Dong Gyu Kim

Pukyong National University, Busan, Busan, South Korea

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Publications (194)425.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Primary melanocytic lesions of the central nervous system originate from leptomeningeal melanocytes, with a spectrum ranging from well-differentiated benign meningeal melanocytomas to malignant melanomas. Atypical melanocytomas are borderline tumors, which have clinical and pathological characteristics between benign melanocytomas and malignant melanomas. Melanocytomas are rare in children and infrequently arise from the cavernous sinus. Approximately five patients with such an origin site have been reported. We report a 15-year-old girl with an atypical melanocytoma arising from the cavernous sinus. She underwent partial resection of the tumor and postoperative gamma knife surgery (GKS). She is stable 39 months after surgery. We discuss the first pediatric case with an intracranial atypical melanocytoma arising from the cavernous sinus.
    Child s Nervous System 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00381-015-2741-3 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) display venous signals on arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging due to the presence of arteriovenous shunting. Our aim was to quantitatively correlate AVM signal intensity on ASL with the degree of arteriovenous shunting estimated on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in AVMs. MR imaging including pseudo-continuous ASL at 3 T and DSA were obtained on the same day in 40 patients with intracranial AVMs. Two reviewers assessed the nidus and venous signal intensities on ASL images to determine the presence of arteriovenous shunting. Interobserver agreement on ASL between the reviewers was determined. ASL signal intensity of the AVM lesion was correlated with AVM size and the time difference between normal and AVM venous transit times measured from the DSA images. Interobserver agreement between two reviewers for nidus and venous signal intensities was excellent (κ = 0.80 and 1.0, respectively). Interobserver agreement regarding the presence of arteriovenous shunting was perfect (κ = 1.0). AVM signal intensity showed a positive relationship with the time difference between normal and AVM venous transit times (r = 0.638, P < 0.001). AVM signal intensity also demonstrated a positive relationship with AVM size (r = 0.561, P < 0.001). AVM signal intensity on ASL in patients with AVM correlates well with the degree of early vein opacification on DSA, which corresponds to the degree of arteriovenous shunting.
    Neuroradiology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00234-015-1533-5 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polysaccharide-based bioflocculants have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to their biodegradable, harmless and negligible secondary pollution. Bioflocculants are organic macromolecular substances secreted by microorganisms. A simple, cost-effective and green method was developed for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using polysaccharides as reducing and stabilizing agents. In this paper, we report on the production and optimization of polysaccharide-based bioflocculant for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces sp. MBRC-91. Medium composition and culture conditions for polysaccharide-based bioflocculants were statistically optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The bioflocculant production was statistically optimized with most significant factors, namely palm jaggery (18.73g/L), yeast extract (2.07g/L),K2HPO4 (3.74g/L) and NaCl (0.38g/L), respectively. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FESEM, EDXA and HRTEM. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles revealed strong antibacterial activity in sewage water and this results could make a new avenue in the wastewater treatment. Therefore, the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles can be extended as an alternative for the development of new bactericidal bionanomaterials for wastewater treatment and biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 03/2015; 77:159-167. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.03.022 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Successful recovery from brain ischemia is limited due to poor vascularization surrounding the ischemic zone. Cell therapy with strong angiogenic factors could be an effective strategy to rescue the ischemic brain. We investigated whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-Ang1, a soluble, stable and potent Ang1 variant, enhances the angiogenesis of human cord blood derived endothelial progenitor cells (hCB-EPCs) for rescuing brain from ischemic injury. COMP-Ang1 markedly improved the tube formation of capillaries by EPCs and incorporation of EPCs into tube formation with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) upon incubation on matrigel in vitro. COMP-Ang1 stimulated the migration of EPCs more than HUVECs in a scratch wound migration assay. The transplanted EPCs and COMP-Ang1 were incorporated into the blood vessels and decreased the infarct volume in the rat ischemic brain. Molecular studies revealed that COMP-Ang1 induced an interaction between Tie2 and FAK, but AKT was separated from the Tie2-FAK-AKT complex in the EPC plasma membrane. Tie2-FAK increased pp38, pSAPK/JNK, and pERK-mediated MAPK activation and interacted with integrins ανβ3, α4, β1, finally leading to migration of EPCs. AKT recruited mTOR, SDF-1, and HIF-1α to induce angiogenesis. Taken together, it is concluded that COMP-Ang1 potentiates the angiogenesis of EPCs and enhances the vascular morphogenesis indicating that combination of EPCs with COMP-Ang1 may be a potentially effective regimen for ischemic brain injury salvage therapy.
