[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T lymphocytes expressing the γδ-type of T cell receptors (TCRs) for antigens contribute to all aspects of immune responses, including defenses against viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumors, allergy and autoimmunity. Multiple subsets have been individualized in humans as well as in mice and they appear to recognize in a TCR-dependent manner antigens as diverse as small non-peptidic molecules, soluble or membrane-anchored polypeptides and molecules related to MHC antigens on cell surfaces, implying diverse modes of antigen recognition. We review here the γδ TCR ligands which have been identified along the years and their characteristics, with emphasis on a few systems which have been extensively studied such as human γδ T cells responding to phosphoantigens or murine γδ T cells activated by allogeneic MHC antigens. We discuss a speculative model of antigen recognition involving simultaneous TCR recognition of MHC-like and non-MHC ligands which could fit with most available data and shares many similarities with the classical model of MHC-restricted antigen recognition for peptides or lipids by T cells subsets with αβ-type TCRs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial ATP synthase has been recently detected at the surface of different cell types, where it is a high affinity receptor for apoA-I, the major protein component in high density lipoproteins (HDL). Cell surface ATP synthase (namely ecto-F₁-ATPase) expression is related to different biological effects, such as regulation of HDL uptake by hepatocytes, endothelial cell proliferation or antitumor activity of Vγ9/Vδ2 T lymphocytes. This paper reviews the recently discovered functions and regulations of ecto-F₁-ATPase. Particularly, the role of the F₁-ATPase pathway(s) in HDL-cholesterol uptake and apoA-I-mediated endothelial protection suggests its potential importance in reverse cholesterol transport and its regulation might represent a potential therapeutic target for HDL-related therapy for cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is timely for us to better understand how this ecto-enzyme and downstream pathways are regulated and to develop pharmacologic interventions.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2010; 16(47):5925-35. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v16.i47.5925 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes are activated by phosphoantigens provided exogenously or produced by tumors and infected cells. Activation requires a contact between Vgamma9Vdelta2 cells and neighboring cells. We previously reported a role for cell surface F1-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) in T cell activation by tumors and specific interactions between Vgamma9Vdelta2 TCRs and purified F1-ATPase. 721.221 cells do not express surface F1-ATPase and do not support phosphoantigen responses unless they are rendered apoptotic by high doses of zoledronate, a treatment that promotes F1-expression as well as endogenous phosphoantigen production. By monitoring calcium flux in single cells, we show in this study that contact of T cells with F1-ATPase on polystyrene beads can partially replace the cell-cell contact stimulus during phosphoantigen responses. Triphosphoric acid 1-adenosin-5'-yl ester 3-(3-methylbut-3-enyl) ester, an adenylated derivative of isopentenyl pyrophosphate, can stably bind to F1-ATPase-coated beads and promotes TCR aggregation, lymphokine secretion, and activation of the cytolytic process provided that nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity is present. It also acts as an allosteric activator of F1-ATPase. In the absence of Vgamma9Vdelta2 cells, triphosphoric acid 1-adenosin-5'-yl ester 3-(3-methylbut-3-enyl) ester immobilized on F1-ATPase is protected from nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity, as is the antigenic activity of stimulatory target cells. Our experiments support the notion that Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells are dedicated to the recognition of phosphoantigens on cell membranes in the form of nucleotide derivatives that can bind to F1-ATPase acting as a presentation molecule.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2010; 184(12):6920-8. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0904024 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes recognize phosphorylated alkyl Ags. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) was previously proposed as the main Ag responsible for Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell activation by cancer cells. However, triphosphoric acid 1-adenosin-5'-yl ester 3-(3-methylbut-3-enyl) ester (ApppI), a metabolite in which the isopentenyl moiety is linked to ATP, was reported in cells activated with aminobisphosphonates. The contribution of this compound to tumor-stimulatory activity was thus examined. ApppI induces selective expansion of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from PBMCs. In the absence of APCs, however, ApppI has little stimulatory activity on Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells, and optimal activation with ApppI requires addition of a nucleotide pyrophosphatase releasing IPP plus AMP. Thus, ApppI has no intrinsic stimulatory activity. Nevertheless, stimulation by ApppI is strengthened by the presence of APCs. Moreover, in contrast to IPP, ApppI can be efficiently pulsed on dendritic cells as well as on nonprofessional APCs. Pulsed APCs display stable and phosphatase-resistant stimulatory activity, indicative of Ag modification. HPLC analysis of tumor cell extracts indicates that latent phosphoantigenic activity is stored intracellularly in the Vgamma9Vdelta2 cell-sensitive tumor Daudi and can be activated by a nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity. The presence of ApppI in Daudi cell extracts was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. Nucleotidic Ags such as ApppI are thus a storage form of phosphoantigen which may represent a major source of phosphoantigenic activity in tumor cells. The unique properties of ApppI may be important for the design of Ags used in anticancer immunotherapeutic protocols using Vgamma9Vdelta2 cells.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2009; 183(6):3848-57. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0901085 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several findings argue for a protective effect of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) against endothelial dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms underlying this protective effect are not fully understood, although recent works suggest that the actions of HDL on the endothelium are initiated by multiple interactions between HDLs (lipid or protein moiety) and cell surface receptors. We previously showed that the mitochondrial related F(1)-ATPase is a cell surface receptor for HDLs and their main atheroprotective apolipoprotein (apoA-I). Herein we test the hypothesis that the cell surface F(1)-ATPase may contribute to the ability of apoA-I and HDLs to maintain endothelial cell survival.
