaP cells as a source of intratumoral AR ligands. The study provides in vivo evidence that activation of AR signaling by intratumoral AR ligands is required for castration-recurrent CaP growth and that epithelial CaP cells produce sufficient active androgens for CaP recurrence during androgen deprivation therapy. Targeting intracrine T and DHT synthesis should provide a mechanism to inhibit AR and growth of castration-recurrent CaP.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30192. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Male sex development and growth occur in response to high affinity androgen binding to the androgen receptor (AR). In contrast to complete amino acid sequence conservation in the AR DNA and ligand binding domains among mammals, a primate-specific difference in the AR NH(2)-terminal region that regulates the NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal (N/C) interaction enables direct binding to melanoma antigen-A11 (MAGE-11), an AR coregulator that is also primate-specific. Human, mouse, and rat AR share the same NH(2)-terminal (23)FQNLF(27) sequence that mediates the androgen-dependent N/C interaction. However, the mouse and rat AR FXXLF motif is flanked by Ala(33) that evolved to Val(33) in primates. Human AR Val(33) was required to interact directly with MAGE-11 and for the inhibitory effect of the AR N/C interaction on activation function 2 that was relieved by MAGE-11. The functional importance of MAGE-11 was indicated by decreased human AR regulation of an androgen-dependent endogenous gene using lentivirus short hairpin RNAs and by the greater transcriptional strength of human compared with mouse AR. MAGE-11 increased progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor activity independently of binding an FXXLF motif by interacting with p300 and p160 coactivators. We conclude that the coevolution of the AR NH(2)-terminal sequence and MAGE-11 expression among primates provides increased regulatory control over activation domain dominance. Primate-specific expression of MAGE-11 results in greater steroid receptor transcriptional activity through direct interactions with the human AR FXXLF motif region and indirectly through steroid receptor-associated p300 and p160 coactivators.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(34):29951-63. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    James L Mohler, Mark A Titus, Elizabeth M Wilson
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    ABSTRACT: High-affinity binding of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to the androgen receptor (AR) initiates androgen-dependent gene activation, required for normal male sex development in utero, and contributes to prostate cancer development and progression in men. Under normal physiologic conditions, DHT is synthesized predominantly by 5α-reduction of testosterone, the major circulating androgen produced by the testis. During androgen deprivation therapy, intratumoral androgen production is sufficient for AR activation and prostate cancer growth, even though circulating testicular androgen levels are low. Recent studies indicate that the metabolism of 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 6 in benign prostate and prostate cancer cells is a major biosynthetic pathway for intratumoral synthesis of DHT, which binds AR and initiates transactivation to promote prostate cancer growth during androgen deprivation therapy. Drugs that target the so-called backdoor pathway of DHT synthesis provide an opportunity to enhance clinical response to luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists or antagonists, AR antagonists, and inhibitors of 5α-reductase enzymes (finasteride or dutasteride), and other steroid metabolism enzyme inhibitors (ketoconazole or the recently available abiraterone acetate).
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2011; 17(18):5844-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    Emily B Askew, John T Minges, Andrew T Hnat, Elizabeth M Wilson
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    ABSTRACT: Human androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity involves interdomain and coactivator interactions with the agonist-bound AR ligand binding domain (LBD). Structural determinants of the AR NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction between the AR NH(2)-terminal FXXLF motif and activation function 2 (AF2) in the LBD were shown previously by crystallography. In this report, we provide evidence for a region in AR LBD helix 12 outside the AF2 binding cleft that facilitates interactions with the FXXLF and LXXLL motifs. Mutagenesis of glutamine 902 to alanine in AR LBD helix 12 (Q902A) disrupted AR FXXLF motif binding to AF2, but enhanced coactivator LXXLL motif binding. Functional compensation for defective FXXLF motif binding by AR-Q902A was suggested by the slower dissociation rate of bound androgen. Functional importance of glutamine 902 was indicated by the charged residue germline mutation Q902R that caused partial androgen insensitivity, and a similar somatic mutation Q902K reported in prostate cancer, both of which increased the androgen dissociation rate and decreased AR transcriptional activity. High affinity equilibrium androgen binding was retained by alanine substitution mutations at Tyr-739 in AR LBD helix 5 or Lys-905 in helix 12 structurally adjacent to AF2, whereas transcriptional activity decreased and the androgen dissociation increased. Deleterious effects of these loss of function mutations were rescued by the helix stabilizing AR prostate cancer somatic mutation H874Y. Sequence NH(2)-terminal to the AR FXXLF motif contributed to the AR NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction based on greater AR-2-30 FXXLF motif peptide binding to the agonist-bound AR LBD than a shorter AR-20-30 FXXLF motif peptide. We conclude that helix 12 residues outside the AF2 binding cleft modulate AR transcriptional activity by providing flexibility to accommodate FXXLF or LXXLL motif binding.