Eleonora Baldi

Sant'Anna Hospital, Torino, Piedmont, Italy

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Publications (10)37.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) depends on two isoforms, an 82 kDa active MMP-9 modulated by its specific tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1), and a 65 kDa TIMP-1 resistant active MMP-9. The relevance of these two enzymatic isoforms in multiple sclerosis (MS) is still unknown. To investigate the contribution of the TIMP-1 modulated and resistant active MMP-9 isoforms to MS pathogenesis. We measured the serum levels of the 82 kDa and TIMP-1 resistant active MMP-9 isoforms by activity assay systems in 86 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, categorized according to clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of disease activity, and in 70 inflammatory (OIND) and 69 non-inflammatory (NIND) controls. Serum levels of TIMP-1 resistant MMP-9 were more elevated in MS patients than in OIND and NIND (p < 0.05, p < 0.02, respectively). Conversely, 82 kDa active MMP-9 was higher in NIND than in the OIND and MS patients (p < 0.01 and p < 0.00001, respectively). MRI-active patients had higher levels of TIMP-1 resistant MMP-9 and 82 kDa active MMP-9, than did those with MRI inactive MS (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Our findings suggested that the TIMP-1 resistant MMP-9 seem to be the predominantly active isoform contributing to MS disease activity. © The Author(s), 2015.
    Multiple Sclerosis 02/2015; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of this study was to investigate intrathecal production and affinity distributions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and controls.Methods Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum concentrations, quantitative intrathecal synthesis, oligoclonal bands (OCB) patterns and affinity distributions of anti-Epstein Barr virus (EBV) antibodies were evaluated in 100 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and 200 age- and sex-matched controls with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and other noninflammatory neurological disorders (NIND).ResultsLevels of anti-EBNA-1 and anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG were different in both the CSF (P <0.0001 and P <0.01, respectively) and serum (P <0.001 and P <0.05, respectively) among the RRMS, OIND and NIND. An intrathecal synthesis of anti-EBNA-1 IgG and anti-VCA IgG, as indicated by the antibody index, was underrepresented in the RRMS, OIND and NIND (range 1 to 7%). EBV-specific OCB were detected in 24% of the RRMS patients and absent in the controls. High-affinity antibodies were more elevated in the RRMS and in the OIND than in the NIND for CSF anti-EBNA-1 IgG (P <0.0001) and anti-VCA IgG (P <0.0001). After treatment with increasing concentrations of sodium thiocyanate, the EBV-specific IgG OCB had low affinity in all 24 RRMS patients analyzed.Conclusions Our findings do not support the potential role of an EBV persistent brain chronic infection in MS and suggest that an EBV-specific intrathecal oligoclonal IgG production can occur in a subset of MS patients as part of humoral polyreactivity driven by chronic brain inflammation.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 11/2014; 11(1):188. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that oxidative stress might contribute to demyelination and axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). Ferroxidase (FeOx) activity of ceruloplasmin prevents the formation of free radicals from Fe(2+) by promoting the incorporation of this pro-oxidant ion to transferrin. The aim of our study was to investigate serum FeOx activity in a cohort of patients with MS and neurological controls. Serum FeOx activity was determined in 69 relapsing-remitting patients with MS and in 62 patients with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and 52 patients with other non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND) as controls. Serum FeOx activity was lower (p<0.01) in MS and OIND than in NIND, without any significant differences among MS patients grouped according to clinical and magnetic resonance evidence of disease activity. A reduced serum FeOx activity, which can potentially lead to a rise in oxidative stress-induced biomolecular damage, seems to be a shared condition in inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system including MS.