    03/2015; 24(1):55-70. DOI:10.5607/en.2015.24.1.55
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    ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is widely used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. DBS surgery is usually performed with the patient under local anesthesia (LA). However, a number of patients do not tolerate LA due to anxiety or severe pain. These patients require surgery under sedation or general anesthesia. Unfortunately, anesthetic drugs interfere with the intraoperative microelectrode recordings. A debate regarding the usefulness of sedation or general anesthesia during DBS surgery is still in progress. In this study, we evaluated whether the differences in anesthetic methods affect STN single-unit activity and movement symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Eight patients underwent surgery to implant bilateral STN DBS electrodes. Our study compares STN single-unit activity under both LA and monitored anesthesia care (MAC) in the same patients as well as movement symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. The primary results revealed no significant difference in the mean firing rate of STN single-unit activity under LA and MAC. However, there were differences in the spike characteristics and firing patterns of STN activity between the two anesthetic methods. These findings contribute valuable insight into the effects of different anesthetic methods on STN single-unit activity for precise electrode localization during DBS surgery.
    International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing 03/2015; 16(3):573-579. DOI:10.1007/s12541-015-0077-2 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECT There is inconsistency among the perioperative management strategies currently used for chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Moreover, postoperative complications such as acute intracranial bleeding and cSDH recurrence affect clinical outcome of cSDH surgery. This study evaluated the risk factors associated with acute intracranial bleeding and cSDH recurrence and identified an effective perioperative strategy for cSDH patients. METHODS A retrospective study of patients who underwent bur hole craniostomy for cSDH between 2008 and 2012 was performed. RESULTS A consecutive series of 303 cSDH patients (234 males and 69 females; mean age 67.17 years) was analyzed. Postoperative acute intracranial bleeding developed in 14 patients (4.57%) within a mean of 3.07 days and recurrence was observed in 37 patients (12.21%) within a mean of 31.69 days (range 10-104 days) after initial bur hole craniostomy. The comorbidities of hematological disease and prior shunt surgery were clinical factors associated with acute bleeding. There was a significant risk of recurrence in patients with diabetes mellitus, but recurrence did not affect the final neurological outcome (p = 0.776). Surgical details, including the number of operative bur holes, saline irrigation of the hematoma cavity, use of a drain, and type of postoperative ambulation, were not significantly associated with outcome. However, a large amount of drainage was associated with postoperative acute bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Bur hole craniostomy is an effective surgical procedure for initial and recurrent cSDH. Patients with hematological disease or a history of prior shunt surgery are at risk for postoperative acute bleeding; therefore, these patients should be carefully monitored to avoid overdrainage. Surgeons should consider informing patients with diabetes mellitus that this comorbidity is associated with an increased likelihood of recurrence.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 02/2015; DOI:10.3171/2014.12.JNS141189 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Dong Gyu Kim, Chul-Kee Park
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    ABSTRACT: The establishment and identification of central neurocytoma as a distinct disease entity are invaluable in catalyzing investigations of neuronal differentiation in central nervous system tumors. The discovery of neuronal differentiation in neuroepithelial tumors has been extended to extraventricular tumors and potentially to various glial tumors undergoing neuronal differentiation. Understanding the disease spectrum of neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors is important for deciphering the mechanism of gliomagenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Ji Hoon Phi, Dong Gyu Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Central neurocytoma is extremely rare in pediatrics. In a single institute's record, it represents about 0.2% of brain tumors in children. The treatment of central neurocytoma in children is not different from that for adult patients. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment. After complete resection, the long-term prognosis is excellent. Adjuvant radiation therapy or radiosurgery may be applied to residual or recurrent tumors. However, the exact indication for each modality should be refined by accumulation of clinical data for this rare disease in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 01/2015; 26(1):105-108. DOI:10.1016/j.nec.2014.09.015 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central neurocytoma (CN) is an uncommon, deep-seated tumor of the central nervous system. Optimal treatment strategies and long-term outcomes are not well established. The mainstay of initial treatment CN is total surgical resection whenever possible; however, CNs cannot be resected completely in more than half of patients. Advances in alternative and adjuvant treatments and their role in the treatment of CN is becoming significant. This article provides an overview of the clinical outcomes of various treatment modalities, recent advances, and recommendations for the treatment of CN, emphasizing functional outcomes and the quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 01/2015; 26(1):83-90. DOI:10.1016/j.nec.2014.09.007 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiographic findings suggest that central neurocytoma (CN) might originate from neuronal cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) around the foramen of Monro rather than from the septum pellucidum. The majority of CN cells have neuroblast characteristics. Most importantly, CN-derived tumor spheres have a phenotype of transit-amplifying type C cells, implying that these cells might arise from transformed transit-amplifying type C cells that reside in the SVZ. These CN-derived tumor spheres are also reminiscent of radial glial cells. Immunohistochemical and electrophysiologic studies show that these cells exhibit bipotential neuroglial differentiation in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 01/2015; 26(1):31-36. DOI:10.1016/j.nec.2014.09.009 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the depiction of brain metastases on contrast-enhanced images with 7.0 tesla (T) and at 1.5T MRI.
