Edward G. Ford

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States

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Publications (36)55.47 Total impact

  • M S Srikanth · E G Ford · H Isaacs · G H Mahour ·
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    ABSTRACT: Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is characterized by hypoperistalsis in the presence of ganglion cells, malrotation, microcolon, bladder distension, and female predilection. We draw attention to the long-term management of a patient with MMIHS and propose a pathogenetic mechanism to account for this syndrome. We propose that the initial event in the pathogenesis of MMIHS is an intramural inflammatory process that affects the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. This leads to extensive fibrosis which destroys the intestinal neural network, producing hypoperistalsis. The same process causes neuromuscular incoordination in the bladder wall, resulting in irregular bladder contractions against a "closed sphincter" leading to bladder distension. The enlarged bladder then interferes with the rotation of the intestine causing malrotation.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 08/1993; 28(7):957-9. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of significant intraabdominal injuries from blunt trauma in children is low (1-8%); however, a missed intestinal laceration may result in a devastating, if not morbid, consequence. We present retrospective case studies of eight children with intestinal lacerations following blunt trauma. Each patient has a unique anatomic defect with misleading initial laboratory and radiographic studies. We did not find a single laboratory or roentgenographic study to be consistently reliable for diagnosis of hollow viscus laceration. The combination of a high index of suspicion and serial abdominal examinations, coupled with subsequent comparative laboratory and radiographic evaluations, proved most reliable in identifying patients with intestinal injury.
    Pediatric Emergency Care 07/1993; 9(3):139-42. DOI:10.1097/00006565-199306000-00004 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Symptomatic Salmonella infections usually manifest as self-limited gastrointestinal distress. Patients with chronic systemic illnesses or those who are immunosuppressed may rarely present with Salmonella infection as distant suppurative abscesses. We present a previously healthy Armenian boy who came to medical attention with abdominal pain, fever, and anemia. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed a cystic suprarenal mass that was surgically explored and found to be a retroperitoneal Salmonella abscess. Postoperative CT scan showed resolving inflammation. A 6-month follow-up CT showed a large suprarenal tumor, which at exploration was found to be neuroblastoma. To our knowledge, Salmonella has never been reported presenting as a solitary retroperitoneal abscess, and neuroblastoma has not been described presenting as a Salmonella abscess. The patient is also unusual because the abscess contained a species unusual for suppurative salmonellosis.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 01/1993; 27(12):1608-10. DOI:10.1016/0022-3468(92)90526-D · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is lifesaving for infants with severe respiratory distress but is complicated by severe intracranial hemorrhage in 10% to 30% of patients. Intracranial venous hypertension, as a result of ligation of the internal jugular vein (IJV), has been hypothesized as a contributing factor to cerebral edema and subsequent hemorrhage. Accessory cephalad IJV cannulation may serve as a means of additional venous drainage to the pump as well as protection against intracranial venous hypertension. Proximal and distal cannulation of the IJV were studied in a primate model. The parameters monitored included sagittal sinus, right and left ventricular pressures as well as venous pressure in the ECMO circuit. The cephalad venous cannula was clamped and unclamped at 30-minute intervals. There was no significant difference in sagittal sinus or intracranial pressures during periods of cephalad cannula clamping or unclamping. Venous return was augmented when the cephalad cannula was unclamped. Cephalad cannulation has no demonstrable protective effect on intracranial, subarachnoid or venous pressures but does improve venous return to the ECMO circuit. It is concluded that cephalad venous cannulation is not necessary in all cases and should be reserved for those patients requiring additional venous drainage to support pump flow.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 10/1992; 27(9):1189-91. DOI:10.1016/0022-3468(92)90784-5 · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Edward G. Ford · Morton M. Woolley ·
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    ABSTRACT: Neonates with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) may present with respiratory distress. Intubation and mechanical ventilation may force air from the tracheobronchial tree, through a distal fistula and into the gastrointestinal tract. We present a newborn with TEF who became moribund during mechanical ventilation. High ventilator pressures transmitted via the TEF caused over distention of the gastrointestinal tract and perforation of a Meckel's diverticulum.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 10/1992; 27(9):1223-4. DOI:10.1016/0022-3468(92)90793-7 · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Edward G. Ford · Phillip Stanley · Vernon Tolo · Morton M. Woolley ·
