[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Description of macrophage activation is currently contentious and confusing. Like the biblical Tower of Babel, macrophage activation encompasses a panoply of descriptors used in different ways. The lack of consensus on how to define macrophage activation in experiments in vitro and in vivo impedes progress in multiple ways, including the fact that many researchers still consider there to be only two types of activated macrophages, often termed M1 and M2. Here, we describe a set of standards encompassing three principles-the source of macrophages, definition of the activators, and a consensus collection of markers to describe macrophage activation-with the goal of unifying experimental standards for diverse experimental scenarios. Collectively, we propose a common framework for macrophage-activation nomenclature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study by Epelman et al. (2014) in this issue of Immunity demonstrates that diverse subpopulations of macrophages reside in the adult heart and can be maintained by multiple mechanisms involving both local proliferation and contributions from monocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection by pathogenic microbes initiates a set of complex interactions between the pathogen and the host mediated by pattern recognition receptors. Innate immune responses play direct roles in host defense during the early stages of infection, and they also exert a profound influence on the generation of the adaptive immune responses that ensue. An improved understanding of the pattern recognition receptors that mediate innate responses and their downstream effects after receptor ligation has the potential to lead to new ways to improve vaccines and prevent autoimmunity. This review focuses on the control of innate immune activation and the role that innate immune receptors play in helping to maintain tissue homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are involved in early stages of immune responses to pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of neutrophils during the establishment of Leishmania amazonensis infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. First, we showed an accumulation of neutrophils between 6 and 24 hours post-infection, followed by a reduction in neutrophil numbers after 72 hours. Next, we depleted neutrophils prior to infection using RB6-8C5 or 1A8 mAb. Neutrophil depletion led to faster lesion development, increased parasite numbers and higher arginase activity during the first week of infection in BALB/c mice, but not in C57BL/6 mice. Increased susceptibility was accompanied by augmented levels of anti-L. amazonensis IgG and increased production of IL-10 and IL-17. Because IL-10 is a mediator of susceptibility to Leishmania infection, we blocked IL-10 signaling in neutrophil-depleted mice using anti-IL-10R. Interestingly, inhibition of IL-10 signaling abrogated the increase in parasite loads observed in neutrophil-depleted mice, suggesting that parasite proliferation is at least partially mediated by IL-10. Additionally, we tested the effect of IL-17 in inflammatory macrophages and observed that IL-17 increased arginase activity and favored parasite growth. Taken together, our data indicate that neutrophils control parasite numbers and limit lesion development during the first week of infection in BALB/c mice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages make major contributions to inflammatory immunopathology. In this work, we examine three disease scenarios, in which M1s play a major role early in the disease but eventually transitions into a population of cells with immunoregulatory activity. We propose that the transition from an inflammatory to a regulatory phenotype is a natural progression that regularly occurs in stimulated macrophages and that the timing of this transition is critical to maintaining homeostasis. In the first section of this review, we discuss the exogenous microenvironmental cues that may induce macrophages to enter a regulatory state. In the second half of this review, we discuss a novel mechanism, whereby TLR-stimulated macrophages can intrinsically induce their own regulatory activation state. They do so by secreting and synthesizing endogenous "reprogramming" signals that work in an autocrine fashion to promote a regulatory phenotype. We propose that these endogenous regulatory mechanisms exist to prevent macrophage-mediated immunopathology. Thus, macrophages can respond to endogenous and exogenous cues to regulate their activation state, and without these controlled regulatory responses, M1 would persist to the detriment of the host.