    01/2015; 19(1). DOI:10.13104/imri.2015.19.1.31
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in very elderly patients ≥ 90 y of age admitted to the ICU. We evaluated age-specific rates of admission and mortality in 16,935 subjects ≥ 18 y old and retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 155 (0.92%) subjects ≥ 90 y old admitted to the ICU from January 2003 to July 2012. The clinical mortality index was defined as the ICU mortality rate associated with clinical risk factors including poor nutrition, do not resuscitate (DNR) order, pneumonia, chronic renal failure, cancer, mechanical ventilation, use of a vasopressor, and admission from a ward. The mortality rate of ICU subjects ≥ 90 y of age was 32.3%. A Cox's regression hazard model revealed that high glucose (P = .006), poor nutrition (P = .001), high Simplified Acute Physiology Scoring II scores (P < .001), DNR order (P = .002), and vasopressor treatment (P = .03) were independent predictive factors of mortality in subjects ≥ 90 y of age admitted to the ICU. An increasing number of clinical risk factors was associated with progressively higher mortality rates. All subjects with more than 5 risk factors died. The very elderly subjects (≥ 90 y) admitted to the ICU had a higher mortality rate compared with subjects of other ages. High Simplified Acute Physiology Scoring II scores, poor nutritional status, high glucose, use of vasopressors, and DNR orders should be considered as important predictors of mortality in very elderly ICU patients. The level of ICU treatment should be carefully considered in very elderly patients presenting with 5 or more risk factors. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises Inc.
    Respiratory care 11/2014; 60(3). DOI:10.4187/respcare.03155 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective While several prognostic models have been presented in NSCLC patients with brain metastasis, none of these models have included molecular markers as an index. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of EGFR mutations and to integrate these EGFR mutations into the prognostic index in NSCLC patients with brain metastasis. Materials and Methods We analyzed retrospectively 292 lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastasis. Clinico-pathological features and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with EGFR mutations and patients with EGFR wild type. EGFR mutation status was integrated with lung specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) score. Results Among 292 patients, EGFR mutation status was tested in 183 patients. One hundred and five patients (57.4%) had EGFR activating mutations, 14 (7.7%) had EGFR non-activating mutations and 64 (35.0%) had EGFR wild type. OS was significantly longer in patients with EGFR activating mutations than in those with EGFR wild type patients (20.4 vs. 10.1 months, p = 0.002). However, patients with EGFR non-activating mutations did not show superior OS compared with EGFR wild type patients (14.6 vs. 10.1 months, p = 0.83). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of EGFR activating mutation is an independent positive prognostic factor for OS (adjusted hazard ratio 0.56, p = 0.002). Conclusions EGFR activating mutations have a prognostic role in lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastasis that is independent of other known prognostic factors. The frequency of EGFR mutation was higher than expected. The presence of EGFR activating mutations should be included as an index in the prognostic models for lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastasis.
