E Schmitt

Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany

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Publications (29)32.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A 57-year-old man presented to the authors' department with pain over the right hip joint over a 3-month period. External magnetic resonance imaging showed a structure in the right acetabulum that was highly suspicious for a bone sarcoma. External 3-phase bone scintigraphy substantiated the suspected diagnosis. A computer tomography-guided biopsy was performed. Microbiologic examination showed a Staphylococcus aureus strain. Histopathologic findings showed chronic fibrous osteomyelitis. Because of doubts about these findings made by radiologists, open biopsy with retrieval of bony samples from the acetabulum and hip joint puncture was repeated. At that time, the serum C-reactive protein level was 48.8 mg/dL and the white blood cell count was 5600×10(6)/L. Microbiologic examination showed a S aureus and a Staphylococcus epidermidis strain in both regions. Results of blood cultures were negative. Based on these findings, the decision was made to perform a septic femoral head and neck resection. After meticulous debridement, necrosectomy, and pulsatile lavage, a gentamicin and vancomycin-impregnated cement spacer was implanted. Postoperatively, systemic antibiotic treatment with cefuroxime and rifampicin was administered for 4 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of oral antibiotics. Mobilization was allowed under toe-touch bearing of the operated extremity. The further postoperative course was uneventful. Prosthesis implantation was performed after 3 months. White blood cell count and C-reactive protein values were normal at the time of surgery. Histologic and microbiologic examination of tissue samples taken intraoperatively showed no evidence of persistent infection. At follow-up after 1 year, the patient had no complaints and has no local or systemic signs of infection.
    Orthopedics 08/2014; 37(8):e750-e753. · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The implantation of antibiotic-loaded cement spacers is established in the treatment of late hip joint infections, and the McPherson staging system has been widely used in this context. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the McPherson classification and complications at the site of hip spacer implantation. 60 patients were retrospectively identified who fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Using the McPherson classification, 12 patients were categorised as IIIA1, 4 as IIIA2, 19 as IIIB1, 7 as IIIB2, 12 as IIIC1, and 6 as IIIC2. Complications recorded were infection-associated, mechanical, systemic, general, and mortality. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Mantel-Haenszel and the exact Fisher tests. In relation to complications with respect to the systemic host grade, the Mantel-Haenszel test revealed significant differences regarding only the emergence of a draining sinus. In relation to complications with respect to the local extremity grade, the exact Fisher test revealed significant differences regarding only the emergence of wound healing complications. All other complications showed no significant differences. The McPherson classification, in association with an increasing number of comorbidities, indicates a higher risk of occurrence of a postoperative draining sinus, whereas the grade of compromised local tissues is associated with wound healing complications. Improvement of the general medical condition of patients between stages as well as an anatomical dissection and closure of the wound may lead to a decreased incidence of these complications.
    Hip international: the journal of clinical and experimental research on hip pathology and therapy 07/2011; · 0.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fungal periprosthetic joint infections are a rare entity in orthopedic surgery, and there exist no guidelines according to which these infections can be successfully managed. Between 2004 and 2009, 7 patients with fungal periprosthetic joint infections (4 total hip arthroplasties and 3 total knee arthroplasties) have been treated with a 2-stage protocol and implantation of antibiotic-loaded cement spacers. Most of the infection was caused by Candida species. Systemic antifungal agents were administered for 6 weeks in 6 cases and 6 months in 1 case. The mean spacer implantation time was 12 weeks. At a mean follow-up of 28 months (5-70 months), no persistence of infection or reinfection could be observed. A 2-stage treatment protocol with implantation of an antibiotic-loaded cement spacer is an efficient option in the treatment of fungal periprosthetic infections.