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 06/2011; 348(2):403-10. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) mediates the growth of benign and malignant prostate in response to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, AR drives prostate cancer growth despite low circulating levels of testicular androgen and normal levels of adrenal androgen. In this report, we demonstrate the extent of AR transactivation in the presence of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (androstanediol) in prostate-derived cell lines parallels the bioconversion of androstanediol to DHT. AR transactivation in the presence of androstanediol in prostate cancer cell lines correlated mainly with mRNA and protein levels of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 6 (17β-HSD6), one of several enzymes required for the interconversion of androstanediol to DHT and the inactive metabolite androsterone. Levels of retinol dehydrogenase 5, and dehydrogenase/reductase short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family member 9, which also convert androstanediol to DHT, were lower than 17β-HSD6 in prostate-derived cell lines and higher in the castration-recurrent human prostate cancer xenograft. Measurements of tissue androstanediol using mass spectrometry demonstrated androstanediol metabolism to DHT and androsterone. Administration of androstanediol dipropionate to castration-recurrent CWR22R tumor-bearing athymic castrated male mice produced a 28-fold increase in intratumoral DHT levels. AR transactivation in prostate cancer cells in the presence of androstanediol resulted from the cell-specific conversion of androstanediol to DHT, and androstanediol increased LAPC-4 cell growth. The ability to convert androstanediol to DHT provides a mechanism for optimal utilization of androgen precursors and catabolites for DHT synthesis.
    Cancer Research 02/2011; 71(4):1486-96. · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • Elizabeth M Wilson
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    ABSTRACT: High-affinity binding of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone to the androgen receptor (AR) triggers the androgen-dependent AR NH2- and carboxyl-terminal (N/C) interaction between the AR NH2-terminal FXXLF motif and the activation function 2 (AF2) hydrophobic binding surface in the ligand-binding domain. The functional importance of the AR N/C interaction is supported by naturally occurring loss-of-function AR AF2 mutations where AR retains high-affinity androgen binding but is defective in AR FXXLF motif binding. Ligands with agonist activity in vivo such as testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and the synthetic anabolic steroids induce the AR N/C interaction and increase AR transcriptional activity in part by slowing the dissociation rate of bound ligand and stabilizing AR against degradation. AR ligand-binding domain competitive antagonists inhibit the agonist-dependent AR N/C interaction. Although the human AR N/C interaction is important for transcriptional activity, it has an inhibitory effect on transcriptional activity from AF2 by competing for p160 coactivator LXXLL motif binding. The primate-specific AR coregulatory protein, melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-A11), modulates the AR N/C interaction through a direct interaction with the AR FXXLF motif. Inhibition of AF2 transcriptional activity by the AR N/C interaction is relieved by AR FXXLF motif binding to the F-box region of MAGE-11. Described here are methods to measure the androgen-dependent AR N/C interdomain interaction and the influence of transcriptional coregulators.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2011; 776:113-29. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyglutamine expansion within the androgen receptor (AR) causes spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and is associated with misfolded and aggregated species of the mutant AR. We showed previously that nuclear localization of the mutant AR was necessary but not sufficient for SBMA. Here we show that an interdomain interaction of the AR that is central to its function within the nucleus is required for AR aggregation and toxicity. Ligands that prevent the interaction between the amino-terminal FXXLF motif and carboxyl-terminal AF-2 domain (N/C interaction) prevented toxicity and AR aggregation in an SBMA cell model and rescued primary SBMA motor neurons from 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced toxicity. Moreover, genetic mutation of the FXXLF motif prevented AR aggregation and 5α-dihydrotestosterone toxicity. Finally, selective androgen receptor modulators, which prevent the N/C interaction, ameliorated AR aggregation and toxicity while maintaining AR function, highlighting a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent the SBMA phenotype while retaining AR transcriptional function.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2010; 285(46):35567-77. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyglutamine expansion within the androgen receptor (AR) causes spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and is associated with misfolded and aggregated species of the mutant AR. We showed previously that nuclear localization of the mutant AR was necessary but not sufficient for SBMA. Here we show that an interdomain interaction of the AR that is central to its function within the nucleus is required for AR aggregation and toxicity. Ligands that prevent the interaction between the amino-terminal FXXLF motif and carboxyl-terminal AF-2 domain (N/C interaction) prevented toxicity and AR aggregation in an SBMA cell model and rescued primary SBMA motor neurons from 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced toxicity. Moreover, genetic mutation of the FXXLF motif prevented AR aggregation and 5α-dihydrotestosterone toxicity. Finally, selective androgen receptor modulators, which prevent the N/C interaction, ameliorated AR aggregation and toxicity while maintaining AR function, highlighting a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent the SBMA phenotype while retaining AR transcriptional function.