Journal of leukocyte biology 08/2013; · 4.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a highly fatal disease caused by an initial hyper-inflammatory response followed by a state of profound immunosuppression. While, it is well-appreciated that the initial production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages accompanies the onset of sepsis, it remains unclear what causes the transition to an immunosuppressive state. In this study, we reveal that macrophages themselves are key regulators of this transition, and that the surface enzyme CD39 plays a critical role in self-limiting the activation process. We demonstrate that TLR-stimulated macrophages modulate their activation state by increasing the synthesis and secretion of ATP. This endogenous ATP is paradoxically immunosuppressive due to its rapid catabolism into adenosine by CD39. Macrophages lacking CD39 are unable to transition to a regulatory state and consequently continue to produce inflammatory cytokines. The importance of this transition is demonstrated in a mouse model of sepsis, where small numbers of CD39-deficient macrophages were sufficient to induce lethal endotoxic shock. Thus, these data implicate CD39 as a key 'molecular switch' that allows macrophages to self-limit their activation state. We propose that therapeutics targeting the release and hydrolysis of ATP by macrophages may represent new ways to treat inflammatory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phagocytosis is a cellular process that plays crucial roles in the removal of dead or dying cells, tissue remodeling, and host defense against invading pathogens. Most eukaryotic cells are decorated with glycoproteins containing terminal sialic acids, whose negative charges tend to repel cells, making so-called "nonspecific" phagocytosis a relatively inefficient process. Professional phagocytes are so designated because they express two major classes of receptors on their surfaces that are primarily involved in phagocytosis. Paradoxically, these receptors do not recognize microbes directly, but rather endogenous proteins that become tethered to microbes and target them for destruction. These are the Fcγ receptors that bind to the Fc portion of IgG and the complement receptors (CRs), which bind primarily to cleavage products of the third component of complement, C3. This unit describes assays that are used to measure these two types of macrophage phagocytosis.
Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et al.] 11/2011; Chapter 14:Unit 14.27.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages exhibit remarkable plasticity and can change their phenotype in response to different environmental cues. They can become activated to kill intracellular microbes or they can assume regulatory properties to modulate immune responses. Regulatory macrophages are fundamentally different from classically activated, and we propose from non-classically activated macrophages; they arise in response to different stimuli and perform different physiological functions. They are likely to express unique biochemical markers that could be exploited to identify and potentially target these macrophage subsets in tissue. Furthermore, inducers of regulatory macrophages may have the potential to be used as anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Therefore, a better understanding of the various macrophage phenotypes may pave the way for new therapies that are directed at modulating macrophage functions or manipulating individual macrophage subsets.
European Journal of Immunology 09/2011; 41(9):2498-502. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leishmania species trigger a brisk inflammatory response and efficiently induce cell-mediated immunity. We examined the mechanisms whereby leukocytes were recruited into lesions after Leishmania major infection of mice. We found that a subpopulation of effector monocytes expressing the granulocyte marker GR1 (Ly6C) is rapidly recruited into lesions, and these monocytes efficiently kill L. major parasites. The recruitment of this subpopulation of monocytes depends on the chemokine receptor CCR2 and the activation of platelets. Activated platelets secrete platelet-derived growth factor, which induces the rapid release of CCL2 from leukocytes and mesenchymal cells. This work points to a new role for platelets in host defense involving the selective recruitment of a subpopulation of effector monocytes from the blood to efficiently kill this intracellular parasite.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/2011; 208(6):1253-65. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation involves multiple changes in many aspects of immune system. Interactions between immune system and female reproductive system strongly impact fertility and reproductive health in general. Many normal events of female reproduction system including ovulation, menstruation, implantation and labor onset are considered as inflammatory process. Emerging evidence reveals that three components of immune system that are critical to initiate and resolve inflammation, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells, play important roles not only to provide protection against infections by exogenous pathogens but also to regulate essential functions of uterus and ovary. This review will briefly summarize our understanding of the functions of TLRs, macrophages and NK cells in uterus and ovary.