    The Journal of arthroplasty 07/2011; 27(2):293-8. · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Late infections after total hip arthroplasty are still a problem. Treatment procedures include resection arthroplasty with implantation of antibiotic-loaded beads or implantation of an antibiotic-impreganted spacer. However, little is known about antibiotic elution from bone cement beyond the first 2-3 postoperative days in humans. 17 hip spacers (80 g PMMA, 1g gentamicin, and 4 g vancomycin) and 11 chains (40 g PMMA, 0.5 g gentamicin, and 2 g vancomycin) in 28 patients were studied. The release of both agents was measured in the drainage fluid on a daily basis. The drains were left in situ until less than 50 mL was produced per day. The elution of both antibiotics was determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Systemic antibiotics were given postoperatively according to antibiogram. If possible, no gentamicin or vancomycin was given. Peak mean concentrations from beads and spacers were reached for gentamicin (1,160 (12-371) microg/mL and 21 (0.7-39) microg/mL, respectively) and for vancomycin (80 (21-198) microg/mL and 37 (3.3-72) microg/mL) on day 1. The last concentrations to be determined were 3.7 microg/mL gentamicin and 23 microg/mL vancomycin in the beads group after 13 days, and 1.9 microg/mL gentamicin and 6.6 microg/mL vancomycin in the spacer group after 7 days. Between the fifth and seventh day, an intermittent increase in elution of vancomycin from both beads and spacers and of gentamicin from spacers was noticed. No renal or hepatic dysfunction was observed. Beads showed higher elution characteristics in vivo than the spacers due to their larger surface area; however, a great amount of inter-subject variability was seen for both beads and spacers. The inferior elution properties of spacers emphasize the importance of additional systemic antibiotics for this treatment procedure during the postoperative period. Future studies should clarify whether the dose of antibiotics or length of antibiotic therapy may be reduced in the case of bead implantation, without jeopardizing the control of infection.
    Acta Orthopaedica 05/2009; 80(2):193-7. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    Acta Orthopaedica 02/2009; 80(3):386-8. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In case of periprosthetic hip infections the implantation of antibiotic-loaded PMMA spacers is accepted for an adequate treatment option. Although their indication for the treatment of destructive, bacterial infections of the proximal femur would make sense, literature data are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated spacers in the treatment of proximal femur infections. In 10 consecutive patients (5 M/ 5 F, mean age 66 y.) with bacterial proximal femur infections, a femoral head/neck resection was prospectively performed with a subsequent implantation of an antibiotic-loaded spacer. The joint-specific outcome was evaluated by the Merle d'Aubigne and the Mayo hip score, the general outcome by SF-36. The time periods were divided into "infection situation", "between stages" and meanly 1 year "after prosthesis implantation". The spacers were meanly implanted over 90 [155-744] days. In all cases an infection eradication could be achieved. After infection eradication, a prosthesis implantation was performed in 8 cases. The general scores showed significant increases at each time period. With regard to the dimension "pain", both scores demonstrated a significant increase between "infection situation" and "between stages", but no significance between "between stages" and "after prosthesis implantation". Spacers could be indicated in the treatment of proximal femur infections. Besides an infection eradication, a pain reduction is also possible.
    International journal of medical sciences 01/2009; 6(5):258-64. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past two decades antibiotic-impregnated hip spacers have become a popular procedure in the treatment of hip joint infections. Besides infection persistence and/or reinfection, major complications after hip spacer implantation include spacer fracture, -dislocation, and bone fracture. Moreover, in cases with extensive loss of femoral and/or acetabular bone alternative reconstructive techniques should be used for a stable spacer fixation and prevention of fractures or dislocations. The present article reviews the different types of spacer fractures and dislocations and offers some suggestions about reconstructive techniques for management of extensive loss of femoral and/or acetabular bone at the site of hip spacer implantation.
    International journal of medical sciences 01/2009; 6(5):274-9. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective study was to identify and evaluate complications after hip spacer implantation other than reinfection and/or infection persistence. Between 1999 and 2008, 88 hip spacer implantations in 82 patients have been performed. There were 43 male and 39 female patients at a mean age of 70 [43-89] years. The mean spacer implantation time was 90 [14-1460] days. The mean follow-up was 54 [7-96] months. The most common identified organisms were S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In most cases, the spacers were impregnated with 1 g gentamicin and 4 g vancomycin/80 g bone cement. The overall complication rate was 58.5% (48/82 cases). A spacer dislocation occurred in 15 cases (17%). Spacer fractures could be noticed in 9 cases (10.2%). Femoral fractures occurred in 12 cases (13.6%). After prosthesis reimplantation, 16 patients suffered from a prosthesis dislocation (23%). 2 patients (2.4%) showed allergic reactions against the intravenous antibiotic therapy. An acute renal failure occurred in 5 cases (6%). No cases of hepatic failure or ototoxicity could be observed in our collective. General complications (consisting mostly of draining sinus, pneumonia, cardiopulmonary decompensation, lower urinary tract infections) occurred in 38 patients (46.3%). Despite the retrospective study design and the limited possibility of interpreting these findings and their causes, this rate indicates that patients suffering from late hip joint infections and being treated with a two-stage protocol are prone to having complications. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of these complications and their treatment options and focus on the early diagnosis for prevention of further complications. Between stages, an interdisciplinary cooperation with other facilities (internal medicine, microbiologists) should be aimed for patients with several comorbidities for optimizing their general medical condition.
