[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To determine when 18F-choline PET/CT can truly identify local recurrence of prostate cancer.
1031 patients from 3 European centers underwent (18)F-choline PET/CT (FCH PET/CT) for recurrent disease; 131 subjects (12.7%) showed a positive FCH uptake in the prostatic gland or prostatic fossa. Median age was 72 years (range 48-87 years), and the median PSA level at the time of FCH PET/CT scan was 4.41 ng/mL (0.22-18.13 ng/mL). 45 patients (34.4%) had a Gleason score (GS) >7, and the residual subjects had a GS ≤7. The assessment of true or false-positive FCH PET/CT findings was made by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 34) and/or biopsy in 75/131 cases. A χ (2) test and a Z Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to assess the correlation between clinical variables (age, PSA, GS, type of therapy) and FCH PET/CT findings.
FCH PET/CT resulted truly positive (TP) for recurrent disease in the prostatic gland/fossa in 59/75 patients (79%) and falsely positive (FP) in 16 subjects (21%). The median value of PSA at the time of FCH PET/CT scan was higher in TP as compared to FP, although not statistically significant (4.76 vs. 3.04 ng/mL p > 0.05). Similarly, median age, GS categories, and the type of therapy were similar between the two groups (p > 0.05). However, when matching GS categories and PSA values, we found that the number of patients with TP findings were higher in the case of a PSA >2 ng/mL, independently from the GS (ranging between 74% and 92%). Conversely, FP rate ranged between 50% and 65% in patients with a PSA ≤2 ng/mL, especially in the case of GS ≤7, whereas FP was around 25% in those with a GS >7 and PSA >2 ng/mL.
FCH PET/CT has a limited role in evaluation of prostatic gland/fossa recurrence, due to the physiological biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical agent. However, in 70-90% of patients with a PSA >2 ng/mL, independently from GS, a focal FCH uptake is compatible with a true local recurrence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case report evaluates the feasibility and efficacy of intraperitoneal (IP) trastuzumab administration in gastric cancer (GC) patients with peritoneal carcinomatoses.
Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or disease recurrence in patients with GC. Recently, the role of HER2 overexpression in GC, occurring in about 20% of cases, is correlated with a worse prognosis. We report the case of 61-years old female, admitted to our Hospital after curative surgery for GC with over-expression of HER2. Seven months after the start of first line chemotherapy treatment a pleuro-peritoneal disease progression occurred, documented by cytological exam; according to HER2 status, we decided to treat the patient with IP trastuzumab administration.
Between September and October 2012, the patient (ECOG performance status was 0), underwent to 6 cycles of IP trastuzumab. Trastuzumab was administered weekly at a dose of 150 mg for each cycle after paracentesis. The safety was good, no local complications (e.g. abdominal pain, peritonitis) occurred. The clinical revaluation evidenced a stable peritoneal disease.
To our knowledge this is the first report on Trastuzumab use to treat IP metastases from GC, with acceptable toxicity and local disease control.
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 03/2014; 18(5):689-92. · 1.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy is demonstrately superior to sequential chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer not suitable for surgery. Docetaxel is considered to enhance the cytotoxic effect of radiotherapy on the tumour cells. Tomotherapy (HT) is a novel radiotherapeutic technique, which allows the delivery of Image Guided-IMRT (IG-IMRT), with a highly conformal radiation dose distribution.The goal of the study was to estimate tolerability of Docetaxel concurrent with IMRT and to find the maximum tolerated dose of weekly Docetaxel concurrent with IMRT delivered with HT Tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Docetaxel in patients affected with stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
We designed a phase I, dose-finding study to determine the dose of weekly Docetaxel concurrent with Tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy, in patients affected by Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Stage III disease, not suitable for surgery.
Concurrent weekly Docetaxel and Tomotherapy are feasible; we did not reach a maximum tolerated dose, because no life-threatening toxicity was observed, stopping the accrual at a level of weekly docetaxel 38 mg/m2, a greater dose than in previous assessments, from both phase-I studies with weekly docetaxel alone and with Docetaxel concomitant with standard radiotherapy.
