Edwin L. Turner

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (172)747.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The formation scenario of a gapped disk, i.e., transitional disk, and its asymmetry is still under debate. Proposed scenarios such as disk-planet interaction, photoevaporation, grain growth, anticyclonic vortex, eccentricity, and their combinations would result in different radial distributions of the gas and the small (sub-$\mu$m size) and large (millimeter size) dust grains as well as asymmetric structures in a disk. Optical/near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations and (sub-)millimeter interferometry can trace small and large dust grains, respectively; therefore multi-wavelength observations could help elucidate the origin of complicated structures of a disk. Here we report SMA observations of the dust continuum at 1.3~mm and $^{12}$CO~$J=2\rightarrow1$ line emission of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the solar-mass star PDS~70. PDS~70, a weak-lined T Tauri star, exhibits a gap in the scattered light from its disk with a radius of $\sim$65~AU at NIR wavelengths. However, we found a larger gap in the disk with a radius of $\sim$80~AU at 1.3~mm. Emission from all three disk components (the gas and the small and large dust grains) in images exhibits a deficit in brightness in the central region of the disk, in particular, the dust-disk in small and large dust grains has asymmetric brightness. The contrast ratio of the flux density in the dust continuum between the peak position to the opposite side of the disk reaches 1.4. We suggest the asymmetries and different gap-radii of the disk around PDS~70 are potentially formed by several (unseen) accreting planets inducing dust filtration.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the number of faint stars detected in deep survey fields with the current stellar distribution model of the Galaxy and found that the detected number in the H band is significantly smaller than the predicted number. This indicates that M-dwarfs, the major component, are fewer in the halo and the thick disk. We used archived data of several surveys in both the north and south field of GOODS (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey), MODS in GOODS-N, and ERS and CANDELS in GOODS-S. The number density of M-dwarfs in the halo has to be 20+/-13% relative to that in the solar vicinity, in order for the detected number of stars fainter than 20.5 mag in the H band to match with the predicted value from the model. In the thick disk, the number density of M-dwarfs must be reduced (52+/-13%) or the scale height must be decreased (~600 pc). Alternatively, overall fractions of the halo and thick disks can be significantly reduced to achieve the same effect, because our sample mainly consists of faint M-dwarfs. Our results imply that the M-dwarf population in regions distant from the Galactic plane is significantly smaller than previously thought. We then discussed the implications this has on the suitability of the model predictions for the prediction of non-companion faint stars in direct imaging extrasolar planet surveys by using the best-fit number densities.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the expected scientific capabilities of CHARIS, a high-contrast integral-field spectrograph (IFS) currently under construction for the Subaru telescope. CHARIS is part of a new generation of instruments, enabled by extreme adaptive optics (AO) systems (including SCExAO at Subaru), that promise greatly improved contrasts at small angular separation thanks to their ability to use spectral information to distinguish planets from quasistatic speckles in the stellar point-spread function (PSF). CHARIS is similar in concept to GPI and SPHERE, on Gemini South and the Very Large Telescope, respectively, but will be unique in its ability to simultaneously cover the entire near-infrared $J$, $H$, and $K$ bands with a low-resolution mode. This extraordinarily broad wavelength coverage will enable spectral differential imaging down to angular separations of a few $\lambda/D$, corresponding to $\sim$$0.\!\!''1$. SCExAO will also offer contrast approaching $10^{-5}$ at similar separations, $\sim$$0.\!\!''1$--$0.\!\!''2$. The discovery yield of a CHARIS survey will depend on the exoplanet distribution function at around 10 AU. If the distribution of planets discovered by radial velocity surveys extends unchanged to $\sim$20 AU, observations of $\sim$200 mostly young, nearby stars targeted by existing high-contrast instruments might find $\sim$1--3 planets. Carefully optimizing the target sample could improve this yield by a factor of a few, while an upturn in frequency at a few AU could also increase the number of detections. CHARIS, with a higher spectral resolution mode of $R \sim 75$, will also be among the best instruments to characterize planets and brown dwarfs like HR 8799 cde and $\kappa$ And b.