    International journal of medical sciences 01/2009; 6(5):265-73. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.) system in the treatment of early hip joint infections. 28 patients (11 m/17 f; mean age 71 y. [43-84]) with early hip joint infections have been treated by means of the V.A.C.-therapy. At least one surgical revision [1-7] has been unsuccessfully performed for infection treatment prior to V.A.C.-application. Pathogen organisms could have been isolated in 22/28 wounds. During revision, cup inlay and prosthesis head have been exchanged and 1-3 polyvinylalcohol sponges inserted into the wound cavity/ periprosthetically at an initial continuous pressure of 200 mm Hg. Postoperatively, a systemic antibiosis was given according to antibiogram. 48-72 h after surgery an alteration from haemorrhagic to serous fluid was observed in the V.A.C.-canister. Afterwards, the pressure was decreased to 150 mm Hg and remained at this level till sponge removal. After a mean period of 9 [3-16] days the inflammation parameters have been retrogressive and the sponges were removed. An infection eradication could be achieved in 26/28 cases. In the two remaining cases the infected prosthesis had to be explanted and a gentamicin-vancomycin-loaded spacer has been implanted, respectively. At a total mean follow-up of 36 [12-87] months no reinfection or infection persistence was observed. The V.A.C.-system can be a valuable contribution in the treatment of early joint infections when properly used. Indications should be early infections with well-maintained soft-tissues for retention of the negative atmospheric pressure.
    International journal of medical sciences 01/2009; 6(5):241-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial adhesion to and -persistence on antibiotic-loaded bone cement is an increasing problem. New antibiotics with good antimicrobial and pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. linezolid) may be the solution to this problem; however, few data concerning linezolid-loaded acrylic cement are currently available. Ten gentamicin-linezolid-loaded hip spacers (1 g gentamicin/2.4 g linezolid/80 g PMMA; five spacers including a metallic endoskeleton, five with no metallic components) were tested in vitro against a strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with regard to antibiotic release and bacteria growth inhibition. Daily, the antibiotic elution was determined by high liquid performance chromatography (linezolid) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (gentamicin), the bacteria growth inhibition photometrically at 546 nm. All spacers demonstrated growth inhibition for 8 days. Peak average concentrations were reached for both agents on day 1 (gentamicin-35.10 mug/mL [24.10-52.52], linezolid-36.28 mug/mL [22.87-71.76]). After 8 days, 0.97% [0.93-1.05%] of the initial amount of linezolid and 3.13% [2.85-3.31%] of gentamicin were meanly released from spacers containing a metallic endoskeleton. In those containing of simple cement these values were 1.22% [0.91-1.59%] and 2.67% [2.12-2.73%], respectively. Linezolid demonstrated acceptable elution kinetics from bone cement; however, further experimental research and animal studies should clarify any possible side effect of linezolid-loaded cement media before definitive use in the clinical practice.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 05/2008; 87(1):173-8. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • J Kelm, E Schmitt, K Anagnostakos
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    ABSTRACT: The postoperative course after Achilles tendon reconstruction is associated with a high incidence rate of infections and wound healing complications, which can lead to protracted healing process and, hence, limit the clinical outcome. PATIENT-METHODS: A 66-year-old male was referred to our clinic with an Achilles tendon rupture. MRI confirmed the diagnosis, an augmented tenoplasty was performed for tendon reconstruction. 11 weeks after surgery the patient presented himself again with an open wound and local infection signs. The surgical treatment included debridement and jet lavage. The V.A.C.-device with the white polyvinyl sponge at an initial pressure of 200 mm Hg was used. A pathogen organism could not be identified. For infection eradication a broad spectrum systemic antibiosis (cefuroxime and gentamicin) was applied. On 3., 6. and 14. day the dressings were changed and the wound was revised under progredient closure. At beginning formation of granulation tissue the pressure was reduced to 150-100 mm Hg. At decreasing blood inflammation parameters and amelioration of the local wound condition the patient could check out after 3 weeks hospitalization. After further successful ambulant management by means of the V.A.C.-therapy a meshgraft transplantation was performed (enlargement factor 1.5; layer thickness 0.3 mm). The V.A.C.-device was applied again at a pressure of 150 mm Hg with a single dressing change after 5 days. At a follow-up of 31 months no further complications occurred. The V.A.C.-therapy seems to be a valuable tool in the treatment of wounds with a critical local vascularity. After successful wound preconditioning the healing process of skin grafts transplants can be also optimised by means of the V.A.C.-device.
