Ellen Gelpi

IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (122)658.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Meta-analysis of existing genome-wide association studies on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) showed sub-genome wide association of an intronic variant in the Sequestosome 1 gene (SQSTM1) with AD. We performed targeted resequencing of SQSTM1 in Flanders-Belgian AD patients selected to be enriched for a genetic background (n=435) and geographically matched non-affected individuals (n=872) to investigate the role of both common and rare SQSTM1 variants. Results were extended to the European Early-Onset Dementia (EU EOD) cohorts (926 EOAD patients and 1,476 non-affected individuals). Of the 61 detected exonic variants in SQSTM1, the majority was rare (n=57). Rare variant (MAF<0.01) burden analysis did not reveal an increased frequency of rare variants in EOAD patients in any of the separate study populations nor when meta-analyzing all cohorts. Common variants p.D292= and p.R312= showed nominal association with AD (ORp.D292==1.11[95%C.I.1-1.22];p-value 0.04), only when including the Flanders-Belgian cohort in the meta-analysis. We cannot exclude a role of SQSTM1 genetic variability in late-onset AD, but our data indicate that SQSTM1 does not play a major role in the etiology of EOAD.
    Neurobiology of aging 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.02.014 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • Clinical neuropathology 05/2015; DOI:10.5414/NP300853 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) in elderly patients is a rare entity that has been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and intracerebral hematomas (ICH). To characterize this entity and to study these associations, 22 patients over 60 with cSAH were included in a multicenter ambispective cohort study. Clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, APOE genotyping, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were evaluated. Results were compared with data from healthy controls (HC), non-cSAH CAA patients (CAAo), and Alzheimer disease patients. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented with transient sensory or motor symptoms. At follow-up (median 30.7 months), 5 patients had died, 6 survivors showed functional disability (modified Rankins Scale (mRS)>2), and 12 cognitive impairment. Four patients had prior ICH and six had an ICH during follow-up. CSF-Aß40 and Aß42 levels were lower in cSAH and CAAo compared with HC. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented an APOE-ɛ2 overrepresentation and CAAo had an APOE-ɛ4 overrepresentation. On MRI, all patients fulfilled CAA-modified Boston criteria and 9 showed cortical ischemia in the surrounding cortex or the vicinity of superficial siderosis. The neuropathologic study, available in one patient, showed severe CAA and advanced Alzheimer-type pathology. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the elderly is associated with cognitive impairment and lobar ICH occurrence. Our findings support the existence of an underlying CAA pathology.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 4 March 2015; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2015.25.
    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 03/2015; 35(5). DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2015.25 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of antibodies against neuronal surface and synaptic proteins, which identify a group of encephalitides that usually improve with immunotherapy,(1) is not fully understood and neuropathology may help elucidate the immune mechanism involved.(2,3) Recently, antibodies against dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX), an auxiliary subunit of Kv4.2 potassium channels involved in signal transduction, were identified in 7 patients with encephalitis.(4,5) We report the neuropathologic features of a new patient.
    Neurology 12/2014; 84(4). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001183 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phenotypic variability of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may account for its frequent misdiagnosis, in particular in early stages of the disease. However, large multicenter studies to define the frequency and natural history of PSP phenotypes are missing. In a cohort of 100 autopsy-confirmed patients we studied the phenotypic spectrum of PSP by retrospective chart review. Patients were derived from five brain banks with expertise in neurodegenerative disorders with referrals from multiple academic hospitals. The clinical characteristics of the 100 cases showed remarkable heterogeneity. Most strikingly, only 24% of cases presented as Richardson's Syndrome (RS), and more than half of the cases either showed overlapping features of several predescribed phenotypes, or features not fitting proposed classification criteria for PSP phenotypes. Classification of patients according to predominant clinical features in the first 2 years of the disease course allowed a more comprehensive description of the phenotypic spectrum. These predominance types differed significantly with regard to survival time and frequency of cognitive deficits. In summary, the phenotypic spectrum of PSP may be broader and more variable than previously described in single-center studies. Thus, too strict clinical criteria defining distinct phenotypes may not reflect this variability. A more pragmatic clinical approach using predominance types could potentially be more helpful in the early recognition of and for making prognostic predictions for these patients. Given the limitations arising from the retrospective nature of this analysis, a systematic validation in a prospective cohort study is imperative. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 11/2014; DOI:10.1002/mds.26054 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsTo assess the sensitivity of the FTDC revised criteria of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in a pathological cohort and to determine their predictive values in a clinical context suggestive of bvFTD. To assess the influence of the age at onset and underlying pathology in the clinico-pathological correlations.Methods Retrospective, blinded review of the clinical and neuropathological data from the Neurological Tissue Bank (NTB) of the Biobank-Hospital Clinic-IDIBAPS, Barcelona (Spain) assessing the fulfillment of the diagnostic criteria on a case-by-case basis. Two separate nonexclusive cohorts were selected: Cohort 1 (n=58) subjects with pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Cohort 2 (n=66) subjects with the premortem diagnosis of bvFTD.ResultsThe FTDC criteria reached a sensitivity of 93% for possible and 80% for probable bvFTD. Early-onset cases displayed significantly more disinhibition, loss of empathy and compulsive behavior with respect to late-onset bvFTD leading to a slightly higher sensitivity of the diagnostic criteria (97% vs 91%). There were no differences in the diagnostic performance between tau-positive and tau-negative cases. In subjects clinically diagnosed as bvFTD, a “possible bvFTD” diagnosis reached a positive predictive value for FTLD pathology of 90%, irrespective of underlying proteinopathy. False-positive clinical diagnoses were mainly Alzheimer's disease. These cases were significantly older, had less family history of dementia and had a predominantly apathetic clinical picture.Conclusions The revised bvFTD criteria present good sensitivity and positive predictive value in both early and late-onset cases and regardless of the underlying FTLD pathology.
    Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/nan.12194 · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The BrainNet Europe consortium assessed the reproducibility in the assignment of the type of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP) 43 following current recommendations. The agreement rates were influenced by the immunohistochemical (IHC) method and by the classification strategy followed. p62-IHC staining yielded good uniform quality of stains, but the most reliable results were obtained implementing specific Abs directed against the hallmark protein TDP43. Both assessment of the type and the extent of lesions were influenced by the Abs and by the quality of stain. Assessment of the extent of the lesions yielded poor results repeatedly; thus, the extent of pathology should not be used in diagnostic consensus criteria. Whilst 31 neuropathologists typed 30 FTLD-TDP cases, inter-rater agreement ranged from 19 to 100 per cent, being highest when applying phosphorylated TDP43/IHC. The agreement was highest when designating Type C or Type A/B. In contrast, there was a poor agreement when attempting to separate Type A or Type B FTLD-TDP. In conclusion, we can expect that neuropathologist, independent of his/her familiarity with FTLD-TDP pathology, can identify a TDP43-positive FTLD case. The goal should be to state a Type (A, B, C, D) or a mixture of Types (A/B, A/C or B/C). Neuropathologists, other clinicians and researchers should be aware of the pitfalls whilst doing so. Agreement can be reached in an inter-laboratory setting regarding Type C cases with thick and long neurites, whereas the differentiation between Types A and B may be more troublesome.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00702-014-1304-1 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapid progressive neurological disease leading to dementia and death. Prion biomarkers are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of CJD patients, but the pathogenic mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. The present study examined prion biomarker levels in the brain and CSF of sporadic CJD (sCJD) cases and their correlation with neuropathological lesion profiles.Methods The expression levels of 14-3-3, Tau, phospho-Tau and α-synuclein were measured in the CSF and brain of sCJD cases in a subtype- and region-specific manner. In addition, the activity of prion biomarker kinases, the expression levels of CJD hallmarks and the most frequent neuropathological sCJD findings were analysed.ResultsPrion biomarkers levels were increased in the CSF of sCJD patients; however, correlations between mRNA, total protein and their phosphorylated forms in brain were different. The observed downregulation of the main Tau kinase, GSK3, in sCJD brain samples may help to explain the differential phospho-Tau/Tau ratios between sCJD and other dementias in the CSF. Importantly, CSF biomarkers levels do not necessarily correlate with sCJD neuropathological findings.InterpretationPresent findings indicate that prion biomarkers levels in sCJD tissues and their release into the CSF are differentially regulated following specific modulated responses, and suggest a functional role for these proteins in sCJD pathogenesis.
    Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 08/2014; DOI:10.1111/nan.12175 · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lewy body (LB) diseases are characterized by alpha-synuclein (AS) aggregates in the central nervous system (CNS). Involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous system (pANS) is increasingly recognized, although less studied. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the distribution and severity of AS pathology in the CNS and pANS. Detailed postmortem histopathological study of brain and peripheral tissues from 28 brain bank donors (10 with Parkinson's disease [PD], 5 with dementia with LB [DLB], and 13 with non-LB diseases including atypical parkinsonism and non-LB dementia). AS aggregates were found in the pANS of all 15 LB disease cases (PD, DLB) in stellate and sympathetic ganglia (100%), vagus nerve (86.7%), gastrointestinal tract (86.7%), adrenal gland and/or surrounding fat (53.3%), heart (100%), and genitourinary tract (13.3%), as well as in 1 case of incidental Lewy body disease (iLBD). A craniocaudal gradient of AS burden in sympathetic chain and gastrointestinal tract was observed. DLB cases showed higher amounts of CNS AS aggregates than PD cases, but this was not the case in the pANS. No pANS AS aggregates were detected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases with or without CNS AS aggregates. All pathologically confirmed LB disease cases including 1 case of iLBD had AS aggregates in the pANS with a craniocaudal gradient of pathology burden in sympathetic chain and gastrointestinal tract. AS was not detected in the pANS of any AD case. These findings may help in the search of peripheral AS aggregates in vivo for the early diagnosis of PD. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    Movement Disorders 07/2014; 29(8). DOI:10.1002/mds.25776 · 5.63 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Neurology 07/2014; 21(7):e56-7. DOI:10.1111/ene.12445 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene coding for Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have been genetically associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Paget disease of bone. In the present study, we analyzed the SQSTM1 coding sequence for mutations in an extended cohort of 1,808 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), ascertained within the European Early-Onset Dementia consortium. As control dataset, we sequenced 1,625 European control individuals and analyzed whole-exome sequence data of 2,274 German individuals (total n = 3,899). Association of rare SQSTM1 mutations was calculated in a meta-analysis of 4,332 FTLD and 10,240 control alleles. We identified 25 coding variants in FTLD patients of which 10 have not been described. Fifteen mutations were absent in the control individuals (carrier frequency <0.00026) whilst the others were rare in both patients and control individuals. When pooling all variants with a minor allele frequency <0.01, an overall frequency of 3.2 % was calculated in patients. Rare variant association analysis between patients and controls showed no difference over the whole protein, but suggested that rare mutations clustering in the UBA domain of SQSTM1 may influence disease susceptibility by doubling the risk for FTLD (RR = 2.18 [95 % CI 1.24-3.85]; corrected p value = 0.042). Detailed histopathology demonstrated that mutations in SQSTM1 associate with widespread neuronal and glial phospho-TDP-43 pathology. With this study, we provide further evidence for a putative role of rare mutations in SQSTM1 in the genetic etiology of FTLD and showed that, comparable to other FTLD/ALS genes, SQSTM1 mutations are associated with TDP-43 pathology.
    Acta Neuropathologica 06/2014; 128(3). DOI:10.1007/s00401-014-1298-7 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Neurophysiology 06/2014; 125:S100. DOI:10.1016/S1388-2457(14)50330-6 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Joint Congress of European Neurology; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 54-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital because of acute neurological symptoms due to a cerebral haemorrhage. Postmortem brain examination revealed a lobar haemorrhage and advanced AD neuropathologic changes associated with severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Genetic study evidenced the presence of a large APP locus duplication (APPdup) in the patient and a PSEN1 p.E318G polymorphism in him and his older asymptomatic sibling. The APPdup spanned 14.5 Mb and blocks of segmental duplications were detected in the breakpoints. We propose the replication-based mechanism of Fork Stalling Template Switching (FoSTeS) to explain this APPdup rearrangement.