    In vivo (Athens, Greece) 11/2014; 28(6):1197-1200. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Fingolimod (FTY) is licensed as a disease-modifying treatment in highly active Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FTY in a real-life setting and to explore the possible role of clinical and MRI parameters, including previous treatment type, in predicting its efficacy. Methods: Clinical and MRI data was collected on 127 patients assigned to treatment with FTY in six Multiple Sclerosis Centers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, between August 2011 and June 2013. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 10 months (range 1-22), we observed a total of 47 relapses in 39 patients (30.7%); new T2 lesions or Gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions were present at follow-up MRI in 32/71 patients (45%). EDSS at the end of the follow-up period was not different when compared to the baseline EDSS. Serious adverse events occurred in 3 patients (2.4%). A higher proportion of patients previously treated with natalizumab showed clinical (41%) or MRI activity (54%). Previous treatment with natalizumab increased the risk of a relapse within 30 days (versus immunomodulatory drugs; OR: 4.3; p=0.011) and at survival analysis (versus remaining patients; HR: 1.9; p=0.046). Study limitations include a small population sample, a short observation period with variable timing of follow-up MRI and different baseline characteristics of patients previously treated with natalizumab compared to those treated with immunomodulatory drugs. Conclusions: This study confirms the efficacy of FTY in reducing relapse rate in patients previously treated with immunomodulatory drugs, while it seems to be less effective in patients discontinuing natalizumab. Due to the short duration of follow-up is not possible to evaluate disability progression, however, no difference was observed between the groups.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 05/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression and function of the immunoregulatory molecule HLA-E was investigated in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS). Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) soluble (s)HLA-E and -G levels were measured by ELISA in 80 RRMS patients. Controls were patients with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND, n = 81) and noninflammatory neurological disorders (NIND, n = 86). Serum sHLA-E concentrations were higher in RRMS than in NIND patients only. CSF sHLA-E concentrations were higher in RRMS than controls. Increased CSF sHLA-E levels were detected in MRI inactive and clinically stable RRMS patients. sHLA-E intrathecal synthesis (ITS) was higher in RRMS than controls, and the number of patients with sHLA-E ITS above cut-off was higher i) in MS than controls, and ii) in clinically stable than clinically active MS patients. sHLA-E CSF levels and ITS correlated with i) the same sHLA-G parameters, and ii) disease duration. HLA-E expression and co-expression with CD markers were investigated in MS plaques from three different cases by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, respectively. Infiltrating T lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as resident microglial cells and astrocytes expressed HLA-E. CSF samples from MS patients were finally tested for inhibitory activity of in vitro CTL and NK cell mediated cytotoxicity. sHLA-E(+) were more effective than sHLA-E(-) CSF samples in such inhibition. Maximum inhibition was achieved with sHLA-E(+)/sHLA-G(+) CSF samples In conclusion, increased sHLA-E CSF levels may play an immunomodulatory role in MS, contributing to the inhibition of intrathecal inflammatory response. The potential of sHLA-E as biomarker of MS activity warrants further investigation.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 04/2013; · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HLA-G is believed to act as an anti-inflammatory molecule in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The 3' untranslated region of the HLA-G gene is characterized by two polymorphisms, DEL/INS14bp and +3142C>G, which control soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) production. The influence of these two HLA-G variants on sHLA-G serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels was investigated in 69 Relapsing-Remitting MS patients grouped in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inactive and active disease. Serum and CSF sHLA-G levels were more elevated in high than in low DEL/INS 14bp and +3142C>G sHLA-G producers and were different among the various combined HLA-G genotypes in both MRI inactive and active diseases. The highest and the lowest sHLA-G values were identified in MS patients with C/C,DEL/DEL and G/G,INS/INS genotypes, respectively. Our preliminary findings suggest that serum and CSF sHLA-G levels in MS could be influenced by HLA-G polymorphisms irrespective of the inflammatory microenvironment.
    Human immunology 08/2012; 73(11):1140-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels and intrathecal synthesis of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 80 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients grouped according to clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of disease activity. Eighty patients with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and 80 patients with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND) served as neurological controls. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were higher in OIND than in multiple sclerosis (p < 0.0001) and NIND (p < 0.01) for anti-viral-capsid-antigen (anti-VCA) IgG, in multiple sclerosis than in NIND (p < 0.01) and in OIND than in NIND (p < 0.05) for anti-EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG. Serum levels were more elevated in OIND than in multiple sclerosis (p < 0.05) and in MRI inactive than in MRI active multiple sclerosis (p < 0.0001) for anti-VCA IgG, and in multiple sclerosis than in OIND and NIND (p < 0.01) for anti-EBNA-1 IgG. Serum titres of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA-1 IgG were also positively (p < 0.05) and inversely (p < 0.001) correlated, respectively, with the Expanded Disability Status Scale. An intrathecal IgG production of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA-1 IgG, as indicated by Antibody Index, was present only in a limited number of multiple sclerosis patients and controls (range from 1.3 to 6.3%). These findings do not support a direct pathogenetic role of EBV-targeted humoral immune response in multiple sclerosis.
