[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical, angiographic and therapeutic features of eight patients who developed a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (PA) after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and those of 25 who did not develop this complication following a medically managed left ventricular free wall rupture (FWR) were compared. These 25 patients were treated with pericardiocentesis, extended rest and strict blood pressure control. Most patients with FWR or PA had a first AMI and absence of overt heart failure. Both groups had a comparable age, frequency of systemic hypertension and extent of coronary disease. Pericardial effusion (> or =10 mm) was documented in all patients with FWR and in two of the three with PA with this information. Twenty four patients with FWR were hospitalized within the first 48 h (96%) but only three of those with PA (37.5%, P<0.002). Moreover, in patients with PA, a FWR was not suspected during AMI and, as opposed to those with FWR, they did not undergo a strict blood pressure control or a restriction of physical activity following AMI. Also, beta blockers were administered to 15 patients with FWR (60%) but to only one with PA (11%, P<0.02). Our findings suggest that failure to recognise a self limited FWR during AMI and to provide adequate control of blood pressure and physical exercise during the acute phase and the early weeks postinfarction, are likely to favor development of PA.
International Journal of Cardiology 08/2001; 79(2-3):103-11; discussion 111-2. · 5.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postprandial angina develops within minutes after a meal in patients with unstable angina, but the clinical characteristics of these patients and why it develops in only some of those with advanced coronary artery disease remain largely unknown. A severely reduced coronary reserve associated with postprandial increases in heart rate could be a contributory mechanism.
The clinical and angiographic characteristics of 277 patients with unstable angina with (23) or without (254) postprandial angina were analyzed. The coronary reserve was also analyzed by measuring the ischemic threshold by atrial pacing in a fasting state in all patients and 15 minutes after a 900-calorie meal in 54.
Patients with postprandial angina were older, more likely to be women, and had a higher incidence of hypertension and three-vessel disease than those without (p < 0.005) and had a lower fasting ischemic threshold (131.8 [SD 13.0] vs 147.5 [SD 23.4] beats/min, p < 0.0001). However, 67 of the 79 patients with the lowest fasting thresholds (< or =130 beats/min) (84.8%) had no postprandial angina. Moreover, among patients with and without postprandial angina who were matched for age, sex, and extent of coronary disease, the ischemic threshold was also lower in those with postprandial angina (p < 0.005) and there were no differences in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure or volume. Postprandial pacing was positive in 37 patients but postprandial ischemic threshold was comparable to fasting threshold (132 [SD 14] vs 132 [SD 16] beats/min). Moreover, in the 10 patients who experienced in-hospital postprandial angina, heart rate during postprandial angina was similar to nonpostprandial angina (93.1 [SD 14.7] vs 90.3 [SD 17.6]) and lower than the fasting ischemic threshold (132.0 [SD 10.8] beats/min, p < 0.0001).
Thus postprandial angina tends to occur among elderly and hypertensive patients with advanced coronary disease and severely reduced ischemic threshold. The fact that the postprandial ischemic threshold was clearly higher than the heart rate attained during postprandial angina suggest that factors others than increases in heart rate account for postprandial angina. Furthermore, the lack of a decline in the postprandial ischemic threshold suggests that, in the absence of postprandial angina, there is not a consistent postprandial change in coronary tone or that the increases in myocardial oxygen demands due to increased myocardial contractility-wall tension do not seem to play a major role in postprandial ischemia.
American Heart Journal 08/1998; 136(2):252-8. · 4.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the performance of PTCA, the operator must be able to differentiate true complications from pseudocomplications. Mechanical coronary shortening and vessel wall invagination due to accordion effect, "pseudo-transection", dissection, coronary spasm, and localized thrombosis are sources of iatrogenic obstruction during angioplasty. We report a case in which straightening of a right tortuous coronary artery during angioplasty produced an iatrogenic lesion that has a typical invaginate appearance. Conservative management is indicated in the absence of definitive angiographic aspect of vessel trauma, because they disappear after withdrawal of angioplasty equipment or adequate management of the guidewire.
Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology 12/1997; 16(12):1037-42, 957. · 0.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare the left ventricular ejection fraction in a first uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction before hospital discharge (initial ejection fraction) and 5 years later (late ejection fraction) and to evaluate the factors that may influence their possible changes.