    Neurogenetics 04/2014; 15(2). DOI:10.1007/s10048-014-0395-z · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmunity might be associated with or implicated in sleep and neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to describe the features of a novel neurological syndrome associated with prominent sleep dysfunction and antibodies to a neuronal antigen. In this observational study, we used clinical and video polysomnography to identify a novel sleep disorder in three patients referred to the Sleep Unit of Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain, for abnormal sleep behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea. These patients had antibodies against a neuronal surface antigen, which were also present in five additional patients referred to our laboratory for antibody studies. These five patients had been assessed with polysomnography, which was done in our sleep unit in one patient and the recording reviewed in a second patient. Two patients underwent post-mortem brain examination. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterise the antigen and develop an assay for antibody testing. Serum or CSF from 298 patients with neurodegenerative, sleep, or autoimmune disorders served as control samples. All eight patients (five women; median age at disease onset 59 years [range 52-76]) had abnormal sleep movements and behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea, as confirmed by polysomnography. Six patients had chronic progression with a median duration from symptom onset to death or last visit of 5 years (range 2-12); in four the sleep disorder was the initial and most prominent feature, and in two it was preceded by gait instability followed by dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, or chorea. Two patients had a rapid progression with disequilibrium, dysarthria, dysphagia, and central hypoventilation, and died 2 months and 6 months, respectively, after symptom onset. In five of five patients, video polysomnography showed features of obstructive sleep apnoea, stridor, and abnormal sleep architecture (undifferentiated non-rapid-eye-movement [non-REM] sleep or poorly structured stage N2, simple movements and finalistic behaviours, normalisation of non-REM sleep by the end of the night, and, in the four patients with REM sleep recorded, REM sleep behaviour disorder). Four of four patients had HLA-DRB1*1001 and HLA-DQB1*0501 alleles. All patients had antibodies (mainly IgG4) against IgLON5, a neuronal cell adhesion molecule. Only one of the 298 controls, who had progressive supranuclear palsy, had IgLON5 antibodies. Neuropathology showed neuronal loss and extensive deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau mainly involving the tegmentum of the brainstem and hypothalamus in the two patients studied. IgLON5 antibodies identify a unique non-REM and REM parasomnia with sleep breathing dysfunction and pathological features suggesting a tauopathy. Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Red de enfermedades neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED) and Respiratorias (CIBERES), Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Fundació la Marató TV3, and the National Institutes of Health.
    The Lancet Neurology 04/2014; 13(6). DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70051-1 · 21.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current evidence suggests that there is a prodromal stage in Parkinson disease characterized by a variety of nonmotor symptoms. A 69-year-old man presented to our sleep center with isolated rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. During a 10-year follow-up period, longitudinal clinical and laboratory assessments indicated the development of hyposmia, depression, mild cognitive impairment, and constipation. Parkinsonism was absent, but dopamine transporter imaging showed subclinical substantia nigra damage. Postmortem examination demonstrated neuronal loss and Lewy body pathology in the peripheral autonomic nervous system (eg, cardiac and myenteric plexus), olfactory bulb, medulla, pons, substantia nigra pars compacta (estimated cell loss, 20%-30%), nucleus basalis of Meynert, and amygdala, sparing the neocortex. Our observations indicate that nonmotor symptoms plus widespread peripheral and central nervous system pathological changes occur before parkinsonism and dementia onset in diseases associated with Lewy pathology. The current diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease miss these patients, who present only with nonmotor symptoms. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    Movement Disorders 03/2014; 29(3). DOI:10.1002/mds.25825 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the risk for developing a defined neurodegenerative syndrome in a large cohort of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) patients with long follow-up. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we estimated the disease-free survival rate from defined neurodegenerative syndromes in all the consecutive IRBD patients diagnosed and followed-up in our tertiary referal sleep center between November 1991 and July 2013. The cohort comprises 174 patients with a median age at diagnosis of IRBD of 69 years and a median follow-up of four years. The risk of a defined neurodegenerative syndrome from the time of IRBD diagnosis was 33.1% at five years, 75.7% at ten years, and 90.9% at 14 years. The median conversion time was 7.5 years. Emerging diagnoses (37.4%) were dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in 29 subjects, Parkinson disease (PD) in 22, multiple system atrophy (MSA) in two, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 12. In six cases, in whom postmortem was performed, neuropathological examination disclosed neuronal loss and widespread Lewy-type pathology in the brain in each case. In a large IRBD cohort diagnosed in a tertiary referal sleep center, prolonged follow-up indicated that the majority of patients are eventually diagnosed with the synucleinopathies PD, DLB and less frequently MSA. IRBD represented the prodromal period of these conditions. Our findings in IRBD have important implications in clinical practice, in the investigation of the early pathological events occurring in the synucleinopathies, and for the design of interventions with potential disease-modifying agents.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89741. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089741 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) have recently been linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and may be the most common genetic cause of both neurodegenerative diseases. Genetic variants at TMEM106B influence risk for the most common neuropathological subtype of FTLD, characterized by inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (FTLD-TDP). Previous reports have shown that TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of FTLD-TDP caused by progranulin (GRN) mutations, with the major (risk) allele of rs1990622 associating with earlier age at onset of disease. Here, we report that rs1990622 genotype affects age at death in a single-site discovery cohort of FTLD patients with C9orf72 expansions (n = 14), with the major allele correlated with later age at death (p = 0.024). We replicate this modifier effect in a 30-site international neuropathological cohort of FTLD-TDP patients with C9orf72 expansions (n = 75), again finding that the major allele associates with later age at death (p = 0.016), as well as later age at onset (p = 0.019). In contrast, TMEM106B genotype does not affect age at onset or death in 241 FTLD-TDP cases negative for GRN mutations or C9orf72 expansions. Thus, TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of FTLD with C9orf72 expansions. Intriguingly, the genotype that confers increased risk for developing FTLD-TDP (major, or T, allele of rs1990622) is associated with later age at onset and death in C9orf72 expansion carriers, providing an example of sign epistasis in human neurodegenerative disease.