    Zentralblatt für Chirurgie 05/2006; 131 Suppl 1:S96-9. · 0.69 Impact Factor
  • K Anagnostakos, J Kelm, E Schmitt
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    ABSTRACT: The vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.)-therapy is accepted for an efficient option in the treatment of infected wounds with healing complications. However, reports on its use in the septic orthopedic surgery are seldom. Hence, the aim of this study is to demonstrate our experience with the V.A.C.-system in the treatment of orthopedic-related infections. Various musculoskeletal infections with prolonged wound healing (infections after Achilles tendon reconstruction, fibula osteosynthesis, dorsal spondylodesis, and total hip arthroplasty, skin necrosis after total knee arthroplasty and wound dehiscence after resection and irradiation of a liposarcoma) have been treated with the V.A.C.-device. After infection sanitation we performed skin graft transplantation in 3 cases for definitive wound closure, also assisted by the V.A.C.-therapy. An infection eradication with implant preservation, where necessary, could have been achieved in all cases. No complications were observed in the cases with the skin graft transplantations. No infection persistence or reinfection occurred at a mean follow-up of 36 months. The V.A.C.-therapy seems to be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of infected wounds in the orthopedic surgery, however, definitive conclusion should await the results of future clinical studies with large series.
    Zentralblatt für Chirurgie 05/2006; 131 Suppl 1:S87-92. · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial properties and the elution characteristics of gentamicin-vancomycin-loaded hip spacers were studied in vivo and in vitro. Vancomycin elution was greater than gentamicin elution. The antibiotic concentrations in vivo were less than those in vitro. Not dependent on implantation duration, growth inhibition by spacers in vitro was observed for 2 weeks. The reason for protracted wound healing cannot be insufficient antibiotic release.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2006; 50(1):332-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • K. Anagnostakos, J. Kelm, E. Schmitt
    Zentralblatt Fur Chirurgie - ZBL CHIR. 01/2006; 131:87-92.
  • J. Kelm, E. Schmitt, K. Anagnostakos
    Zentralblatt Fur Chirurgie - ZBL CHIR. 01/2006; 131:96-99.
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    ABSTRACT: The antibiotic release from and the bacteria growth inhibition by antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement hip spacers were studied. The cement used was Palacos R, and it was loaded with either one antibiotic powder (gentamicin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, or synercid) [monoantibiotic case] or two antibiotic powders (gentamicin + vancomycin or gentamicin + teicoplanin) [biantibiotic case] and then tested against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Antibiotic elution and bacteria growth were measured every 24 h simultaneously by fluorescence polarization immunoassay and photometrically, respectively. The gentamicin + vancomycin combination achieved the longest growth inhibition on S. epidermidis and MRSA (mean of 20 and 14 days, respectively). Gentamicin + teicoplanin-loaded spacers were capable of inhibiting growth on E. faecalis and S. aureus for the longest period (11 and 16 days, respectively). The highest concentrations of gentamicin and vancomycin could be assayed during the first 4 days. Teicoplanin concentrations could be detected only during the first 72 h, synercid was not detected at all, possibly because of the limitation of the detection technique used. A greater percentage of the gentamicin was released than of the vancomycin. The aminoglycosid-glycopeptid combination showed a synergistic effect on the release of gentamicin, but not on vancomycin or teicoplanin. Biantibiotic-impregnated hip spacers proved to be superior to monoantibiotic ones. Because of important differences between the conditions used for the present tests and the in vivo environment, any recommendation with regard to the use of monoantibiotic- and biantibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement spacers must await the results of further investigations.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 03/2005; 72(2):373-8. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: About 5 % of the pupils suffer from an injury in school sports every year. In addition to the kind of injury, the localization and the type of sport, the corresponding reasons for the injuries should be investigated to provide insights for physical education. In a prospective study 213 accident cases with 234 injuries during physical education classes were examined. At primary presentation in our clinic, an empirical questionnaire was used to document the grade of class, the exact time point of the injury, the question of guilt, out-of-school sports activity as well as the mechanisms of injuries and the type of sport. Clinicians who worked in our out-patient clinic completed the questionnaire after physical examination documenting diagnosis, therapy and the duration of restriction of sports practice. All patients were followed