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    ABSTRACT: In 1976, we presented our experience in the surgical management of patients with peripheral congenital arteriovenous fistulae (CAVF). This report updates our experience and specifically describes subsequent experience with intraarterial embolization therapy. Twenty-six infants and children with CAVFs have been treated at Children's Hospital of Los Angeles from 1966 to 1990. The majority of lesions were lower extremity (12), followed by upper extremity (8), shoulder girdle (3), and thorax/neck (3). Seventeen patients had lesions in multiple locations. All patients under 1 year of age had upper extremity lesions, all in the 5- to 10-year age group had lower extremity lesions, and all over 15 years of age at presentation required amputation. Twelve patients had initial embolization therapy and 12 had surgery. Seven of eight patients followed after embolization have improved. Embolization is not effective in large or ulcerated lesions. All patients with embolization alone have residual disease and three of eight have discrepancy in extremity length. Surgery has a 50% complication rate and 7 of 10 followed surgery patients have residual disease. Radiologic catheter techniques and embolization provide a valuable alternative therapy for CAVFs and should be used as the primary form of treatment in most cases.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 07/1992; 27(6):714-9. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3468(05)80098-3 · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • M.S. Srikanth · Edward G. Ford · Phillip Stanley · G. Hossein Mahour ·
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    ABSTRACT: Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations (CBPFMs) are characterized by a fistula between an isolated portion of respiratory tissue (ie, a lung, a lung lobe, or a segment) and esophagus or stomach. We combine our 30-year (1959 to 1989) experience of 6 cases with 51 reported patients to propose a CBPFM classification supported by a proposed embryogenesis theory. Group I (16%): anomaly is associated with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Group II (33%): one lung originates from the lower esophagus. Group III (46%): an isolated anatomic lung lobe or segment communicates with the esophagus or stomach. Group IV (5%): A portion of the normal bronchial system communicates with the esophagus. The portion of the lung served by the communicating bronchus receives systemic blood supply. The right and left lung sacs curve dorsally to embrace the lower esophagus during normal lung development. At this stage a part of the lung bud joins the esophagus. This segment then breaks away from the main pulmonary anlage to form a CBPFM. CBPFMs should be considered in the workup of infants with respiratory distress and/or recurrent pneumonias. Patients with suspected pulmonary sequestration should undergo contrast studies to exclude a gastrointestinal communication.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 07/1992; 27(6):732-6. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3468(05)80103-4 · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Edward G. Ford · James B. Atkinson ·
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides an adjunct to support of neonates with respiratory distress. The rate of venous drainage is the limiting step to the amount of arterial flow that may be generated during ECMO. We present a 3-kg, 37-week gestation female with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) whose anatomic venous drainage was insufficient to allow total extracorporeal support. The internal jugular vein was of insufficient size to allow placement of a cannula large enough to support adequate bypass flow. We established minimally acceptable flow by simultaneous caudad and cephalad catheterization of the internal vein. We performed a right lower quadrant retroperitoneal dissection and cannulated the common iliac vein when systemic pressures deteriorated at 24 hours with marginal venous drainage. After triple cannulation the bypass flows were normal. The right leg developed mild cyanosis and edema immediately following cannulation, but these changes resolved over 24 hours with elevation. The common iliac vein provides a desirable route for augmentation of venous drainage in the patient with difficult standard, or cephalad, jugular venous access for extracorporeal support.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 05/1992; 27(4):527-8. DOI:10.1016/0022-3468(92)90356-C · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Rajkumar Shah · Edward G. Ford · Morton M. Woolley ·
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    ABSTRACT: Several congenital anomalies of the portal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) have been reported; however, reports of a congenital communication between the portal vein and IVC are few. We report a patient who was found to have a natural shunt between the extrahepatic portal vein and the IVC that was discovered when she underwent a right hepatic lobectomy for an undifferentiated liver sarcoma. The patient also had agenesis of the right kidney. We have not been able to find a similar case reported in English literature.
