ABSTRACT: From 1998 through 2005 3,294 cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) including 93 cases with clinical picture of poliomyelitis were registered in Russian Federation. From the latter cases 91 were classified as vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP): 66 were VAPP cases in oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) recipients and 25--VAPP cases in contacts. VAPP rate was 1 case per 1.6 million of distributed OPV doses, 1 case per 2.2 million doses for OPV recipients, and 1 case per 186,000 doses for recipients of 1st OPV dose in children aged < 1 year. Majority of VAPP cases in recipients occurred after 1st dose (89.4%) and in contacts--in non-vaccinated children (76%). Mean interval between OPV administration and onset of VAPP in recipients was 21 days. Children aged < 1 year were predominant among VAPP cases (92.4% among recipient VAPP cases, and 80% among contact VAPP cases). Majority of the patients had unfavorable health status including defects of immunity. Most of poliovirus strains isolated from VAPP cases belonged to type 3 (52.9%) whereas to type 2 and 1--29.8% and 17.4% of strains respectively. All VAPP cases were associated with vaccine-derived polioviruses. A highly diverged poliovirus type 1 (2.65% of nucleotide substitutions in VP1 region) was isolated from patient with contact VAPP. Formation of poliovirus-neutralizing serum antibodies in children with VAPP including persons with immunodeficiency reflects the ability of the organism to produce specific antiviral immune response.
Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii, i immunobiologii