Concurrent weekly Docetaxel and Tomotherapy are feasible, and even with Docetaxel at 38 mg/m2/week we did not observe any limiting toxicity. For those patients who completed the combined chemo-radio treatment, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 20 months and median overall survival (OS) was 24 months.
BMC Cancer 10/2013; 13(1):513. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-513 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) differ from the general population and are underrepresented in clinical trials. We, retrospectively, analyzed the safety and efficacy of XELOX regimen in the treatment of elderly patients affected by mCRC.
Patients and methods:
One-hundred-eleven consecutive patients, aged 70 years or older, were enrolled in the study.
All patients were evaluated for safety and efficacy (male/female, 63/48). Median age was 75 years (range 71-85 years). Median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) was 0 (range 0-2). Metastatic sites distribution is as follows: liver (44.1%), lung (13.5%), liver plus lung (12.6%) and other (29.7%). A total of 584 cycles were administered (median 6 cycles/patient, range 2-10). Median follow-up time was 14.5 months (range 1-41 months). In an intent-to-treat analysis, objective responses and stable disease were recorded in 41 (40.4%) and 29 (26.6%) patients, respectively. The median response duration was 5.9 months (range 0.5-28.8). The median progression free-survival (PFS) was 7.5 months (range 1-26 months). The median overall survival (OS) was 15 months (range 1-64 months). The grade 3 toxicities were: neutropenia (8.1%), diarrhea and neurotoxicity (5.4% respectively). Most adverse events were mild to moderate; the most common was acute sensory neuropathy (57.6%).
XELOX is a highly effective first-line treatment for mCRC elderly patients. Response rates, PFS and OS are similar to those observed with fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin combinations. XELOX is a convenient regimen, likely to be preferred by both patient and healthcare providers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of a 62-year-old man with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer disease, investigated by fluorine-18-Choline (F-FCH) PET/CT. F-FCH PET/CT demonstrated focal increased uptake of F-FCH inside the right testis, suggestive for distant recurrent disease. On testis removal, a Leydig cell tumor of 2.5 cm in diameter was unexpectedly found. F-FCH PET/CT may demonstrate tumors other than prostate cancer.
Clinical nuclear medicine 07/2013; 38(9). DOI:10.1097/RLU.0b013e31829af8a6 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of 18F-FDG PET/CT in suspected recurrence of epithelial ovarian cancer, after treatment, comparing outcomes of PET/CT with histological tumor subtype, CA-125 serum levels, and findings of conventional diagnostic imaging modalities (CI).
Data from 121 women who underwent FDG PET/CT for suspected recurrence of epithelial ovarian cancer after treatment were reviewed retrospectively.
Of all patients, 80% had recurrent disease and 20% were disease-free on the final clinical diagnosis. PET/CT showed true-positive findings in 82% of patients, whereas CI demonstrated true-positives in 70% of cases. At the time of PET/CT scanning, only 55 patients had serum CA-125 level greater than 35 U/mL, whereas 52 patients presented with CA-125 levels in a reference range. PET/CT sensitivity (82%) was significantly higher than that of CA-125 (59%), whereas difference in sensitivity between PET/CT and CI (69%) was limited. PET/CT specificity (87%) was significantly better than that of CI (47%), although no difference in specificity between PET/CT and CA-125 (80%) was found. However, no difference in CA-125 serum levels between patients with local tumor relapse and those with distant metastases was found. PET/CT showed the highest positive predictive value (96%) and negative predictive value (55%) when compared with other modalities. In high-grade tumors (n = 66), PET/CT accuracy was 80%, better than that of serum CA-125 (64%) and that of CI (62%). Equally in low-grade ovarian carcinomas (n = 55), PET/CT accuracy (87%) was significantly higher than that of the tumor marker (60%) and also higher than that of CI (70%).