    Lung Cancer 10/2014; 86(3). DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.10.001 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of propofol and fentanyl on microelectrode recording (MER) and its clinical applicability during subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We analyzed 8 patients with Parkinson's disease, underwent bilateral STN DBS with MER. Their left sides were done under awake and then their right sides were done with a continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl under local anesthesia. The electrode position was evaluated by preoperative MRI and postoperative CT. The clinical outcomes were assessed at six months after surgery. We isolated single unit activities from the left and the right side MERs. There was no significant difference in the mean firing rate between the left side MERs (38.7±16.8 spikes/sec, n=78) and the right side MERs (35.5±17.2 spikes/sec, n=66). The bursting pattern of spikes was more frequently observed in the right STN than in the left STN. All the electrode positions were within the STNs on both sides and the off-time Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III scores at six months after surgery decreased by 67% of the preoperative level. In this study, a continuous infusion of propofol and fentanyl did not significantly interfere with the MER signals from the STN. The results of this study suggest that propofol and fentanyl can be used for STN DBS in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease improving the overall experience of the patients. Graphical Abstract
    Journal of Korean Medical Science 09/2014; 29(9):1278-86. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.9.1278 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 45-yr-old female patient was admitted with one-month history of headache and progressive left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a mass lesion in her right frontal lobe. Her brain tumor was confirmed as a small cell glioblastoma. Her follow-up brain MRI, taken at 8 months after her initial surgery demonstrated tumor recurrence in the right frontal lobe. Contrast-enhanced 7.0T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was safely performed before surgery and at the time of recurrence. Compared with 1.5T and 3.0T brain MRI, 7.0T MRI showed sharpened images of the brain tumor contexture with detailed anatomical information. The fused images of 7.0T and 1.5T brain MRI taken at the time of recurrence demonstrated no significant discrepancy in the positions of the anterior and the posterior commissures. It is suggested that 7.0T MRI can be safely utilized for better images of the maligant gliomas before and after surgery. Graphical Abstract
    Journal of Korean Medical Science 07/2014; 29(7):1012-7. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.7.1012 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (TSA) for recurrent or residual craniopharyngiomas, focusing on the extent of tumor resection and complications resulting from surgery at a single institution. Twelve adult patients (six men and six women) underwent extended endoscopic endonasal TSA for a recurrent or residual craniopharyngioma after a previous surgical intervention at a single institution by a single surgeon. The mean number of surgeries patients had undergone before TSA was 1.3 (range, 1-3). The mean period between patients' most recent surgery and extended TSA was 55.9 months (range, 1-184). The mean preoperative (that is, pre-extended TSA) tumor volume was 2.87 cmA(3). The mean follow-up period was 15.8 months (range, 4-32). We reviewed clinical and radiological features in each case, focusing on the degree of tumor resection as well as endocrinological and ophthalmological outcomes. Gross total resection was achieved in ten patients (83.3 %), and the mean resection rate was 87 % in the other two cases. There were no significant differences between pre- and postoperative endocrine function, except in one patient who suffered postoperative panhypopituitarism resulting in pituitary stalk resection, which was necessary because of obvious tumor involvement. Three patients suffered transient diabetic insipidus (DI). With respect to ophthalmological outcomes, three patients showed improvement, two others showed decline, and the remainder showed no significant changes. The extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach is an effective and safe surgical approach for treating recurrent or residual craniopharyngioma.
    Acta Neurochirurgica 06/2014; 156(10). DOI:10.1007/s00701-014-2150-5 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disease, characterized by multiple neoplasia syndromes, including meningioma, schwannoma, glioma, and ependymoma. In this report, the authors present their clinical experience with pediatric NF2 patients. In particular, they focused on the clinical course of vestibular schwannoma (VS), including the natural growth rate, tumor control, and functional hearing outcomes. Methods From May 1988 to June 2012, the authors recruited patients who were younger than 18 years and fulfilled the Manchester criteria. In total, 25 patients were enrolled in this study. The authors analyzed the clinical course of these patients. In addition, they measured the natural growth rate of VS before any treatment in these children with NF2. Then, they evaluated the tumor control rate and functional hearing outcomes after the treatment of VS. Results The mean age at the onset of NF2-related symptoms was 9.9 ± 4.5 years (mean ± SD, range 1-17 years). The mean age at the diagnosis of NF2 was 12.9 ± 2.9 years (range 5-17 years). The mean follow-up period was 89.3 months (range 12-311 months). As initial manifestations, nonvestibular symptoms were frequently observed in pediatric patients with NF2. The mean natural growth rate of VS was 0.33 ± 0.41 cm(3)/year (range 0-1.35 cm(3)/year). The tumor control rate of VS was 35.3% at 3 years after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). The actuarial rate of useful hearing preservation was 67% in the 1st year and 53% in the 5th year after GKS. Conclusions Clinical manifestations in children with NF2 were highly variable, compared with their adult counterparts. The natural growth rate of VS in children is slow, and this oncological feature may explain the diverse clinical manifestations besides vestibular symptoms in children with NF2. The treatment outcome of GKS for VS in children with NF2 was not favorable compared with previous reports of affected adults.