    Acta Neuropathologica 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00401-013-1239-x · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have compared the protein profiles in plaques and tangles in the hippocampus of post-mortem Alzheimer brains and in opaque and clear regions in the deep cortex of eye lenses of the same donors. From the 7 Alzheimer donors studied, 1 had pronounced bilateral cortical lens opacities, 1 moderate and 5 only minor or no cortical opacities. We focused on beta-sheet levels, a hallmarking property of amyloid-beta, the major protein of plaques and tau protein, the major protein of tangles in Alzheimer brains. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy and imaging was used in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis. Plaques and tangles show high levels of beta-sheets with a beta-sheet to protein ratio of 1.67. This ratio is 1.12 in unaffected brain tissue surrounding the plaques and tangles. In the lenses this ratio is 1.17 independently of the presence or absence of opacities. This major difference in beta-sheet conformation between hippocampus and lens is supported by Congo red and immunostaining of amyloid-beta and tau which were positive for plaques and tangles in the hippocampus but fully negative for the lens irrespective of the presence or absence of opacities. In line with a previous study (Michael et al., 2013) we conclude that cortical lens opacities are not typical for Alzheimer patients and are not hallmarked by accumulation of amyloid-beta, and can thus not be considered as predictors or indicators of Alzheimer disease as claimed by Goldstein et al. (2003).
    Experimental Eye Research 12/2013; 119. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2013.11.016 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whipplés disease with clinically isolated neurological involvement (CNS-WD) is a rare condition fatal without an early diagnosis. To present clinical and neuropathological features of three cases of pre- or post-mortem PCR confirmed CNS-WD with distinct clinical presentation, outcome and pathological findings. One patient had an acute onset with spinal and brainstem involvement and died without CNS-WD diagnosis after fourteen weeks. Neuropathology showed extensive inflammatory and necrotizing lesions with abundant foamy periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS)+ macrophages. The second patient had a subacute evolution with late CNS-WD diagnosis and death occurring 18 months after onset despite antibiotic treatment. Brain examination showed inflammatory lesions in brainstem, thalamus and cerebellum and abundant foamy PAS+ macrophages. The third case was diagnosed within four weeks of onset and treated with an excellent response. He died after a disease-free period of 24 months of unrelated causes. Neuropathology showed cystic residual lesions devoid of microorganisms without inflammatory reaction. CNS-WD may have an acute or subacute course with variable response to treatment. Accordingly, subjacent lesions may be those of a severe acute necrotizing encephalitic process or subacute inflammatory lesions involving diencephalic, brainstem, cerebellar and spinal regions. Chronic, unspecific residual cavitary brain lesions may be sequelae of a successful treatment. Early diagnosis should allow appropriate treatment and improve prognosis.
    Brain Pathology 12/2013; 24(3). DOI:10.1111/bpa.12113 · 4.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
658.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2015
    • IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Visalia Medical Clinic
      Visalia, California, United States
  • 2012–2014
    • Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
      • Servicio de Neurología
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2013
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
    • Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red, Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2009–2013
    • University of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2004–2013
    • Medical University of Vienna
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • University of Kuopio
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2007
    • Friedrich Loeffler Institute
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2006
    • Vienna General Hospital
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
    • Novo Nordisk
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2003–2004
    • University of Vienna
      • Institute of Neurophysiology
      Wien, Vienna, Austria