FDG PET/CT was proven to be more efficient than serum CA-125 assay and CI in detecting recurrences of ovarian cancer after treatment. The sensitivity of FDG PET/CT is not influenced by tumor histology. FDG PET/CT should be considered a useful diagnostic tool in the surveillance of patients that received treatment for epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
Clinical nuclear medicine 08/2012; 37(8):e184-8. DOI:10.1097/RLU.0b013e31825b2583 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EBT2 radiochromic films were studied and used for in vivo dosimetry in targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT), a technique in which the Intrabeam system (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) is used to perform intraoperative partial breast irradiation with x-rays of 50 kV(p).
The energy of the radiation emitted by the Intrabeam with the different spherical applicators, under 1 and 2 cm of solid water, and under the tungsten impregnated rubber used for shielding of the heart in TARGIT of the breast, was characterized with measurements of half-value layer (HVL). The stability of response of EBT2 was verified inside this range of energies. EBT2 films were calibrated using the red and green channels of the absorption spectrum in the 0-20 Gy dose range delivered by the Intrabeam x-rays. The dependence of film response on temperature during irradiation was measured. For in vivo dosimetry, pieces of radiochromic films wrapped in sterile envelopes were inserted after breast conserving surgery and before TARGIT into the excision cavity, on the skin and on the shielded pectoralis fascia for treatments of the left breast.
HVLs of the Intrabeam in TARGIT of the breast correspond to effective energies of 20.7-36.3 keV. The response of EBT2 was constant inside this range of energies. We measured the dose to the target tissue and to organs at risk in 23 patients and obtained an average dose of 13.52 ± 1.21 Gy to the target tissue. Dose to the skin in close proximity to the applicator was 2.22 ± 0.97 Gy, 0.29 ± 0.17 Gy at 5-10 cm from the applicator, and 0.08 ± 0.07 Gy at more than 10 cm from the applicator. Dose to the pectoral muscle for left breast treatment was 0.57 ± 0.23 Gy.
Our results show that EBT2 films are accurate at the beam energies, dose range, and irradiation temperature found in TARGIT and that in vivo dosimetry in TARGIT with EBT2 films wrapped in sterile envelopes is a feasible procedure. Measured dose to the organs at risk indicates that the technique is safe from side effects to the skin and the heart.
Medical Physics 05/2012; 39(5):2359-68. DOI:10.1118/1.3700175 · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increased bone degradation in osteolytic metastases depends on stimulation of mature osteoclasts and on continuous differentiation of new pre-osteoclasts. Metalloproteinases (MMP)-13 is expressed in a broad range of primary malignant tumours and it is emerging as a novel biomarker. Recent data suggest a direct role of MMP-13 in dissolving bone matrix complementing the activity of MMP-9 and other enzymes. Tumour-microenvironment interactions alter gene expression in malignant breast tumour cells promoting osteolytic bone metastasis. Gene expression profiles revealed that MMP-13 was among the up-regulated genes in tumour-bone interface and its abrogation reduced bone erosion. The precise mechanism remained not fully understood. Our purpose was to further investigate the mechanistic role of MMP-13 in bone osteolytic lesions.
MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that express MMP-13 were used as a model for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conditioned media from MDA-MB-231 cells were added to peripheral blood mononuclear cultures to monitor pre-osteoclast differentiation and activation. Bone erosion was evaluated after injection of MMP-13-silenced MDA-MB-231 cells into nude mice femurs.
MMP-13 was co-expressed by human breast tumour bone metastases with its activator MT1-MMP. MMP-13 was up-regulated in breast cancer cells after in vitro stimulation with IL-8 and was responsible for increased bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis, both of which were reduced by MMP inhibitors. We hypothesized that MMP-13 might be directly involved in the loop promoting pre-osteoclast differentiation and activity. We obtained further evidence for a direct role of MMP-13 in bone metastasis by a silencing approach: conditioned media from MDA-MB-231 after MMP-13 abrogation or co-cultivation of silenced cells with pre-osteoclast were unable to increase pre-osteoclast differentiation and resorption activity. MMP-13 activated pre-MMP-9 and promoted the cleavage of galectin-3, a suppressor of osteoclastogenesis, thus contributing to pre-osteoclast differentiation. Accordingly, MMP-13 abrogation in tumour cells injected into the femurs of nude mice reduced the differentiation of TRAP positive cells in bone marrow and within the tumour mass as well as bone erosion.