Cell imaging and binding assays confirmed the presence of the F(1)-ATPase at the surface of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and its ability to bind apoA-I. Cell surface F(1)-ATPase activity (ATP hydrolysis into ADP) was stimulated by apoA-I and was inhibited by its specific inhibitor IF(1)-H49K. Furthermore the antiapoptotic and proliferative effects of apoA-I on HUVECs were totally blocked by the F(1)-ATPase ligands IF(1)-H49K, angiostatin and anti-betaF(1)-ATPase antibody, independently of the scavenger receptor SR-BI and ABCA1.
This study suggests an important contribution of cell surface F(1)-ATPase to apoA-I-mediated endothelial cell survival, which may contribute to the atheroprotective functions of apoA-I.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell surface receptors for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on hepatocytes are major partners in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. We have previously demonstrated on human hepatocytes that apolipoprotein A-I binding to an ectopic F(1)-ATPase stimulates the production of extracellular ADP that activates a P2Y(13)-mediated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) endocytosis pathway. However, P2Y(13)-dependent signalling pathway has never been described yet. The current study demonstrates a major role of cytoskeleton reorganization in F(1)-ATPase/P2Y(13)-dependent HDL endocytosis under the control of the small GTPase RhoA and its effector ROCK I. Indeed human hepatocytes (HepG(2) cells) stimulated by ADP or AR-C69931MX (both P2Y(13) agonists) showed a high specific activation of RhoA; in addition, inhibition of Rho proteins by C3 exoenzyme impairs HDL endocytosis whereas a constitutively active form of RhoA stimulates HDL endocytosis at the same level as under F(1)-ATPase/P2Y(13) activation. Pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activity decreased HDL endocytosis following stimulation by apoA-I (F(1)-ATPase ligand), ADP or AR-C69931MX and specific siRNA ROCK I extinction prevented the stimulation of HDL endocytosis without effect of ROCK II extinction. The functional involvement of ROCK I downstream F(1)-ATPase/P2Y(13) was confirmed by the strong enrichment of the membrane fraction in ROCK I and by the requirement of actin polymerization in hepatocyte HDL endocytosis. These results allow the identification of the molecular events downstream P2Y(13) receptor activation for a better understanding of hepatocyte HDL endocytosis, the latest step in reverse cholesterol transport.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subunits of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex are expressed on the surface of tumors, bind the TCR of human Vγ9/Vδ2 lymphocytes and promote their cytotoxicity. Present experiments show that detection of the complex (called ecto-F1-ATPase) at the cell surface by immunofluorescence correlates with low MHC-class I antigen expression. Strikingly, the α and β chains of ecto-F1-ATPase are detected in membrane protein precipitates from immunofluorescence-negative cells, suggesting that ATPase epitopes are masked. Removal of β2-microglobulin by mild acid treatment so that most surface MHC-I molecules become free heavy chains reveals F1-ATPase epitopes on MHC-I+ cell lines. Ecto- F1-ATPase is detected by immunofluorescence on primary fibroblasts which express moderate levels of MHC-I antigens. Upregulation of MHC-I on these cells following IFN-γ and/or TNF-α treatment induces a dose-dependent disappearance of F1-ATPase epitopes. Finally, biotinylated F1-ATPase cell surface components co-immunoprecipitate with MHC-I molecules confirming the association of both complexes on Raji cells. Confocal microscopy analysis of MHC-I and ecto-F1-ATPase β chain expression on HepG2 cells shows a colocalization of both complexes in punctate membrane domains. This demonstrates that the TCR target F1-ATPase is in close contact with MHC-I antigens which are known to control Vγ9/Vδ2 T cell activity through binding to natural killer inhibitory