International immunopharmacology 05/2011; 11(10):1442-50. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The FcγRs found on macrophages (Ms) and dendritic cells (DCs) efficiently facilitate the presentation or cross-presentation of immune-complexed Ags to T cells. We found that the MHC class I-related neonatal FcR for IgG (FcRn) in both Ms and DCs failed to have a strong effect on the cross-presentation of immune complex (IC) OVA Ag to CD8(+) T cells. Interestingly, endosomal FcRn enhanced the presentation of the monomeric OVA-IC to CD4(+) T cells robustly, whereas FcRn in phagosomes exerted distinctive effects on Ag presentation between Ms and DCs. The presentation of phagocytosed OVA-ICs to CD4(+) T cells was considerably enhanced on wild-type versus FcRn-deficient Ms, but was not affected in FcRn-deficient DCs. This functional discrepancy was associated with the dependence of IgG-FcRn binding in an acidic pH. Following phagocytosis, the phagosomal pH dropped rapidly to <6.5 in Ms but remained in the neutral range in DCs. This disparity in pH determined the rate of degradation of phagocytosed ICs. Thus, our findings reveal that FcRn expression has a different effect on Ag processing and presentation of ICs to CD4(+) T cells in the endosomal versus phagosomal compartments of Ms versus DCs.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2011; 186(8):4674-86. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We carried out a model of chronic inflammation using a subcutaneous paraffin tablet in mice experimentally infected with Leishmania major. It was previously reported that the parasite load following paraffin implantation occurred at a peak of 21 days in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. At the present study, we have investigated what cytokines and chemokines are directly related to the parasite load in C57BL/6 mice. All mice were divided in four groups: mice implanted with paraffin tablets; mice experimentally infected with L. major; mice implanted with paraffin tablets and experimentally infected with L. major; and mice submitted only to the surgery were used for the Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) controls. Fragments of skin tissue and the tissue surrounding the paraffin tablets (inflammatory capsule) were collected for histopathology and RT-PCR studies. By 21 days, a diffuse chronic inflammatory reaction was mainly observed in the deep dermis where macrophages parasitized with Leishmania amastigotes were also found. RT-PCR analysis has shown that BALB/c mice showed strong IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression than controls with very little expression of IFN-γ. In contrast, both IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA was found in higher levels in C57BL/6 animals. Moreover, in C57BL/6 mice the expression of chemokines mRNA of CCL3/MIP-1α was more highly expressed than CCL2/MCP-1. We conclude that the Th1 immune response C57BL/6 did not change to a Th2 response, even though C57BL/6 animals presented higher parasitism than BALB/c mice 21 days after infection and paraffin implantation.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 11/2010; 457(5):609-18. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that the addition of immune complexes (IC) to stimulated macrophages could profoundly influence cytokine production. In the present work we sought to determine the density of IgG on immune complexes necessary to mediate phagocytosis, inhibit IL-12 production and induce IL-10 production from stimulated macrophages. We developed immune complexes with predictable average densities of surface-bound immunoglobulin. We show that a threshold amount of IgG was necessary to mediate attachment of IC to macrophages. At progressively higher densities of IgG, Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis resulted in an inhibition of IL-12 production and then an induction of IL-10. The reciprocal alterations in these two cytokines occurred when as little as one optimally opsonized SRBC was bound per macrophage. Macrophage IL-10 induction by immune complexes was associated with the activation of the MAP kinase, ERK, which was progressively increased as a function of IgG density. We conclude that signal transduction through the macrophage Fcγ receptors vary as a function of signal strength. At moderate IgG densities, especially in the presence of complement, efficient phagocytosis occurs in the absence of cytokine alterations. At slightly higher IgG densities IL-12 production is shut off and eventually IL-10 induction occurs. Thus, the myriad events emanating from FcγR ligation depends on the density of immune complexes, allowing the Fc receptors to fine-tune cellular responses depending on the extent of receptor cross-linking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wide range of microorganisms can replicate in macrophages, and cell entry of these pathogens via non-neutralising IgG antibody complexes can result in increased intracellular infection through idiosyncratic Fcγ-receptor signalling. The activation of Fcγ receptors usually leads to phagocytosis. Paradoxically, the ligation of monocyte or macrophage Fcγ receptors by IgG immune complexes, rather than aiding host defences, can suppress innate immunity, increase production of interleukin 10, and bias T-helper-1 (Th1) responses to Th2 responses, leading to increased infectious output by infected cells. This intrinsic antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection modulates the severity of diseases as disparate as dengue haemorrhagic fever and leishmaniasis. Intrinsic ADE is distinct from extrinsic ADE, whereby complexes of infectious agents with non-neutralising antibodies lead to an increased number of infected cells. Intrinsic ADE might be involved in many protozoan, bacterial, and viral infections. We review insights into intracellular mechanisms and implications of enhanced pathogenesis after ligation of macrophage Fcγ receptors by infectious immune complexes.