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 04/2014; 13(6). DOI:10.3171/2014.3.PEDS13455 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed this retrospective study to analyze the outcome of patients with cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We analyzed 19 patients with CSHs who were treated with SRS between 1998 and 2011. The median age of the patients was 50 years (range, 35-73 years), and 16 (84.2 %) of the patients were female. SRS was performed as a primary treatment for 18 patients and to treat a residual lesion after surgical resection in one patient. Nine (47.4 %) patients had cranial neuropathies in 14 cranial nerves before SRS, whereas five (26.3 %) patients were initially asymptomatic. The mean volume of the CSHs was 6.1 ± 7.2 cm(3) (range, 0.3-32.3 cm(3)), and the median marginal dose at the 50 % isodose line was 14.5 Gy (range, 11.5-16.0 Gy). The mean follow-up period was 37 months (range, 12-85 months). At the last follow-up, the lesion volume had decreased in all patients. The average tumor volume had decreased to 26 % (range, 0-70 %) of the initial volume at the last follow-up MRI. The first follow-up MRI, performed 6.1 ± 1.0 months after the SRS, showed that the tumor volume had decreased to 41 % (range, 0-88 %) of the initial volume. All 14 of the cranial neuropathies observed before SRS had improved, with complete remission in 12 (85.7 %) cranial nerves and partial remission in two (14.3 %). There were no radiation-induced neuropathies or complications during the follow-up period. SRS appears to be an effective and safe treatment modality for the management of CSHs.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 03/2014; 118(1). DOI:10.1007/s11060-014-1414-5 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with tracheostomies requiring prolonged home mechanical ventilation are increasing in number rapidly. A tracheoesophageal fistula is a relatively unusual complication, but this case resulted in a fatal outcome. We describe a tracheoesophageal fistula with tracheal dilation in a 72-year-old female who had a prolonged tracheostomy and nasogastric tube, using a home mechanical ventilator. On enhanced CT images, the tracheostomy tube was well located within the trachea with no abnormal finding. However, chest enhanced CT images obtained 5 months later showed marked circumferential wall thickening of the trachea with tiny ulceration, a markedly increased diameter of the tracheal lumen, and a tracheoesophageal fistula. In patients using home mechanical ventilators, the location and cuff pressure of the tracheostomy tube and the nasogastric tube should be evaluated routinely.
    01/2014; 87(1):87. DOI:10.3904/kjm.2014.87.1.87
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons of patients with idiopathic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known although the underlying mechanism is not clear. We established a homogeneous population of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAD-MSCs) from human adult patients with early-onset hereditary familial Parkin-defect PD as well as late-onset idiopathic PD by immortalizing cells with the hTERT gene to better understand the underlying mechanism of PD. The hAD-MSCs from patients with idiopathic PD were designated as "PD", from patients with Parkin-defect PD as "Parkin" and from patients with pituitary adenomas as "non-PD" in short. The pGRN145 plasmid containing hTERT was introduced to establish telomerase immortalized cells. The established hTERT-immortalized cell lines showed chromosomal aneuploidy sustained stably over two-years. The morphological study of mitochondria in the primary and immortalized hAD-MSCs showed that the mitochondria of the non-PD were normal; however, those of the PD and Parkin were gradually damaged. A striking decrease in mitochondrial complex I, II, and IV activities was observed in the hTERT-immortalized cells from the patients with idiopathic and Parkin-defect PD. Comparative Western blot analyses were performed to investigate the expressions of PD specific marker proteins in the hTERT-immortalized cell lines. This study suggests that the hTERT-immortalized hAD-MSC cell lines established from patients with idiopathic and familial Parkin-defect PD could be good cellular models to evaluate mitochondrial dysfunction to better understand the pathogenesis of PD and to develop early diagnostic markers and effective therapy targets for the treatment of PD.
    12/2013; 22(4):283-300. DOI:10.5607/en.2013.22.4.283

Publication Stats

2k Citations
425.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Pukyong National University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Busan, Busan, South Korea
  • 1997–2015
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1995–2015
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Neurology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2012
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Eulji University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Kosin University
      • College of Medicine
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 1993–2011
    • Hallym University Medical Center
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2009
    • Yeungnam University
      • • Department of Rehabillitation Medicine
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
    • National Veterinary Research Quarantine Service
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Dong-A University
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Seoul Women's University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Kangwon National University Hospital
      Shunsen, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 2004–2006
    • Hallym University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003
    • National Cancer Center Korea
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea