E C Lopes

University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina

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Publications (12)28.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main reason for failure of cancer therapy with resistance to apoptosis being one of the mechanisms involved. Constitutive NF-kappaB activity has been detected in many tumors contributing to oncogenesis and tumor survival whereas inhibition of NF-kappaB activity has proved to enhance cell death induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Consequently, the use of BAY 11-7082, an irreversible inhibitor of IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation, could be beneficial in the treatment of certain tumors. Although there are several reports which demonstrate a transient activation of NF-kappaB by cytotoxic drugs, little is known about the role of NF-kappaB activation in the development of a chemoresistant phenotype in leukemic cells. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between NF-kappaB and the survival of murine leukemic drug resistant cell lines. The modulation of this transcription factor by BAY 11-7082 and the chemotherapeutic agents vincristine and doxorubicin was evaluated. The effect of BAY 11-7082 on the expression of genes containing NF-kappaB-binding sites was also studied. We found that the cell lines LBR-V160 and LBR-D160 (resistant to vincristine and doxorubicin, respectively) presented higher constitutive NF-kappaB activity than the sensitive LBR- and the active complex contained both p50 and p65 subunits. BAY 11-7082 (3.5 microM) inhibited constitutive NF-kappaB activity in the three cell lines whereas the anticancer agents did not. Treatment with BAY 11-7082 induced a higher percentage of apoptosis in LBR-V160 and LBR-D160 than in LBR-. Cells treated with BAY 11-7082 displayed modulation of NF-kappaB-inducible genes such as IL-10, IL-15, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta. Taken together, these data suggest that suppression of constitutive NF-kappaB activity by BAY 11-7082 may be a useful treatment for MDR leukemias.
    Leukemia Research 01/2006; 29(12):1425-34. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are ubiquitous compounds present in plant extracts. They represent a major active component of the plant extract and are often known for their anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Previously, we demonstrated that Ligaria cuneifolia (R et P) Tiegh. (Loranthaceae) extracts inhibit proliferation of murine mitogen-activated lymphocytes as well as murine T leukaemia (LB) and breast tumor cells (MMT). The aim of this study was to assess the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of three separate flavonoid fractions derived from L. cuneifolia whole extract (aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate) on normal and tumor cells. This was performed as a bio-guided approach leading to the isolation and identification of the active compounds responsible for the effects observed with the whole extract. Results showed that the three fractions differed in the amount and type of compounds found. Only the ethyl acetate flavonoid fraction (100 microg/ml) was able to inhibit significantly the proliferation of Con A stimulated splenocytes or LB and MMT cells. Inhibition of proliferation was mediated by apoptosis as determined by morphology and DNA hypodiploidy. The ethyl acetate fraction modified mRNA expression of IL-2, IL-10 and TGF-beta, while the methanol fraction only modified IL-10 mRNA on LB cells. Our results show that the ethyl acetate flavonoid fraction contains the most active compound/s and is the potential candidate to isolate the active compound/s responsible for the effects observed with L. cuneifolia whole extract.