until returning to physical education at school. The data were statistically analyzed using the chi (2)-test to examine gender-specific differences. Gender-specific differences were seen in the type (p = 0.018) and mechanisms (p = 0.028) of injuries. The most common injuries were sprains (female pupils 36.8 % male pupils 24.5 %], contusions (female pupils 27.4 % male pupils 27.9 %) and fractures (female pupils 14.7 % male pupils 18.6 %). Frequent mechanisms of injuries were errors in basic motion training like running, jumping and catching (female pupils 35.8 % male pupils 28.8 %). No gender-specific differences could be shown for the localization of injuries or for the type of sport. The upper extremity with 55 % was more frequently involved than the lower extremity with 37 %. Playing soccer (21.2 %) and basketball (19.8 %) were the most frequent reasons for sports injuries. The highest prevalence of school sports injuries occurred at the onset of and during puberty. For the girls it is necessary to improve the basic motor skills, while the boys need to learn considerate behavior and how to read the game. Basic skill levels in ball games must be improved before practice in competition form is initiated.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 01/2005; 18(4):179-84. · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present gentamicin-vancomycin-impregnated beads that can be produced intraoperatively in moulds and demonstrated their successful use in ten cases of problematic Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. To produce the antibiotically loaded PMMA beads, a two-part mould of polyoxymethylene was used. The mixture of PMMA and antibiotic is poured into the mould halves, and during polymerisation the halves bond together. The in vivo antibiotic concentrations of wound secretion from the redon drainage were measured by fluorescence-polarisation immunoassay, and a concentration/time function was determined. The PMMA beads (2 g of vancomycin plus 0.5 g of gentamicin plus 40 g of PMMA) were implanted in ten patients aged 41-76 years. In all ten patients, the infection was cured (follow-up 15 months). The combination of gentamicin and vancomycin in the PMMA of standardised beads represents a good alternative in the treatment of MRSA infections. Understanding of the mechanism of antibiotic release from PMMA allows differentiated dosing during systemic application.
    Der Chirurg 11/2004; 75(10):988-95. · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rupture of the tendon of the M. tibialis ant. is a rare sport injury and has not been yet described in fencing. The lunge, the most common offensive movement in fencing, displays a high stress on the spanned tendons and ligaments over the ankle joint and led to the rupture of the pre-damaged tendon of our patient. Pain over the inner side of the foot should be assessed as knells of this tendon injury. The exact patient's history and the precise clinical investigation are adequate for diagnosing the rupture. Hereby, an absence of the tendon shape over the ankle joint and a distinct active deficit of the extension are presented in comparison to the other side where a gap in the tendon course is palpable. An x-ray is obligate, a sonography and a MRI are helpful for the operative planning. The surgical treatment is necessary for athletes. If possible, a primary tendon suture should be aimed, in case of a distal torn an osseous reinsertion should occur. An early functional, postoperative treatment with an orthesis should be rather preferred for athletes than an immobilization.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 10/2004; 18(3):148-52. · 0.46 Impact Factor
  • J Kelm, K Anagnostakos, E Schmitt
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    ABSTRACT: Infections after hip arthroplasty can lead to protracted and complicated treatments. A great problem is thereby the persistant secretion after surgical revision. 8 patients (3 x after acetabulum cup replacement, 2 x after Girdlestone hip, 2 x after spacer implantation and one case of rearthroplasty) have been treated with a V.A.C.-therapy after bacterial infection and persistant wound secretion. In all cases a pathogen organism could be identified during the frustrated attempts of sanitation. After meticulous debridement and jet lavage in each case, 1-3 polyvinyl sponges have been placed either periprosthetic or in the resection cavity with a transcutan tube outgoing. The wounds have been closed in layers. Initially a pressure of 200 mm Hg via V.A.C. has been attached. After 48-72 h an alteration from haemorrhagic to serous secret could be observed and afterwards the pressure has been reduced to 150 mm Hg. After a mean period of 11 days (8-13) the infection parameters have been retrogressive, the wound secretion was obviously reduced and the sponges were removed. During the remaining hospitalization of each patient no complications occured. In the mean follow-up of 21 months (2-46) no reinfections have been observed. Although the V.A.C.-therapy does not count to the primary therapy concepts of periprosthetic hip infections, it stands for an effective therapy option in exclusive cases.
    Zentralblatt für Chirurgie 06/2004; 129 Suppl 1:S49-52. · 0.69 Impact Factor