Eighty-three patients (mean age: 52.2 +/- 7.5, range: 35-65 years) who had a first uncomplicated infarction were evaluated. Between 10 and 15 days after the acute episode, thallium perfusion scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and coronary arteriography were carried out. The ventricular function was reevaluated after 5 years with radionuclide ventriculography. The population was classified according to the localization of infarction (anterior or inferior) and to the initial ejection fraction (< 30%, 30-50% and > 50%). The factors derived from predischarge exercise test, perfusion scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and coronary arteriography that might have had an influence on ejection fraction changes were evaluated with bivariate and multivariate analysis.
1) left ventricular ejection fraction of anterior infarctions was lower than in inferior infarctions, both during the subacute phase (35.1 +/- 12.9 vs 48.1 +/- 12.1; p < 0.001) and after 5 years (41.3 +/- 15.1 vs 47.6 +/- 12.8; p = 0.006); 2) a significant increase in ejection fraction after 5 years was found in patients with anterior infarction (35.1 +/- 12.9 vs 41.3 +/- 15.1; p < 0.001), particularly in those with initial ejection fraction between 30-50% (38.8 +/- 5.9 vs 44.8 +/- 11.2; p < 0.001), and 3) no variable, either clinical or derived from exercise test, perfusion scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography or coronary arteriography, discriminated between the patients in whom ejection fraction decreased by more than 5% during follow-up nor those with anterior infarction and initial ejection fraction between 30-50% in whom ventricular function was improved after 5 years.
Left ventricular ejection fraction of anterior infarctions shows a significant improvement after 5 years, particularly in the subgroups with initial ejection fraction between 30-50%. Predictive factors of such improvement have not been identified.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 03/1994; 47(3):145-51. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Doppler echocardiography and cardiac catheterization studies of all patients who underwent valvular surgery in a three-year period were reviewed to assess the correlation between the estimated severity of valvular disease by both methods. Two-hundred and thirty-five patients (group I: 140 male, age 58 +/- 12; 95 female, age 60 +/- 13) underwent both studies within 6 months. There was agreement on estimation of severity of valve lesions in 140 of 162 patients with aortic valve disease (93% of stenosis, 82% of regurgitations and 79% of mixed lesions), in 58 of 80 patients with mitral valve disease (83% of stenosis, 76% of regurgitations and 33% of mixed lesions) and in 10 of 16 patients with prosthetic valve disfunction. The correlation between both methods was significantly lower in mixed mitral lesions than in the remaining native valve lesions (p < 0.05). Significant disagreement occurred in 4 cases of aortic valve disease, four of mitral valve disease and five of prosthetic disfunction. When disagreement was present, Doppler often underestimated the severity of the disease. Disagreement was more frequent in patients with combined aortic and mitral disease. According to the surgical conclusions cardiac catheterization provided a diagnostic profit in the assessment of the disease severity in 8, 11 and 22% of cases of aortic and mitral valve disease and prosthetic valve disfunction, respectively. Coronary artery disease was present in 19% of patients who underwent coronary arteriography. One-hundred and two patients (group II: 44 m, 48 +/- 15; 58 f, 53 +/- 11) underwent surgery without previous cardiac catheterization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 06/1993; 46(6):344-51. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to know the restenosis rate and its predictive factors and the short-term clinical outcome (6-12 months) after coronary angioplasty (PTCA), we prospectively followed 200 consecutive patients with 231 coronary stenoses successfully dilated (residual stenosis < 50%). Patients have been clinically and angiographically followed 6-9 months after the procedure. Forty-nine clinical, hemodynamic, angiographic and technical variables were analyzed. Restenosis (stenosis > or = 50% in late angiographic control) rate was 51.5%, and 61% of the study population was symptomless. Variables associated with restenosis in the univariate analysis were: pre-PTCA positive exercise test (p = 0.004); stenosis severity pre-PTCA (p = 0.04); eccentricity (p < 0.0001) and irregularity (p < 0.0001) of the pre-PTCA stenosis; total dilation time (p = 0.02) and post-PTCA dissection (p = 0.002). The multivariate analysis revealed the following variables as independent predictors of restenosis: presence of dissection after PTCA, eccentricity and irregularity of pre-PTCA stenosis, positive pre-PTCA stress test and duration of symptoms before the procedure. These data suggest that the probability of restenosis after PTCA is predominantly determined by the characteristics of the lesion being dilated and the degree of intimal injury produced during the procedure. These variables could define high and low risk populations and may modify PTCA indications and follow up strategies.