    Pediatric Surgery International 04/1992; 7(3):216-217. DOI:10.1007/BF00175845 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal malrotation may be complicated by volvulus and intestinal necrosis. One hundred two children (64 male, 38 female) undergoing surgical abdominal exploration from 1977 to 1987 had malrotation. Fifty-two patients were less than 7 days of age, 13 from 8 to 30 days, 26 from 31 to 365 days, and 11 were older than 1 year of age. Of infants, 39 of 65 had 40-week gestations, 18 of 65 had 36- to 39-week gestations, and 8 of 65 had less than 36-week gestations. Chief symptomatology included: bilious emesis (47), intestinal obstruction (19), abdominal pain (11), and bloody stools (7). Seventy patients had congenital anomalies (50 single, 20 multiple). Diagnostic evaluations included 56 upper gastrointestinal series and 27 barium enemas. Each patient underwent correction of malrotation and appendectomy, and correction of congenital anomalies (omphalocele-9, gastroschisis-6, diaphragmatic hernia-7). Complications included short gut (2), sepsis (5), feeding difficulties (2), pneumonia (3), small bowel obstruction (2), and other (15). Nine patients (8.8%) died (trisomy 18-1, trisomy 13-1, intestinal necrosis-3, hepatic failure-1, prematurity-1, other sepsis-2). Two hundred sixteen children with intestinal malrotation have been treated from 1937 to 1987. Mortality rate has improved from 23% to 2.9%.
    Annals of Surgery 03/1992; 215(2):172-8. DOI:10.1097/00000658-199202000-00013 · 8.33 Impact Factor
  • E G Ford · S F Hull · L M Jennings · R J Andrassy ·
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty consecutive patients (19-71 years of age) undergoing abdominal operations and having feeding catheter jejunostomy tubes placed, were prospectively randomized and studied for tolerance to elemental (amino acid) or polymeric (intact protein isolates) dietary formulas. The groups were matched for sex, age, height, weight, operations, and caloric goal. Nutritional profiles of the patients were similar preoperatively. The number of stools/day and stool consistency were direct indicators of tolerance; nutrient intake was an indirect indicator. Diarrhea is defined as greater than or equal to five stools/day. We found no significant difference between the groups. There were no patients with diarrhea on days 1 or 2. Formula intake as an indirect measure of tolerance was not significantly different for the two groups from days 1-4. On day 5, intake of the elemental group exceeded that of the polymeric group (p less than 0.02). Enteral caloric intake as percent of caloric goal did not differ. Nitrogen intake, urinary nitrogen, serum prealbumin, body weight, serum sodium, and serum potassium did not differ significantly between the two groups throughout the study. Serum chloride decreased significantly (105 to 99.8 mEq/L) in the elemental group (p less than 0.03). Our study shows that patients undergoing routine gastrointestinal operations will tolerate early enteral feedings (day 1) and that there is no significant difference in tolerance to elemental or polymeric dietary formulas.