receptors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upon conjugation with cognate antigen-presenting cells (APCs), T lymphocytes undergo a sustained [Ca(2+)](i) increase resulting from the engagement of TCR and of accessory molecules with ligands expressed on the surface of APCs. We investigated the contribution of the accessory molecule CD2 to the activation of phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1)/calcium pathway in antigen-stimulated T cells. We show that CD2 binding with its ligand CD58 expressed on the surface of APCs augments and sustains antigen-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in individual T cells interacting with APCs. We also show that in conditions in which CD2-CD58 interaction is impeded, the recruitment of PLCgamma1 to the immunological synapse (IS) is reduced. Interestingly, in these conditions PLCgamma1 phosphorylation in the regulatory tyrosine 783 is also defective. Our results indicate that TCR- and CD2-derived signals converge for the recruitment and activation of PLCgamma1 at the IS and shed new light on the accessory function of CD2 in T cell activation by specific antigen.
International Immunology 04/2007; 19(3):239-48. DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxl141 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated on human hepatocytes that apolipoprotein A-I binding to an ecto-F(1)-ATPase stimulates the production of extracellular ADP that activates a P2Y(13)-mediated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) endocytosis pathway. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms controlling the extracellular ATP/ADP level in hepatic cell lines and primary cultures to determine their impact on HDL endocytosis. Here we show that addition of ADP to the cell culture medium induced extracellular ATP production that was due to adenylate kinase [see text] and nucleoside diphosphokinase [see text] activities, but not to ATP synthase activity. We further observed that in vitro modulation of both ecto-NDPK and AK activities could regulate the ADP-dependent HDL endocytosis. But interestingly, only AK appeared to naturally participate in the pathway by consuming the ADP generated by the ecto-F(1)-ATPase. Thus controlling the extracellular ADP level is a potential target for reverse cholesterol transport regulation.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 01/2007; 63(23):2829-37. DOI:10.1007/s00018-006-6325-y · 5.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until recently, F1Fo ATP synthase expression was believed to be strictly confined to mitochondria where it generates most cellular ATP. This paper reviews the recent evidence for an extra-mitochondrial expression of its components by immunofluorescence, biochemistry and proteomics studies. It discusses its possible implications in an ecto-nucleotide metabolism and its pathophysiological role in normal and tumoral cells.
F1Fo ATP synthase components have been identified as cell-surface receptors for apparently unrelated ligands in the course of studies carried out on angiogenesis, lipoprotein metabolism, innate immunity, hypertension, or regulation of food intake.
F1Fo ATP synthase is expressed on endothelial cells where it binds angiostatin, regulates surface ATP levels, and modulates endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Through binding of apolipoprotein A-I, a similar complex, expressed on hepatocytes, regulates lipoprotein internalization. On tumors, it is recognized in association with apolipoprotein A-I by the antigen receptor of circulating cytotoxic lymphocytes of the gammadelta subtype and thus promotes an innate tumor cell recognition and lysis. It binds enterostatin on brain cells. Biochemistry and proteomics studies indicate an enrichment of F1Fo components in lipid rafts selectively with some other mitochondrial proteins, suggesting intracellular traffic connections between mitochondria and other membrane compartments. Finally, depending on cell type and environment, it can generate ATP or ADP which may transfer a downstream signal to purinergic receptors.
