ABSTRACT: In a previous multicenter, randomized trial, elective use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation was compared with the use of conventional ventilation in the management of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants <30 weeks. No difference in terms of respiratory outcome was observed, but concerns were raised about an increased rate of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in the high-frequency ventilation group. To evaluate outcome, a follow-up study was conducted until a corrected age of 2 years. We report the results concerning neuromotor outcome.
Outcome was able to be evaluated in 192 of the 212 infants who survived until discharge from the neonatal unit: 97 of 105 infants of the high-frequency group and 95 of 104 infants of the conventional ventilation group.
In the infants reviewed, mean birth weight and gestational age were similar in the 2 ventilation groups. As in the overall study population, the following differences were observed between the high-frequency ventilation group and the conventional ventilation group: lower 5-minute Apgar score, fewer surfactant instillations, and a higher incidence of severe intraventricular hemorrhage. At a corrected age of 2 years, 93 of the 97 infants of the high-frequency group and 79 of the 95 infants of the conventional ventilation group did not present any neuromotor disability, whereas 4 infants of the high-frequency group and 16 infants of the conventional ventilation group had cerebral palsy.
Contrary to our initial concern about the increased rate of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in the high-frequency ventilation group, these data suggest that early use of high-frequency ventilation, compared with conventional ventilation, may be associated with a better neuromotor outcome. Because of the small number of patients studied and the absence of any explanation for this finding, we can conclude only that high-frequency oscillatory ventilation is not associated with a poorer neuromotor outcome.
PEDIATRICS 04/2007; 119(4):e860-5. · 4.47 Impact Factor