    Multiple Sclerosis 07/2010; 16(7):883-7. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its tissue inhibitor TIMP-2 in multiple sclerosis (MS). To elucidate the actual implication of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in MS. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum levels of active MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were measured by activity assay system and ELISA, respectively, in 67 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), categorized according clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in 129 controls. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum active MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio mean values and an intrathecal active MMP-2 production were more increased in RRMS than in non-inflammatory conditions (P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.0001, respectively) and in MRI inactive than in MRI active RRMS (P < 0.02, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). An intrathecal synthesis of active MMP-2 was more frequent in RRMS than in inflammatory disorders (P < 0.01). Serum active MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio and MS disease duration were positively correlated (P < 0.02). These findings suggest a potential role for MMP-2 activity in the termination of MS neuroinflammation related to remission of the disease and seem to indicate that serum MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio may represent a useful biomarker for monitoring MS recovery phase.
    Multiple Sclerosis 04/2009; 15(5):547-54. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of sHLA-G (sHLA-G1/HLA-G5) molecules and their soluble isoforms HLA-G5 and sHLA-G1 were measured by ELISA procedures in 68 relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RR MS) patients, in 67 patients with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and in 70 subjects with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND). CSF concentrations of sHLA-G1/HLA-G5 and HLA-G5 were higher in RR MS than in OIND and NIND, and in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) inactive as compared to MRI active RR MS. Our results indicate that the potential implication of sHLA-G proteins in the resolution of MS intrathecal inflammatory response is probably due to HLA-G5 isoform.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 01/2008; 192(1-2):219-25. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we employed a sensitive activity assay system to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum levels of active matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in 37 relapsing-remitting (RR), 15 secondary progressive (SP) and nine primary progressive (PP) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, grouped according to clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of disease activity. We also studied, as neurological controls, 48 patients with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and 48 with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND). To assess active MMP-9/TIMP-1 circuit, CSF and serum levels of MMP-9 tissue inhibitor TIMP-1 were quantified by ELISA in the same patient population. CSF mean levels of active MMP-9, CSF active MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios and intrathecal active MMP-9 synthesis, as indicated by specific index, were more elevated in MS than in NIND (P < 0.05, < 0.02 and < 0.02, respectively), serum active MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was higher in MS (P < 0.01) and OIND (P < 0.02) than in NIND, and serum TIMP-1 concentrations were lower in MS than in NIND (P<0.05). More importantly, serum active MMP-9 mean levels, serum active MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio and intrathecal production of active MMP-9 were increased in MS patients with clinical (P < 0.001, < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively) and MRI (P < 0.001, < 0.001 and < 0.02, respectively) disease activity, whereas CSF mean concentrations of active MMP-9 and CSF active MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio were enhanced only in MS patients with MRI evidence of disease activity (P < 0.02 and < 0.01, respectively). Altogether, these findings suggest that a shift in MMP-9/TIMP-1 balance towards proteolytic activity of MMP-9 could be relevant in MS immune dysregulation. In addition, our results indicate that CSF and serum levels of active MMP-9 may represent a potential surrogate biomarker for monitoring MS disease activity. In particular, serum active MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio seems to be a very appropriate indicator of ongoing MS inflammation, since it is easily measurable.
    Multiple Sclerosis 07/2006; 12(3):294-301. · 4.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

94 Citations
37.01 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Sant'Anna Hospital
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2012–2013
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Sassari
      Sassari, Sardinia, Italy
  • 2008–2010
    • Universita degli studi di Ferrara
      • Sezione di Neurologia
      Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, Italy