Current Opinion in Lipidology 07/2006; 17(3):279-84. DOI:10.1097/01.mol.0000226120.27931.76 · 5.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell surface receptors for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on hepatocytes are major partners in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. We recently identified a cell surface ATP synthase as a high-affinity receptor for HDL apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) on human hepatocytes. Stimulation of this ectopic ATP synthase by apoA-I triggered a low-affinity-receptor-dependent HDL endocytosis by a mechanism strictly related to the generation of ADP. This suggests that nucleotide G-protein-coupled receptors of the P2Y family are molecular components in this pathway. Only P2Y1 and P2Y13 are present on the membrane of hepatocytes. Using both a pharmacological approach and small interference RNA, we identified P2Y13 as the main partner in hepatic HDL endocytosis, in cultured cells as well as in situ in perfused mouse livers. We also found a new important action of the antithrombotic agent AR-C69931MX as a strong activator of P2Y13-mediated HDL endocytosis.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 12/2005; 62(21):2508-15. DOI:10.1007/s00018-005-5194-0 · 5.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunological synapse (IS) is a specialized signaling area formed at the contact site between T-cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC), where sustained engagement and signaling of TCR and accessory molecules occur. A key feature of T-cell antigen recognition is that the process of TCR/peptide-MHC interaction is self-limited by the internalization and degradation of triggered TCR and recruited signaling components. The mechanism of signaling component degradation involves their ubiquitination and targeting for degradation. Yet, the relationship between the ubiquitination process and TCR signaling as well as the cellular localization of TCR-induced ubiquitination are still elusive. In the present work, we visualize for the first time ubiquitination at the TCR signaling area. We show an enrichment of ubiquitin staining in TCR/CD3 caps in T-lymphocytes stimulated by anti-CD3 antibodies. Remarkably, we also show the recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b and a significant ubiquitination at the immunological synapse in antigen-stimulated T-cells. Our results identify the immunological synapse as the cellular area where TCR-induced protein ubiquitination occurs. They imply that the synapse is a specialized site where the activation process is not only triggered, but also controlled via ubiquitination of signaling actors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent findings reveal unanticipated connections between the fields of lipid metabolism and immunology. They concern gammadelta and NKT cells, nonconventional T cell populations that do not recognize protein antigens and are involved in immunity against cancer, defense against infections, or in regulation of classical immune responses. In this review, we summarize data linking perturbations of apolipoprotein levels and nonconventional T cells with inflammatory processes such as autoimmune diseases or atherosclerosis. We integrate and discuss recent findings on the implication of apolipoproteins in antigen recognition by gammadelta and NKT cells, with emphasis on apolipoproteins A-I and E. These findings also provide indications that apolipoproteins influence antitumor immunosurveillance.
Immunologic Research 02/2005; 33(3):241-55. · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes, a major gammadelta T lymphocyte subset in humans, display cytolytic activity against various tumor cells upon recognition of yet uncharacterized structures. Here, we show that an entity related to the mitochondrial F1-ATPase is expressed on tumor cell surface and promotes tumor recognition by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. When immobilized, purified F1-ATPase induces selective activation of this lymphocyte subset. The Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell receptors (TCR) and the F1-ATPase also bind a delipidated form of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), as demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the presence of apo A-I in the culture medium is required for optimal activation of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells by tumors expressing F1-ATPase. This study thus describes an unanticipated tumor recognition mechanism by Vgamma9Vdelta2 lymphocytes and a possible link between gammadelta T cell immunity and lipid metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent findings reveal unanticipated connections between the fields of lipid metabolism and immunology. They concern ψδ and
NKT cells, nonconventional T cell populations that do not recognize protein antigens and are involved in immunity against
cancer, defense against infections, or in regulation of classical immune responses. In this review, we summarize data linking
perturbations of apolipoprotein levels and nonconventional T cells with inflammatory processes such as autoimmune diseases
or atherosclerosis. We integrate and discuss recent findings on the implication of apolipoproteins in antigen recognition
by ψδ and NKT cells, with emphasis on apolipoproteins A-I and E. These findings also provide indications that apolipoproteins
influence antitumor immunosurveillance.