    Immunobiology 02/2005; 209(10):737-49. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous findings from our laboratory demonstrated that when used at low concentration (0.1 microg ml(-1)), CsA as well as its analog PSC 833 were able to revert the MDR phenotype, while at high concentration (1 microg ml(-1)) were able to induce apoptosis. CsA induced apoptosis in leukemia cell lines sensitive (LBR-) and resistant to vincristine (LBR-V160), and doxorubicin (LBR-D160), while PSC 833 only induced apoptosis in vincristine-resistant cell line (LBR-V160). In this work, we investigated mitochondrial-associated mechanisms during CsA- and PSC 833-induced apoptosis. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by recording changes in its transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation cascade. Results showed that CsA- and PSC 833-induced apoptosis was associated with mitochondrial depolarization, through potentiometric measurements with JC-1 and DiOC(6) probes. Collapse of mitochondrial potential in these cell lines after CsA treatment was followed by cytochrome c release to the cytosol, reaching an increase of 2.61-fold in LBR-, 1.98-fold in LBR-V160, and 3.01-fold in the case of LBR-D160. However, in the case of PSC 833 treatment, induction of apoptosis in LBR-V160 was associated with mitochondrial depolarization followed by a lower cytochrome c release of 1.15-fold as compared with untreated cells. Caspase 3 activation was clearly observed in LBR-, LBR-V160, and LBR-D160 after CsA treatment, while in LBR-V160, PSC 833 was less effective inducing activation of this caspase. Neither caspase 6 nor 8 activity was observed in these three cell lines. Our results suggest that during CsA- and PSC 833-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction occurs. This is mediated through mitochondrial events, associated with an evident decrease in DeltaPsi(m), cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 09/2004; 199(1):44-51. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the mechanisms that induce multidrug resistance (MDR), one of those most frequent is over-expression of a phosphoglycoprotein (Pgp) encoded in the mouse by the mdr-1 and mdr-3 genes. We have demonstrated that cyclosporin-A (CsA) as well as its analogue PSC 833 were able to revert the MDR phenotype in murine cell lines resistant to vincristine (LBR-V160) or doxorubicin (LBR-D160). The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of PSC 833 and CsA to modulate mdr-1, mdr-3 and mrp-1 genes as well as to induce apoptosis analyzing the mechanism involved in the above tumor cell lines. By semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that mdr-3 was over-expressed in both resistant lines while mdr-1 was over-expressed only in LBR-V160; in contrast, mrp-1 expression was not evidenced in any of the cell lines. After treatment with 0.1 microg ml(-1) of either PSC 833 or CsA, LBR-V160 showed no changes in mdr-1 but decreased mdr-3 expression, while LBR-D160 failed to display any modification in the expression of these genes. Apoptosis was evidenced by fluorescence microscopy, S minuscule accumulation and agarose gel electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CsA (1 microg ml(-1)) was able to induce apoptosis in all cell lines: 18.31% (+/-4.46) for LBR-, 25.96% (+/-5.24) for LBR-V160 and 27.36% (+/-4.12) for LBR-D160, while PSC 833 (1 microg ml(-1)) only induced apoptosis 21.51% (+/-5.73) in LBR-V160 cell line. The expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-x(L)) was analyzed by flow cytometry showing high expression of the three proteins which was not significantly modified after treatment with either PSC 833 or CsA on the sensitive as well as on the resistant cell lines. Single stranded conformation polymorphisms analysis of p53 (Trp53) gene in the cell lines showed no mutation in exons 5-8 of the tumor suppressor gene. We conclude that depending on the concentration used, PSC 833 and CsA may act either by modulating the mdr-3 gene (0.1 microg ml(-1)) or by direct impact on the cells through induction of apoptosis (1 microg ml(-1)), in the latter case through a mechanism that might act independent of the Bcl-2 family proteins.