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new method of analysis for determining the surface geometry of five protoplanetary disks observed with near-infrared imaging polarimetry using Subaru-HiCIAO. Using as inputs the observed distribution of polarized intensity (PI), disk inclination, assumed properties for dust scattering, and other reasonable approximations, we calculate a differential equation to derive the surface geometry. This equation is numerically integrated along the distance from the star at a given position angle. We show that, using these approximations, the local maxima in the PI distribution of spiral arms (SAO 206462, MWC 758) and rings (2MASS J16042165-2130284, PDS 70) is associated with local concave-up structures on the disk surface. We also show that the observed presence of an inner gap in scattered light still allows the possibility of a disk surface that is parallel to the light path from the star, or a disk that is shadowed by structures in the inner radii. Our analysis for rings does not show the presence of a vertical inner wall as often assumed in studies of disks with an inner gap. Finally, we summarize the implications of spiral and ring structures as potential signatures of ongoing planet formation.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1-0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the circumplanetary debris and gas disk or via capture from a binary, and (iii) are detectable with current technology. Key Words: Astrobiology-Extrasolar planets-Habitability-Planetary science-Tides. Astrobiology 14, xxx-xxx.
    Astrobiology 08/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conduct a statistical analysis of a combined sample of direct imaging data, totalling nearly 250 stars observed by HiCIAO on the Subaru Telescope, NIRI on Gemini North, and NICI on Gemini South. The stars cover a wide range of ages and spectral types, and include five detections (kap And b, two ~60 M_J brown dwarf companions in the Pleiades, PZ Tel B, and CD-35 2722 B). We conduct a uniform, Bayesian analysis of the ages of our entire sample, using both membership in a kinematic moving group and activity/rotation age indicators, to obtain posterior age distributions. We then present a new statistical method for computing the likelihood of a substellar distribution function. By performing most integrals analytically, we achieve an enormous speedup over brute-force Monte Carlo. We use this method to place upper limits on the maximum semimajor axis beyond which the distribution function for radial-velocity planets cannot extend, finding model-dependent values of ~30--100 AU. Finally, we treat our entire substellar sample together, modeling it as a single power law distribution. After including GJ 758 B and GJ 504 b, two other HiCIAO detections, a distribution $p(M, a) \propto M^{-0.7 \pm 0.6} a^{-0.8 \pm 0.4}$ (1 sigma errors) from massive brown dwarfs to a theoretically motivated cutoff at ~5 M_J, provides an adequate fit to our data. This suggests that many of the directly imaged exoplanets known, including most (if not all) of the low-mass companions in our sample, formed by fragmentation in a cloud or disk, and represent the low-mass tail of the brown dwarfs.
    04/2014;
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    Mary Anne Limbach, Edwin L. Turner
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    ABSTRACT: The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anti-correlation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among catalogued RV systems. The mean, median and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anti-correlation to the eight planet case rather precisely. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index -1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc model of this relationship implies that approximately 80% of the one planet and 25% of the two planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members. If low eccentricities favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91, we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(3--2) observations with the Submillimeter Array ($\sim1\arcsec$--3$\arcsec$ resolution), and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the $K_s$-band by using the HiCIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope ($0\farcs25$ resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 AU and 170 AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H$_2$ mass of $2.4\times10^{-3}$ $M_\sun$ in the cold ($T<$30 K) outer part at $65<r<170$ AU by assuming a canonical gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100, although a small amount ($>3\times10^{-9}$ $M_\sun$) of hot ($T\sim$180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside the inner hole. Significant CO(3--2) emission with a velocity gradient along the major axis of the dust disk is concentrated on the Sz 91 position, suggesting a rotating gas disk with a radius of 420 AU. The Sz 91 disk is possibly a rare disk in an evolutionary stage immediately after the formation of protoplanets because of the large inner hole and the lower disk mass than other transition disks studied thus far.