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 03/1992; 11(1):11-6. DOI:10.1080/07315724.1992.10718189 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are known to be susceptible to stress-induced persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAMs) may also present as respiratory distress in the newborn. Intubation and mechanical ventilation cause clinical deterioration because of air trapping within cystic spaces; these patients require prompt lobectomy. PPHN has not been commonly associated with CCAM. Three patients with CCAM were encountered who developed PPHN postlobectomy. Three newborns, 36 to 38 weeks' gestation, presented with respiratory distress. Two had diagnosis of thoracic tumors on fetal ultrasound (22 and 33 weeks). Chest x-ray at birth confirmed cystic intrathoracic tumors in all and they underwent immediate thoracotomy and lobectomy (1 right upper, 1 left lower, 1 left upper). The patients were stable for 4 hours to 5 days postoperatively and then developed findings consistent with PPHN by cardiac echocardiography and required extracorporeal membrane oxygen (ECMO) support. ECMO was required for 66.5 to 120 hours. Each patient was successfully weaned to conventional ventilatory support. The clinical course of these patients was similar to those with CDH who undergo immediate surgery. The stress of surgical intervention combined with hypoxia and hypercarbia stimulates a hyperactive pulmonary vasculature and the development of PPHN. ECMO provides an effective adjunct to support patients with PPHN on the basis of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 02/1992; 27(1):54-6. DOI:10.1016/0022-3468(92)90104-F · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many factors affect the integrity of transplanted small bowel. These include ischemic preservation and immunologic injury as well as the division of intestinal lymphatics during transplantation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the recovery of fat absorption in transplanted small bowel in syngeneic rats. Orthotopic transplantation of the total small bowel with resection of the native intestine was performed. The experimental (n = 11) and a pair-fed, sham-operated control (n = 8) groups were fed a 50% kcal corn oil semipurified diet. Studies of cyclosporine (CSA) absorption, maltose absorption, dietary fat, and fecal alpha 1-antitrypsin (FA1AT) excretion in transplanted animals were performed preoperatively and at 15, 30, and 50 days postoperatively. There was no significant difference in the weight change or fat and maltose absorption in experimental animals compared with control animals at any time point. Peak serum CSA levels were lower at day 15 in transplanted animals than in controls (P = 0.006) and improved but remained lower than those in controls at days 30 and 50 (P = 0.017). FA1AT excretion was increased on postoperative day 15 (accompanied by a decrease in body weight) and returned to control levels at days 30 and 50. Transplanted isogeneic rats had weight recovery and fat and carbohydrate absorption similar to those of controls. Transplanted animals had a protein-losing enteropathy measured by FA1AT at day 15 that resolved by 30 and 50 days, respectively. CSA absorption showed a much more gradual return to control levels and remained abnormal at 50 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 10/1991; 26(9):1091-5; discussion 1095-6. DOI:10.1016/0022-3468(91)90680-R · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) treated by immediate surgical intervention and conventional ventilatory support have an overall poor survival. The potential of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy to improve survival of infants with CDH remains controversial. Comparison was made in a single institution's pre-ECMO and post-ECMO survival statistics to establish efficacy of extracorporeal support for persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH). This study was accomplished by stratifying patients by an oxygen index (OI). Sixty-eight patients were treated for CDH from 1977 to 1986 without ECMO. Fifty-eight patients underwent repair of CDH within the first 24 hours of life. Data could be retrieved for calculation of the OI in 46 patients. Nineteen patients developed an OI of 40 or greater; one survived (5%). Three of 27 patients with an OI less than 40 died (OIs = 34, 38, and 38). Thirty-one patients were treated from 1987 to 1989 and none were excluded from ECMO based on a minimum PO2. Fifteen had an OI less than 40 (range, 1 to 38), were treated conventionally, and 13 survived (87%). Sixteen patients had an OI greater than 40 and 13 qualified for ECMO. Nine of 13 survived (69%). Comparing pre-ECMO and post-ECMO survival for infants with an OI of 40 or greater (5% v 69%), there is a significant improvement in survival when ECMO is used (P less than .001). ECMO support offers a strong adjunct in management of neonates with CDH who develop PPH.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 08/1991; 26(7):791-3. DOI:10.1016/0022-3468(91)90140-O · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Known paraneoplastic effects of neuroblastoma are acute cerebellar ataxias, myasthenia gravis, and papilledema. Fasciitis as a paraneoplastic manifestation of neuroblastoma has not been described previously. An 11-month-old boy presented with a 3-month history of bilateral thigh swelling. Incisional biopsy showed intense lymphocytic infiltration of the fascia lata. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a paraspinal mass medial to the left kidney. Histologic examination of the resected tumor showed neuroblastoma. Removal of the tumor was followed by a dramatic reduction in the size of the thigh swelling.
    Pediatric Surgery International 06/1991; 6(4):387-389. DOI:10.1007/BF00178668 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BB guns of 20 years ago were constructed of coils and springs which generated relatively little force, so that a projectile posed little threat of serious injury. Today, the coil and spring construction has been replaced by pump action pneumatic chambers which allow generation of muzzle velocities near 350 ft/sec. Speeds of 150 ft/sec and 200 ft/sec are required for skin penetration and bone penetration, respectively. We present a seven-year-old boy who suffered intracranial parenchymal injury from an air-powered BB gun projectile while playing with friends. We discuss literature which suggests these once-innocent toys are now harbingers of severe, if not fatal, injury.
    Pediatric Emergency Care 01/1991; 6(4):278-9. DOI:10.1097/00006565-199012000-00007 · 1.05 Impact Factor
  • E G Ford · H L Karamanoukian · N McGrath · G H Mahour ·
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    ABSTRACT: Emergency center (ER) trauma evaluations often include leukocyte count (LC), serum amylase (SA), electrolytes (EL), and urine analysis. We reviewed records of 100 pediatric ER patients to determine utility of these tests in management of blunt injury. SA was evaluated in 65 patients and ranged from 30-146 U/L (mean 50.6 U/L); 14 patients with normal CT scans had SA from 30-68 U/L (mean 49.1 U/L). Six patients with intraabdominal or retroperitoneal injuries had SA from 30-130 U/L (mean 64.0 U/L), P = NS. LC was determined in 76 patients and ranged 2.3-28.3 k/ml (mean 13.8 k/ml). Patients with normal abdominal CT (12) had mean LC 14.8 k/ml (range 7.2-19.6 k/ml). Eight patients with injuries on CT had mean LC 14.4 k/ml (range 3.5-27.1 k/ml). ER, SA, and LC did not alter patient management. Thirty-four patients had serum sodium, 36 potassium, and 33 chloride and bicarbonate determinations. Sodium, potassium, and chloride levels were uniformly normal; bicarbonate and leukocyte counts were uniformly abnormal in initial evaluations. These changes are expected in response to severe injury and their determinations did not alter patient care. Combined laboratory urinarlysis (LA) and urine dipstick (DA) analysis for hematuria had sensitivity 75.0 per cent (specificity 81.6%). LA predicted injury with sensitivity 75.0 per cent (specificity 81.6%). DA predicted injury with sensitivity 60.0 per cent (specificity 79.2%). DA accurately represented LA results (sensitivity 100%, specificity of 94.5%). DA is a rapid and effective replacement of LA in evaluation of trauma patients in the emergency center.