    Leukemia Research 06/2003; 27(5):413-23. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ligaria cuneifolia has been used in Argentine folk medicine and is currently employed as substitute for the European mistletoe (Viscum album) as hypotensor agent. Extracts from V. album are widely used in cancer therapy and the antineoplasic effect is attributed to their cytostatic/cytotoxic and immunomodulatory actions. When studying immunomodulatory effects of L. cuneifolia extracts (Lc extracts), they inhibited proliferation of murine mitogen-activated lymphocytes, leukaemic lymphocytes (LB) and breast tumour cells (MMT). The aim of this work was to isolate and identify lectins from Lc extracts and investigate their immunobiological actions. A galactoside lectin (L-Lc) of 57 kDa was isolated. A polyclonal antiserum obtained against Lc extract recognised both L-Lc and MLI (V. album lectin), suggesting the possibility of shared epitopes. Treatment of LB tumour cells with L-Lc (0.01 and 0.1 microg/ml) produced up to 40.0+/-6.9% inhibition of cell growth, which seems partly mediated by apoptosis (apoptosis of L-Lc treated cells 58.4+/-10.3% versus non-treated cells 38.1+/-8.8%; P<0.05), analysed by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. Inhibitory effect on ConA stimulated splenocyte growth was non-significant, while a mitogenic effect was observed on normal murine splenocytes and MMT cells. L-Lc in non-cytotoxic concentrations (250 ng/ml) modified mRNA expression of IL-10 but neither that of TGF-beta nor of IL-2 produced by LB cells. In addition, 43.9+/-0.5% reduction in NO production by LPS-stimulated murine macrophages was found. Finally, survival rates of LB tumour-bearing mice treated or not with Lc extract or L-Lc failed to show significant differences.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 03/2003; 85(1):81-92. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ligaria cuneifolia has been used in Argentine folk medicine and is currently employed as substitute for the European mistletoe (Viscum album) as hypotensor agent. Extracts from V. album are widely used in cancer therapy and the antineoplasic effect is attributed to their cytostatic/cytotoxic and immunomodulatory actions. When studying immunomodulatory effects of L. cuneifolia extracts (Lc extracts), they inhibited proliferation of murine mitogen-activated lymphocytes, leukaemic lymphocytes (LB) and breast tumour cells (MMT). The aim of this work was to isolate and identify lectins from Lc extracts and investigate their immunobiological actions. A galactoside lectin (L-Lc) of 57kDa was isolated. A polyclonal antiserum obtained against Lc extract recognised both L-Lc and MLI (V. album lectin), suggesting the possibility of shared epitopes. Treatment of LB tumour cells with L-Lc (0.01 and 0.1μg/ml) produced up to 40.0±6.9% inhibition of cell growth, which seems partly mediated by apoptosis (apoptosis of L-Lc treated cells 58.4±10.3% versus non-treated cells 38.1±8.8%; P
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology - J ETHNOPHARMACOL. 01/2003; 85(1):81-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) lines from a murine T-cell lymphoid leukemia were selected in increasing vincristine (VCR) or doxorubicin (DOX) concentrations. Surface markers were determined by flow cytometry in both resistant (LBR-V 160 and LBR-D 160) and sensitive (LBR-) cell lines. Results obtained revealed similar expression of CD25, CD24, CD8, CD4, C18 and CD44, while differences in binding to hyaluronic acid (HA) were found. LBR- and LBR-D 160 bound to HA only after phorbol ester (PMA) activation, while LBR-V160 failed to bind HA even after PMA treatment. Histopathological analysis disclosed that LBR-V160 was less invasive than LBR- and LBR-D160 cell lines. In vitro growth of cell lines analyzed by sulforhodamine-B uptake showed that doubling time for the three lines was 10.24 h (LBR-), 16.75 h (LBR-V160) and 16.29 h (LBR-D160). Mortality rate was determined after i.p. injection of 10(4) cells. Mice inoculated with LBR- died at 23 2.11) days, while those inoculated with LBR-V160 or LBR-D160 died at 41 (+/- 9.53) or 41 (+/- 4.96) days, respectively. Our results demonstrated that leukemic murine T cells cultured in the long-term presence of VCR or DOX not only presented changes in the resistance phenotype but also variations in their growth and metastatic pattern.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 02/2002; 19(4):283-90. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several cell lines were previously established from a spontaneous murine T-cell leukemia (LB). The aim of this study was to analyze the G- and C-banded karyotypes of the parental LB tumor cells and the derived cell lines. A sensitive cell line (LBL) from which two sublines originated, as well as Vincristine (LBR-V160) and Doxorubicin (LBR-D160) resistant cell lines, were used. Our results showed that LB cells had a pseudo-diploid karyotype with 40 acrocentric chromosomes in which trisomy of chromosome 14 was the most relevant alteration. The sensitive cell line showed this alteration in all metaphases studied; no changes in karyotypes were observed in either subline, despite their dissimilar morphology and growth patterns. In contrast, both resistant lines displayed a more heterogeneous karyotype with no common markers, except for the finding that chromosome 5 was involved in a trisomy in LBR-V160 and in a translocation with chromosome 12 in LBR-D160. Taking into account that the mdr genes are located in chromosome 5, these results suggest a possible association between such alterations and the acquisition of drug resistance.
    Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 11/2001; 130(1):62-7. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer cells may frequently develop cross-resistance to structurally dissimilar chemotherapeutic agents. However, the molecular mechanisms for sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells towards chemotherapy are still partially understood. Antineoplasic drugs have been shown to induce apoptosis in chemosensitive leukemias and solid tumors. In this work, cross-resistance among vincristine (VCR), doxorubicin (DOX) and other antineoplasic agents commonly used in the treatment of leukemia such as etoposide (VP-16), methotrexate (MTX), cyclophosphamide (CTX), dexamethasone (DEX), cytarabine (Ara-C) and L-asparaginase on vincristine resistant (LBR-V160), doxorubicin resistant (LBR-D160) and sensitive (LBR-) murine leukemic T cell lines, was determined. The effect of antineoplasic agents was assayed by tritiated thymidine incorporation. Our results showed that VCR exhibited cross-resistance with DOX, VP-16, DEX and MTX, while DOX demonstrated cross-resistance with VCR, VP-16 and MTX. Ara-C failed to present cross-resistance with any cell line. Apoptosis induced by the above drugs on the same cell lines was analyzed by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, DNA hypoploidy (flow cytometry) and oligonucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA showing that therapeutic concentrations of these chemotherapeutic agents induced apoptosis in the LBR- cell line. Our results demonstrated that, except for DEX, none of the drugs presenting cross-resistance were able to induce cell death on LBR-V 160 or LBR-D 160 cell lines.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 09/2001; 42(4):775-87. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate if CsA could induce apoptosis in the murine T-lymphoma cell line LBC, whose growth is inhibited by this immunosuppressive drug. CsA induced programmed cell death in LBC cells with typical features of apoptosis demonstrated by exposure of phosphatidyl serine residues on the cell membrane, the decrease of cell DNA content, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Apoptosis was evident within 12 h after CsA incubation, with a maximal effect at 48 h, in a time and dose-dependent fashion. In addition, the role of apoptosis inhibitors (Bcl-2 and Bcl-x) and the apoptosis inducer (Bax) in CsA induced-apoptosis was evaluated. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were high in LBC cells and following CsA treatment the expression of these proteins as well as Bcl-XL decreased. In this work we demonstrated that cell growth inhibition following CsA treatment in LBC was paralleled by the induction of apoptosis thus providing an interesting animal model to identify the mechanism participating in the regulation of apoptotic genes by CsA in T-cell neoplasms and to assess preclinical in vivo trials of T-cell lymphoma-related disorders.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 05/2001; 7(4):431-7. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) lines from a murine T-cell leukemia were selected in increasing vincristine (VCR) or doxorubicin (DOX) concentrations. Daunorubicin (DNR) efflux was evidenced after 25 additional passages with constant 160 ng ml(-1) of either VCR or DOX, an effect that was inhibited by verapamil, cyclosporin-A (CsA) and PSC 833. The expression of Pgp was not evidenced in the resistant cell lines using anti-human Pgp antibodies. Cell proliferation assay showed that cell lines resistant to VCR (LBR-V160) or DOX (LBR-D160) required higher doses of either drug to produce GI50 compared with control cell line obtained after culture in the absence of VCR or DOX. When resistant cell lines were maintained during 60 days in the absence of either VCR or DOX, MDR phenotype reversal was obtained in LBR-D160 while LBR-V160 remained resistant to the drug, as shown by cell proliferation assays and by drug efflux pump functionality. When VCR or DOX were used together with either CsA or PSC 833, the latter was more effective to produce reversal of resistance than the former, whereas CsA presented greater cytotoxic effect than PSC 833 for sensitive and resistant cells. Cross-resistance was found between VCR, DOX and other antineoplasic agents on murine leukemic cell line. VCR was more effective to induce MDR since the resistant cell lines were more stable to the MDR phenotype.
    Leukemia Research 02/2001; 25(1):85-93. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have established and characterized a cell line (LBL) from a spontaneous murine T lymphoma LB. Histopathological analysis has demonstrated LB primary tumor infiltration in spleen, lymph nodes, liver, thymus, bone marrow and lung. However LBL cells infiltrated all these organs except lung. Two sublines with different growth behavior were derived from LBL cell line. One of them grew in suspension as clusters (LBLc) while the other one grew as adherent monolayers (LBLa). Growth rate, response to mitogenic stimuli and apoptosis induction were different among the parental cell line and the derived sublines. CD44 was expressed constitutively in LBL and LBLa cells. In contrast LBLc cells only expressed similar levels of this molecule when stimulated with PMA. LBLa cells showed hyaluronic acid (HA) binding properties, while LBL and LBLc cells were not able to bind HA even when activated with PMA. We postulate that differences in HA binding could be related with different infiltration behaviors.
    Medicina 02/2000; 60(6):931-9. · 0.42 Impact Factor