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10/2010; 10(10):712-22. · 19.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-12 is a dimeric cytokine that is produced primarily by APCs. In this study we examined the role that the p38 MAPKs (MAPK/p38) play in regulating IL-12 production. We show that inhibition of p38 dramatically increased IL-12 production upon stimulation, while decreasing TNF-α. This reciprocal effect on these two cytokines following MAPK/p38 inhibition occurred in many different APCs, following a variety of different stimuli. IL-12 production was also increased in macrophages treated with small interfering RNA to limit p38α expression, and in macrophages deficient in MKK3, a kinase upstream of p38. The increase in IL-12 production following MAPK/p38 inhibition appears to be due to enhanced IL-12 (p40) mRNA stability. We show that MAPK/p38 inhibition can promote Th1 immune responses and thereby enhance vaccine efficacy against leishmaniasis. In a mouse model of Leishmania major infection, vaccination with heat-killed L. major plus CpG and SB203580 elicited complete protection against infection compared with heat-killed L. major plus CpG without SB203580. Thus, this work suggests that MAPK/p38 inhibitors may be applied as adjuvants to bias immune responses and improve vaccinations against intracellular pathogens.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(10):6205-13. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This essay describes how the use of a concept inventory has enhanced professional development and curriculum reform efforts of a faculty teaching community. The Host Pathogen Interactions (HPI) teaching team is composed of research and teaching faculty with expertise in HPI who share the goal of improving the learning experience of students in nine linked undergraduate microbiology courses. To support evidence-based curriculum reform, we administered our HPI Concept Inventory as a pre- and postsurvey to approximately 400 students each year since 2006. The resulting data include student scores as well as their open-ended explanations for distractor choices. The data have enabled us to address curriculum reform goals of 1) reconciling student learning with our expectations, 2) correlating student learning with background variables, 3) understanding student learning across institutions, 4) measuring the effect of teaching techniques on student learning, and 5) demonstrating how our courses collectively form a learning progression. The analysis of the concept inventory data has anchored and deepened the team's discussions of student learning. Reading and discussing students' responses revealed the gap between our understanding and the students' understanding. We provide evidence to support the concept inventory as a tool for assessing student understanding of HPI concepts and faculty development.
CBE life sciences education 01/2010; 9(4):408-16. · 1.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously described a population of regulatory macrophages that produced high levels of IL-10 and low levels of IL-12/23. We now describe and characterize the expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF) by these macrophages. HB-EGF has previously been associated with a number of physiological and pathological conditions, including tumor growth and angiogenesis. The induction of HB-EGF in regulatory macrophages is due to new transcription and not to increased mRNA stability. The transcription factor Sp1 is a major factor in HB-EGF production, and knockdown of Sp1 substantially diminishes HB-EGF production. Sp1 was recruited to three sites within the first 2 kb of the HB-EGF promoter following stimulation, and the site located at -83/-54 was required for HB-EGF promoter activity. These regions of the promoter become more accessible to endonuclease activity following macrophage activation, and this accessibility was contingent on activation of the MAPK, ERK. We show that several experimental manipulations that give rise to regulatory macrophages also result in HB-EGF production. These observations indicate that in addition to the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, another novel characteristic of regulatory macrophages is the production of angiogenic HB-EGF.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2009; 182(4):1929-39. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past three decades many techniques for expressing exogenous genes in a variety of cells and cell lines have been developed. Exogenous gene expression in macrophages has lagged behind that of other nonhematopioetic cells. There are many reasons for this, but most are due to technical difficulties associated with transfecting macrophages. As professional phagocytes, macrophages are endowed with many potent degradative enzymes that can disrupt nucleic acid integrity and make gene transfer into these cells an inefficient process. This is especially true of activated macrophages which undergo a dramatic change in their physiology following exposure to immune or inflammatory stimuli. Viral transduction of these cells has been hampered because macrophages are end-stage cells that generally do not divide; therefore, some of the vectors that depend on integration into a replicative genome have met with limited success. Furthermore, macrophages are quite responsive to "danger signals," and therefore several of the original viral vectors that were used for gene transfer induced potent anti-viral responses in these cells making these vectors inappropriate for gene delivery. Many of these difficulties have been largely overcome, and relatively high efficiency gene expression in primary human or murine macrophages is becoming more routine. In the present chapter we discuss some of the gene expression techniques that have met with success and review the advantages and disadvantages of each.