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 11/1992; 45(9):568-77. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten healthy (aged 28 to 39) and ten heart failure NYHA II (aged 19 to 49) male subjects were prospectively studied under no drugs, under furosemide (40 mg/day), under captopril (150 mg/day) and under their association. Arterial compliance (ml/mmHg) was measured in all subjects at rest and supine. Heart failure etiology was dilated cardiomyopathy or ischemic heart disease without significant regurgitation. Arterial compliance was significantly higher in healthy than in heart failure patients in all studied conditions (p less than 0.001) (healthy = 2.2 + 0.29 vs. heart failure = 0.79 + 0.14). Neither single drug nor their association induced any change in healthy subjects. Arterial compliance progressively increased in heart failure with furosemide, captopril, and their association (no drug = 0.79 + 0.14; furosemide = 0.87 + 0.15; captopril = 0.94 + 0.15 and furosemide + captopril = 0.99 + 0.14). Captopril induced a higher increment than furosemide (p less than 0.001) and their association even a higher increment (p less than 0.001) than any single drug. Thus captopril and/or furosemide increased arterial compliance in heart failure but not in healthy subjects, possibly through changes in arterial wall edema and smooth muscle contraction.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis 11/1991; 24(2):93-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We prospectively studied 60 ischemic patients with 5F catheters (Pigtail and Amplatz) using the percutaneous right brachial artery approach (group I), in order to compare this technique with two groups of 100 patients each randomly studied by the femoral route with either 5F (group II) or 8F (group III) catheters (Pigtail and Judkins). The following parameters were analyzed: need to change the initially elected catheter diameter or/and artery approach; technical difficulty for obtaining LV, LCA, and RCA angiograms; total time of X-ray exposure; quality image of LV, LCA, and RCA angiograms; incidence of arterial puncture related hematomas or total arterial occlusion; and duration of local compression after sheath removal. There were no differences between 5F brachial and femoral approaches except for the arterial compression time (p less than 0.01) and the X-ray exposure time (p = 0.03) which were longer with the brachial approach. Whatever the route used, 5F showed a mild increase difficulty (brachial p = 0.001; femoral p = 0.01) and a mild decreased quality image for LCA (branchial p = 0.006; femoral p less than 0.05). Mild hematomas were more frequent with 8F catheters (p less than 0.05). The procedure could be completed by the elected first artery and type of catheter (5F or 8F) in 57/60 patients in group I, in 95/100 in group II, and in 96/100 in group III (nonsignificant differences). Thus, the percutaneous right brachial artery approach using 5F catheters is similar to the femoral artery approach with the same catheters. Although both of them showed a mild increased technical difficulty and a mild decreased quality image compared to 8F, mainly for LCA angiograms, they allowed complete and reliable angiograms reading and analysis.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis 02/1991; 22(1):47-51.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We prospectively studied 110 patients with a first acute myocardial infarction with cross-sectional echocardiography, between 7-10 days post-infarction, to assess the value of semiquantitative segmental contractility score for the first year post-AMI risk stratification. 87 patients had acceptable recordings (40 anterior and 47 inferior infarction). Twelve patients had severe complications (severe angina or heart failure, reinfarction or death) and 40 had non-severe complications. The total segmental score was higher in complicated than in non-complicated patients. The score also differentiated angina from heart failure. The score of necrotic area was more discriminating than that of non-necrotic area. Discriminating power was higher in anterior than in inferior acute myocardial infarction. Thus we conclude that the semiquantitative assessment of segmental contractility by cross-sectional echocardiography is useful for risk stratification following acute infarction identifying severe complications, particularly heart failure, with better discrimination in anterior acute myocardial infarction.