Immunologic Research 01/2005; 33(3):241-255. DOI:10.1385/IR:33:3:241 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in protecting against atherosclerosis is usually attributed to its role in 'reverse cholesterol transport'. In this process, HDL particles mediate the efflux and the transport of cholesterol from peripheral cells to the liver for further metabolism and bile excretion. Thus, cell-surface receptors for HDL on hepatocytes are chief partners in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. A high-affinity HDL receptor for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) was previously identified on the surface of hepatocytes. Here we show that this receptor is identical to the beta-chain of ATP synthase, a principal protein complex of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Different experimental approaches confirm this ectopic localization of components of the ATP synthase complex and the presence of ATP hydrolase activity at the hepatocyte cell surface. Receptor stimulation by apoA-I triggers the endocytosis of holo-HDL particles (protein plus lipid) by a mechanism that depends strictly on the generation of ADP. We confirm this effect on endocytosis in perfused rat liver ex vivo by using a specific inhibitor of ATP synthase. Thus, membrane-bound ATP synthase has a previously unsuspected role in modulating the concentrations of extracellular ADP and is regulated by a principal plasma apolipoprotein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Daudi Burkitt's lymphoma cells activate Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells through TCR ligation by an unknown antigen. This activity is for a large part revealed by their lack of HLA class I antigen expression, allowing their escape from KIR downregulation. We characterize here a culture variant of the Burkitt's lymphoma line Raji, RJ-A3, which is able to promote as efficiently as Daudi cells the outgrowth of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells in cocultures in spite of unchanged HLA class Ia/Ib antigen expression. RJ-A3 is resistant to lysis by most Vgamma9/Vdelta2 lines and clones, even those lacking CD9-4/NKG2 and p58, p70 p140 KIR molecules. However, one Vgamma9/Vdelta2 line which can efficiently kill RJ-A3 do so in a TCR-dependent manner since killing is modulated by anti-TCR antibodies. The CDR3 sequences of the T cell clones amplified with Daudi and RJ-A3 reveal that some clones can be expanded with both lines while others are expanded preferentially with one or the other but not both. This indicates differences in the antigenic determinants of the two Burkitt's lines. The occurrence of this Raji variant line demonstrates that the stimulatory phenotype for Vgamma9/Vdelta2 cells can be acquired by some tumors independently of the loss of class I antigens and comforts the hypothesis of an anti-tumoral function for the Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cell population.
Human Immunology 11/1999; 60(10):928-38. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Daudi Burkitt’s lymphoma cells activate Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells through TCR ligation by an unknown antigen. This activity is for a large part revealed by their lack of HLA class I antigen expression, allowing their escape from KIR downregulation. We characterize here a culture variant of the Burkitt’s lymphoma line Raji, RJ-A3, which is able to promote as efficiently as Daudi cells the outgrowth of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells in cocultures in spite of unchanged HLA class Ia/Ib antigen expression. RJ-A3 is resistant to lysis by most Vγ9/Vδ2 lines and clones, even those lacking CD94/NKG2 and p58, p70 p140 KIR molecules. However, one Vγ9/Vδ2 line which can efficiently kill RJ-A3 do so in a TCR-dependent manner since killing is modulated by anti-TCR antibodies. The CDR3 sequences of the T cell clones amplified with Daudi and RJ-A3 reveal that some clones can be expanded with both lines while others are expanded preferentially with one or the other but not both. This indicates differences in the antigenic determinants of the two Burkitt’s lines. The occurrence of this Raji variant line demonstrates that the stimulatory phenotype for Vγ9/Vδ2 cells can be acquired by some tumors independently of the loss of class I antigens and comforts the hypothesis of an anti-tumoral function for the Vγ9/Vδ2 T cell population.
Human Immunology 10/1999; 60(10):928-938. DOI:10.1016/S0198-8859(99)00076-2 · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the gammadelta T cell composition and responses in the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children affected by tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and in control children.
Peripheral blood and CSF samples were stimulated with different phosphoantigens and IL-2, and expansion of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells assessed by FACS analysis. Vgamma9/Vdelta2 lines were obtained by culturing CSF or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro with phosphoantigens and IL-2 for 2 months, and tested for proliferation and cytokine production in response to phosphoantigens. Vdelta2(D)Jdelta junctional sequence length was assessed by PCR.
The repertoire of gammadelta T cells from the CSF of TBM patients was characterized by the predominance of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T lymphocytes, which accounted for >80% of gammadelta T cells. Vgamma9/Vdelta2 cells from the CSF of TBM children responded to different synthetic and natural (mycobacterial) phosphoantigens and produced discrete amounts of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. The in vitro expansion of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells from CSF and peripheral blood of TBM patients prominently decreased following chemotherapy, and similarly, the proportion of ex vivo unstimulated Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells in CSF of TBM patients decreased to levels detected in the CSF of control subjects. Vdelta2 CDR3 TCR analysis showed that the remaining Vdelta2 cells in the CSF of TBM patients were still polyclonal.
These findings are consistent with an involvement of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells in TBM. http://link. springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00020/bibs/5n5p301. html
Molecular Medicine 05/1999; 5(5):301-12. · 4.51 Impact Factor