    The American surgeon 01/1991; 56(12):752-7. · 0.82 Impact Factor
  • R Shah · G H Mahour · E G Ford · P Stanley ·
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    ABSTRACT: Splenectomy for massive splenomegaly and hypersplenism carries a significant morbidity and mortality. We have used partial splenic embolization (PSE) as an effective alternative to splenectomy. Ten PSE procedures were performed on nine patients without mortality and with minimal morbidity. The age of the patients ranged from 8 months to 32 years (mean 14 years). The causes of splenomegaly and hypersplenism included cystic fibrosis with cirrhosis (2), tyrosinemia and cirrhosis (1); thalassemia (1), hemophilia with Human Immune Deficiency Virus infection (2), chronic hepatitis with portal hypertension (1), malignant histiocytosis (1), and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (1). All procedures were performed under local anesthesia with sedation. A percutaneous femoral artery approach to the splenic artery was used to deliver Ivalon sponge particles (280-800 microns) into the spleen. Splenic infarction was assessed by postembolization angiograms. All of the patients except one demonstrated improvement of hematologic parameters. In one patient, however, cytopenia improved only after a second embolization. In the total series, there was an early mean rise of 8,600/mm3 in the leukocyte count (range 2,900-14,900) and 212,000/mm3 in the platelet count (range 30,000-718,000). Follow-up ranged from 4 months to 7 years. Improvement of the blood picture has been persistent in seven of the eight patients who showed initial improvement. Transient procedural complications included fever (5), pleural effusion (2), pneumonia (1), and splenic abscess (1). One patient had paralytic ileus lasting for 10 days and one patient developed a streptococcal peritonitis 3 weeks after embolization. No patient developed pancreatitis or vascular compromise of other abdominal viscera.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    The American surgeon 01/1991; 56(12):774-7. · 0.82 Impact Factor
  • Yoshio Zaizen · Edward G. Ford · Gertrude Costin · James B. Atkinson ·
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    ABSTRACT: Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting wound healing. Patients who have significant protein malnutrition and require emergency surgery are frequently encountered. Conventional nutritional preparation for surgery, with intravenous hyperalimentation, requires 10 to 14 days to demonstrate advantageous reversal of catabolism. Growth hormone is known to have an anabolic effect in malnourished animals. The purpose of this investigation was to study the ability of growth hormone, administered from the time of celiotomy, to improve wound strength in protein-malnourished animals and compare its efficacy with preoperative nutritional repletion. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I--normal control rats, group II--malnourished rats, group III--malnourished rats treated with growth hormone for 5 postoperative days, and group IV--malnourished rats refed normal chow for 3 days before operation. Controlled laparotomy wounds were closed with monofilament nylon which was removed at the time wound bursting strength was tested. Bursting strengths at the sixth day postoperative were as follows (means +/- SD): (table; see text) Wound strength of malnourished animals was significantly less than that of controls, (P less than 0.001). Wound bursting strength of groups III and IV was significantly improved over that of malnourished animals (group II), P less than 0.001. The bursting strength of group IV was significantly higher than that of group III. Growth hormone administration following celiotomy is nearly as effective in improving wound healing as preoperative nutritional repletion. These results suggest that growth hormone may be clinically applicable in preventing wound complications in malnourished patients requiring urgent or emergency laparotomy.
    Journal of Surgical Research 11/1990; 49(4):333-6. DOI:10.1016/0022-4804(90)90032-W · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sixteen children with pancreatic pseudocysts were treated from 1965-1988. Blunt trauma was the etiology of pseudocyst formation in 69 per cent of children with 50 per cent resulting from the abdomen impacting bicycle handlebars. Chronic pancreatitis is an uncommon cause of pseudocyst formation in children. Medical therapy is directed towards reduction of pancreatic stimulation and nutritional support, which are maintained through pseudocyst resolution or maturation. Pseudocysts spontaneously resolved in 25 per cent of patients. Complications occurred in 25 per cent during nonoperative management. Children may safely undergo internal drainage earlier than adults (3-4 weeks vs 6 weeks). Internal drainage by cystoenterostomy was curative in eight patients. Persistent fistula drainage developed for five weeks in one patient who had surgical external pseudocyst drainage. One patient required distal pancreatectomy for a transected pancreatic duct. Spontaneous resolution of psseudocysts while on medical therapy is more frequent in children than in adults, and major complications (abscess formation, hemorrhage, and fistula formation) are usually not encountered. Pseudocyst rupture is the major complication of conservative management. We had no pseudocyst recurrences and 11 of 12 children treated surgically were discharged home within ten days of operation.
    The American surgeon 07/1990; 56(6):384-7. · 0.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

575 Citations
55.47 Total Impact Points


  • 1990-1993
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      • • Division of General Pediatric Surgery
      • • Department of Surgery
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1992
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1990-1992
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1987-1992
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Pediatric Surgery
      Houston, TX, United States
    • Houston Zoo
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1987-1989
    • University of Texas Medical School
      • Department of Surgery
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1988
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Surgery
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 1986
    • Memorial Hermann Hospital
      Houston, Texas, United States