European Heart Journal 07/1989; 10(6):532-7. · 14.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to validate 5F catheters for assessing ischemic heart disease either by the femoral and the right brachial approaches, we prospectively studied with these catheters 125 patients by means of left ventriculogram and coronary artery angiograms. Twenty-five patients were studied with pigtail and Amplatz catheters using the right brachial approach (group I) and 100 patients were studied by the femoral route with pigtail and Judkins catheters (group II). Results were compared to those obtained in a control group of 100 patients prospectively studied by the femoral route with 8F catheters (group III). The following parameters were analyzed: need to change the initially elected catheter diameter or/and artery approach; technical difficulty for obtaining left ventriculogram, left coronary artery, and right coronary artery angiograms; total time of X-ray exposure; quality image of left ventriculograms; incidence of arterial puncture related hematomas or total arterial occlusion; and duration of local compression after sheath removal. There were no differences between groups I and II except for the arterial compression time (p less than 0.0001), and the X-ray exposure time (p = 0.02); both were longer in patients studied by the brachial approach (group I). Whatever the route used, 5F showed a mild increased difficulty (brachial p = 0.001; femoral p = 0.01), and a mild decreased quality image for left coronary artery (brachial p = 0.006; femoral p less than 0.05). Among patients studied by the femoral route a reduction in mild hematomas (p less than 0.05) and in the arterial compression time (p less than 0.0001) were observed in those studied with 5F catheters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 06/1989; 42(5):299-303. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 65 consecutive cases of PTCA we prospectively looked for the appearance of myocardial necrosis during PTCA and for the presence of occlusion of collateral branches arising from the inflation area. Premedication was oral in 44 and intramuscular in 21 cases. CK-MB was abnormally increased in 6 cases: 3 with total occlusion of the dilated artery, 1 with transient coronary occlusion, and 1 with occlusion of a collateral branch greater than 1 mm diameter; in the sixth case the increased CK-MB peak was attributed to repeated defibrillations. Only 1 collateral branch less than 1 mm was occluded during PTCA though myocardial necrosis was not detected. Only collateral branches arising from the dilated stenosis were affected (occlusion and/or appearance of new stenosis) by PTCA (4/24 vs 0/162; p less than 0.01). There were no significant differences in CK-MB peak between both types of premedication. Thus we conclude that: 1) in PTCA myocardial necrosis is only induced by occlusion of coronary arteries greater than 1 mm diameter; 2) only collateral branches arising from the dilated stenosis are at risk of occlusion; 3) estimation of CK-MB pre-PTCA and 8 hours post-PTCA are sufficient for detection of myocardial necrosis.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 05/1989; 42(4):246-53. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dynamic behavior of fixed LV outflow tract stenosis partly resembles that of OCM. To analyze their differences we studied basal and postextrasystolic (post-PVC) peak-to-peak LV aortic gradients, aortic systolic pressure, and pulse pressure in 14 OCM and in 36 pure VAS without two-dimensional echocardiographic findings of OCM. Fifteen mild VAS had basal gradients similar to those of OCM (39 +/- 17 mm Hg vs 24 +/- 16 mm Hg). Patients with OCM show a post-PVC gradient (109 +/- 41 mm Hg) similar to that of VAS (110 +/- 50 mm Hg). However, the latter were departing from much higher gradients (VAS 72 +/- 30 mm Hg vs OCM 24 +/- 16 mm Hg). Decrement of post-PVC aortic systolic pressure and pulse pressure were frequent in both groups, but decrement of pulse pressure greater than 5 mm Hg were more frequent in OCM. We concluded that (1) post-PVC increased aortic gradients and decreased aortic systolic pressure occurred in both VAS and OCM; (2) post-PVC decreased aortic pulse pressure might occur in VAS; and (3) association of post-PVC gradient increment greater than 75 percent and pulse pressure decrement greater than 5 mm Hg are strongly suggestive of OCM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to compare 5 French versus 8 French catheters for assessing ischemic heart disease, we prospectively studied 2 groups of 100 patients each, one with 5 French (group I) and the other with 8 French (group II) catheters by the Judkins technique. Significant differences were found in the greater easiness to catheterize LV (p less than 0.05) and LCA (p = 0.01) in group II and in better quality image for LCA in group II (p less than 0.05), although all patients in both groups had acceptable image quality. Pressure curves quality was better in group II (p less than 0.01); X-ray exposure time was longer in group I (p less than 0.001) and arterial compression time in group II (p less than 0.0001). Group I showed 3 and group II 10 mild hematomas (p less than 0.05). The procedure could be completed by the elected first artery and type of catheter in 95 patients in group I and in 96 in group II. Thus, the Judkins technique with 5 French catheters is as valid as with 8 French for assessing ischemic patients, reducing arterial morbidity, although mildly increasing technical difficulty and mildly decreasing quality image.
International Journal of Cardiac Imaging 02/1988; 3(1):61-5.