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 783(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most exoplanets detected by direct imaging so far have been characterized by relatively hot (> ~1000 K) and cloudy atmospheres. A surprising feature in some of their atmospheres has been a distinct lack of methane, possibly implying non-equilibrium chemistry. Recently, we reported the discovery of a planetary companion to the Sun-like star GJ 504 using Subaru/HiCIAO within the SEEDS survey. The planet is substantially colder (<600 K) than previously imaged planets, and has indications of fewer clouds, which implies that it represents a new class of planetary atmospheres with expected similarities to late T-type brown dwarfs in the same temperature range. If so, one might also expect the presence of significant methane absorption, which is characteristic of such objects. Here, we report the detection of deep methane absorption in the atmosphere of GJ 504 b, using the Spectral Differential Imaging mode of HiCIAO to distinguish the absorption feature around 1.6 um. We also report updated JHK photometry based on new Ks-band data and a re-analysis of the existing data. The results support the notion that GJ 504 b has atmospheric properties distinct from other imaged exoplanets, and will become a useful reference object for future planets in the same temperature range.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 10/2013; 778(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a discovery of a companion candidate around one of {\it Kepler} Objects of Interest (KOIs), KOI-94, and results of our quantitative investigation of the possibility that planetary candidates around KOI-94 are false positives. KOI-94 has a planetary system in which four planetary detections have been reported by {\it Kepler}, suggesting that this system is intriguing to study the dynamical evolutions of planets. However, while two of those detections (KOI-94.01 and 03) have been made robust by previous observations, the others (KOI-94.02 and 04) are marginal detections, for which future confirmations with various techniques are required. We have conducted high-contrast direct imaging observations with Subaru/HiCIAO in $H$ band and detected a faint object located at a separation of $\sim0.6''$ from KOI-94. The object has a contrast of $\sim 1\times 10^{-3}$ in $H$ band, and corresponds to an M type star on the assumption that the object is at the same distance of KOI-94. Based on our analysis, KOI-94.02 is likely to be a real planet because of its transit depth, while KOI-94.04 can be a false positive due to the companion candidate. The success in detecting the companion candidate suggests that high-contrast direct imaging observations are important keys to examine false positives of KOIs. On the other hand, our transit light curve reanalyses lead to a better period estimate of KOI-94.04 than that on the KOI catalogue and show that the planetary candidate has the same limb darkening parameter value as the other planetary candidates in the KOI-94 system, suggesting that KOI-94.04 is also a real planet in the system.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported the direct detection of a low mass companion at a projected separation of 55+-2 AU around the B9 type star {\kappa} Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for the understanding of the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide-orbits. We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the Kappa Andromedae system at 2.146 (Ks), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB 4.05) and 4.78 {\mu}m (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 +- 0.21, H = 14.95 +- 0.13, Ks = 14.32 +- 0.09 mag for {\kappa} And b. We redetect the companion in all our high contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at Ks and L' band. We derive NB 4.05 = 13.0 +- 0.2 and M' = 13.3 +- 0.3 mag and estimate Log10(L/Lsun) = -3.76 +- 0.06. We build the 1-5 microns spectral energy distribution of the companion and compare it to seven PHOENIX-based atmospheric models in order to derive Teff = 1900+100-200 K. Models do not set constrains on the surface gravity. ``Hot-start" evolutionary models predict masses of 14+25-2 MJup based on the luminosity and temperature estimates, and considering a conservative age range for the system (30+120-10 Myr). ``warm-start" evolutionary tracks constrain the mass to M >= 11 MJup. Therefore, the mass of {\kappa} Andromedae b mostly falls in the brown-dwarf regime, due to remaining uncertainties in age and mass-luminosity models. According to the formation models, disk instability in a primordial disk could account for the position and a wide range of plausible masses of {\kappa} And b.
    08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The innermostregion of quasars can be resolved by microlensing on scales down to a few AU. For this purpose, X-rays originating from the innermost regions can be selectively amplified by microlensing resulting from the “caustic crossing” events, and observations at X-ray bands are most preferable. If the observation has been done, lower limits of black hole mass will be determined, because information about gravitational potential of the black hole which is surrounded by accretion disk will be obtained.
    Advances in Space Research 07/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several exoplanets have recently been imaged at wide separations of >10 AU from their parent stars. These span a limited range of ages (<50 Myr) and atmospheric properties, with temperatures of 800--1800 K and very red colors (J - H > 0.5 mag), implying thick cloud covers. Furthermore, substantial model uncertainties exist at these young ages due to the unknown initial conditions at formation, which can lead to an order of magnitude of uncertainty in the modeled planet mass. Here, we report the direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet around the Sun-like star GJ 504, detected as part of the SEEDS survey. The system is older than all other known directly-imaged planets; as a result, its estimated mass remains in the planetary regime independent of uncertainties related to choices of initial conditions in the exoplanet modeling. Using the most common exoplanet cooling model, and given the system age of 160 [+350, -60] Myr, GJ 504 b has an estimated mass of 4 [+4.5, -1.0] Jupiter masses, among the lowest of directly imaged planets. Its projected separation of 43.5 AU exceeds the typical outer boundary of ~30 AU predicted for the core accretion mechanism. GJ 504 b is also significantly cooler (510 [+30, -20] K) and has a bluer color (J-H = -0.23 mag) than previously imaged exoplanets, suggesting a largely cloud-free atmosphere accessible to spectroscopic characterization. Thus, it has the potential of providing novel insights into the origins of giant planets, as well as their atmospheric properties.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 774(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 771(2):139. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out an imaging survey for extrasolar planets around stars in the Pleiades (125 Myr, 135 pc) in the $H$ and $K_{S}$ bands using HiCIAO combined with the adaptive optics, AO188, on the Subaru telescope. We found 13 companion candidates fainter than 14.5 mag in the $H$ band around 9 stars. Five of these 13 were confirmed to be background stars by measurement of their proper motion. One was not found in the second epoch observation, and thus was not a background or companion object. One had multi-epoch image, but the precision of its proper motion was not sufficient to conclude whether it was background object. Four other candidates are waiting for second epoch observations to determine their proper motion. Finally, the remaining 2 were confirmed to be 60 $M_{J}$ brown dwarf companions orbiting around HD 23514 (G0) and HII 1348 (K5) respectively, as had been reported in previous studies. In our observations, the average detection limit for a point source was 20.3 mag in the $H$ band beyond 1''.5 from the central star. On the basis of this detection limit, we calculated the detection efficiency to be 90% for a planet with 6 to 12 Jovian masses and a semi-major axis of 50--1000 AU. For this we extrapolated the distribution of planet mass and semi-major axis derived from RV observations and adopted the planet evolution model of Baraffe et al. (2003). As there was no detection of a planet, we estimated the frequency of such planets to be less than 17.9% ($2\sigma$) around one star of the Pleiades cluster.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 06/2013; 65(4). · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (~0".05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 772(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Debris disks around young main-sequence stars often have gaps and cavities which for a long time have been interpreted as possibly being caused by planets. In recent years, several giant planet discoveries have been made in systems hosting disks of precisely this nature, further implying that interactions with planets could be a common cause of such disk structures. As part of the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey, we are surveying a population of debris disk-hosting stars with gaps and cavities implied by their spectral energy distributions, in order to attempt to spatially resolve the disk as well as to detect any planets that may be responsible for the disk structure. Here we report on intermediate results from this survey. Five debris disks have been spatially resolved, and a number of faint point sources have been discovered, most of which have been tested for common proper motion, which in each case has excluded physical companionship with the target stars. From the detection limits of the 50 targets that have been observed, we find that beta Pic b-like planets (~10 Mjup planets around G--A-type stars) near the gap edges are less frequent than 15--30%, implying that if giant planets are the dominant cause of these wide (27 AU on average) gaps, they are generally less massive than beta Pic b.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 773(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group targets in the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of ~10^5 at 1'' and ~10^6 beyond 2'' around 63 proposed members of nearby kinematic moving groups. We review each of the kinematic associations to which our targets belong, concluding that six, \beta Pictoris (~12 Myr), AB Doradus (~100 Myr), Columba (~30 Myr), Tucana-Horogium (~30 Myr), TW Hydrae (~10 Myr), and Ursa Majoris (~500 Myr), are sufficiently well-defined to constrain the ages of individual targets. Somewhat less than half of our targets are high-probability members of one of these moving groups. For all of our targets, we combine proposed moving group membership with other age indicators where available, including Ca II HK emission, X-ray activity, and rotation period, to produce a posterior probability distribution of age. SEEDS observations discovered a substellar companion to one of our targets, \kappa And, a late B star. We do not detect any other substellar companions, but do find seven new close binary systems, of which one still needs to be confirmed. A detailed analysis of the statistics of this sample, and of the companion mass constraints given our age probability distributions and exoplanet cooling models, will be presented in a forthcoming paper.