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2010; 285(46):35567-35577. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms responsible for 17β-estradiol (E(2))-stimulated breast cancer growth and development of resistance to tamoxifen and other estrogen receptor α (ERα) antagonists are not fully understood. We describe a new tool for dissecting ERα action in breast cancer, p-fluoro-4-(1,2,3,6,-tetrahydro-1,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-6-thionpurin-8-ylthio) (TPSF), a potent small-molecule inhibitor of estrogen receptor α that does not compete with estrogen for binding to ERα. TPSF noncompetitively inhibits estrogen-dependent ERα-mediated gene expression with little inhibition of transcriptional activity by NF-κB or the androgen or glucocorticoid receptor. TPSF inhibits E(2)-ERα-mediated induction of the proteinase inhibitor 9 gene, which is activated by ERα binding to estrogen response element DNA, and the cyclin D1 gene, which is induced by tethering ERα to other DNA-bound proteins. TPSF inhibits anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent E(2)-ERα-stimulated growth of MCF-7 cells but does not inhibit growth of ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. TPSF also inhibits ERα-dependent growth in three cellular models for tamoxifen resistance; that is, 4-hydroxytamoxifen-stimulated MCF7ERαHA cells that overexpress ERα, fully tamoxifen-resistant BT474 cells that have amplified HER-2 and AIB1, and partially tamoxifen-resistant ZR-75 cells. TPSF reduces ERα protein levels in MCF-7 cells and several other cell lines without altering ERα mRNA levels. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 abolished down-regulation of ERα by TPSF. Thus, TPSF affects receptor levels at least in part due to its ability to enhance proteasome-dependent degradation of ERα. TPSF represents a novel class of ER inhibitor with significant clinical potential.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2010; 285(53):41863-73. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epididymal function depends on androgen signaling through the androgen receptor (AR), although most of the direct AR target genes in epididymis remain unknown. Here we globally mapped the AR binding regions in mouse caput epididymis in which AR is highly expressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing indicated that AR bound selectively to 19,377 DNA regions, the majority of which were intergenic and intronic. Motif analysis showed that 94% of the AR binding regions harbored consensus androgen response elements enriched with multiple binding motifs that included nuclear factor 1 and activator protein 2 sites consistent with combinatorial regulation. Unexpectedly, AR binding regions showed limited conservation across species, regardless of whether the metric for conservation was based on local sequence similarity or the presence of consensus androgen response elements. Further analysis suggested the AR target genes are involved in diverse biological themes that include lipid metabolism and sperm maturation. Potential novel mechanisms of AR regulation were revealed at individual genes such as cysteine-rich secretory protein 1. The composite studies provide new insights into AR regulation under physiological conditions and a global resource of AR binding sites in a normal androgen-responsive tissue.
    Molecular Endocrinology 10/2010; 24(12):2392-405. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    Elizabeth M Wilson
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    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) is a key transcriptional regulator and therapeutic target in prostate cancer. During androgen deprivation therapy to treat metastatic prostate cancer, surviving cells acquire increased AR signaling through a variety of mechanisms, one of which is enhanced interactions with AR coactivators. One recently identified AR-specific coregulator expressed only in human and nonhuman primates is the melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-11). MAGE-11 increases AR transcriptional activity through direct interactions with AR and other coactivators, and its levels increase during prostate cancer progression to castration-recurrent growth. The MAGE-11 gene is located at Xq28 on the human X chromosome as part of an X-linked MAGE gene family of cancer-testis antigens. MAGE-11 stabilizes AR when androgen levels are low, and functions in a transcriptional hub to promote AR-mediated gene activation. The evolutionary development and organization of the MAGE-11 gene within the cancer-testis antigen family suggests that MAGE-11 provides a gain-of-function to AR among primates in both normal physiology and cancer, and may serve as a therapeutic target in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
    Therapeutic Advances in Urology 06/2010; 2(3):105-17.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
293.10 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1983–2013
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
      • • Laboratories for Reproductive Biology
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • • Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Urbana, IL, United States
  • 2011
    • State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      • Department of Urology
      Buffalo, NY, United States
  • 2001
    • Samford University
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States