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved images of the circumstellar transitional disk around SR21. These images were obtained with the Subaru HiCIAO camera, adaptive optics and the polarized differential imaging (PDI) technique. We resolve the disk in scattered light at H-band for stellocentric 0.1"<r<0.6" (12<r<75AU). We compare our results with previously published spatially-resolved 880 micron continuum Submillimeter Array (SMA) images that show an inner r<36AU cavity in SR21. Radiative transfer models reveal that the large disk depletion factor invoked to explain SR21's sub-mm cavity cannot be "universal" for all grain sizes. Even significantly more moderate depletions (delta=0.1, 0.01 relative to an undepleted disk) than those that reproduce the sub-mm cavity (delta~10^-6) are inconsistent with our H-band images when they are assumed to carry over to small grains, suggesting that surface grains scattering in the NIR either survive or are generated by whatever mechanism is clearing the disk midplane. In fact, the radial polarized intensity profile of our H-band observations is smooth and steeply inwardly-increasing (r^-3), with no evidence of a break at the 36AU sub-mm cavity wall. We hypothesize that this profile is dominated by an optically thin disk envelope or atmosphere component. We also discuss the compatibility of our data with the previously postulated existence of a sub-stellar companion to SR21 at r~10-20AU, and find that we can neither exclude nor verify this scenario. This study demonstrates the power of multiwavelength imaging of transitional disks to inform modeling efforts, including the debate over precisely what physical mechanism is responsible for clearing these disks of their large midplane grains.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 767(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the direct imaging discovery of an extrasolar planet, or possible low-mass brown dwarf, at a projected separation of 55 ± 2 AU (1.''058 ± 0.''007) from the B9-type star κ And. The planet was detected with Subaru/HiCIAO during the SEEDS survey and confirmed as a bound companion via common proper motion measurements. Observed near-infrared magnitudes of J = 16.3 ± 0.3, H = 15.2 ± 0.2, K s = 14.6 ± 0.4, and L' = 13.12 ± 0.09 indicate a temperature of ~1700 K. The galactic kinematics of the host star are consistent with membership in the Columba Association, implying a corresponding age of 30+20–10 Myr. The system's age, combined with the companion photometry, points to a model-dependent companion mass ~12.8 M Jup. The host star's estimated mass of 2.4-2.5 M ☉ places it among the most massive stars ever known to harbor an extrasolar planet or low-mass brown dwarf. While the mass of the companion is close to the deuterium burning limit, its mass ratio, orbital separation, and likely planet-like formation scenario imply that it may be best defined as a "super-Jupiter" with properties similar to other recently discovered companions to massive stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2013; 763(2):L32. · 6.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
747.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2013
    • Osaka Kyoiku University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • College of Charleston
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 2001–2013
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Division of Climate System Research
      • • Department of Physics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Columbia University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial
      • Department of Astrophysics
      Torrejon de Ardos, Madrid, Spain
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 1996–2012
    • TRI/Princeton
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2011
    • Institute for Advanced Study
      • School of Natural Sciences
      Princeton, NJ, United States
  • 2010
    • Academia Sinica
      • Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1999–2009
    • University of Melbourne
      • School of Physics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2000
    • Tohoku University
      • Astronomical Institute
      Sendai, Kagoshima, Japan