These results indicate that within the inflammatory bone microenvironment MMP-13 production was up-regulated in breast tumour cells leading to increased pre-osteoclast differentiation and their subsequent activation.
Breast cancer research: BCR 10/2011; 13(5):R105. DOI:10.1186/bcr3047 · 5.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated toxicity, local control, and survival in patients with relapsed high-grade glioma after surgery and external beam radiation therapy and treated with re-operation and GliaSite brachytherapy.
Between 2006 and 2008, 15 patients with recurrent high-grade glioma underwent re-operation and GliaSite brachytherapy. Ten patients were males and 5 females. Median age was 40 years (range, 20-71). Karnofsky performance status was ≥70. All patients but one received GliaSite irradiation of the surgical cavity wall at the dose of 4500 cGy at a depth of 1 cm.
No severe acute side effects were observed during GliaSite brachytherapy. Pathologically documented, symptomatic late radiation necrosis was observed in 3 patients (20%); 2 subsequently died of further complications. Two patients were alive at a median follow-up 13 months (range, 1-30). Median overall survival after GliaSite brachytherapy was 13 months.
Patients with recurrent high-grade glioma can be treated with additional surgery and GliaSite brachytherapy, delivering 4500 cGy at 1 cm depth without significant acute side effects but with a significant rate (20%) of late radiation necrosis, resulting in 13% of treatment-related deaths. Compared with the literature, survival results in our study appear to be satisfactory, but they may be related to patient selection criteria. Re-intervention followed by GliaSite brachytherapy should not be offered as a standard treatment for recurrent high-grade glioma, because of the high rate of late complications, treatment-related deaths, and high treatment costs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and combined fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), alone and in combination, in detection and restaging treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
This retrospective study was performed after institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Sixty-three consecutive patients treated for NPC underwent follow-up with both MR imaging and FDG PET/CT. Findings were evaluated according to the TNM classification. Final diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy or imaging follow-up for at least 6 months. Proportions and their 95% confidence intervals were computed; for comparison of data obtained separately from MR imaging and FDG PET/CT and those obtained from their combined use, the McNemar test was used. P < .05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference.
There was a trend toward greater overall accuracy of MR over PET/CT in detecting residual and/or recurrent NPC at the primary site; 92.1% (58 of 63 patients) for MR versus 85.7% (54 of 63) for FDG PET/CT (P = .16). Overall accuracy for tumor restaging was 74.6% (47 of 63) for MR and 73.0% (46 of 63) for FDG PET/CT (either modality used alone), but the overall combined accuracy was 92.1% (58 of 63) (all P values < .01).
MR imaging demonstrated a trend toward higher accuracy than did FDG PET/CT in detecting residual and/or recurrent NPC at the primary tumor site. The combined use of MR and FDG PET/CT was more accurate for tumor restaging than when either modality was used independently.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe our experience in 31 pediatric or adolescent oncological patients (median age 14 years old; range 2-24 years) treated with intensity modulation radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered with linear accelerator (11 patients) or tomotherapy (20 patients). Tomotherapy represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver the high radiation doses that appear to be required to improve the local control of several pediatric tumors. It demonstrated excellent target coverage, homogeneity and organ sparing compared with conventional radiotherapy. Possible disadvantages of tomotherapy in children are also discussed such as increased low dose to non-target tissue, prolonged treatment planning and set-up time, increased anesthesia time and increased overall integral dose.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the potential of PET/CT and [(18)F]fluoromethylcholine (FCH) in the assessment of suspected recurrence of prostate cancer after treatment.
One hundred consecutive prostate cancer patients with a persistent increase in serum PSA (>0.1 ng/ml) after radical prostatectomy (58 cases), radiotherapy (21 cases) or hormonal therapy alone (21 cases) were investigated. After injection of 3.7-4.07 MBq/kg of FCH, both early (at <15 min) and delayed (at >60 min) PET/CT scans were performed in 43 patients, delayed PET/CT scans in 53 patients and early PET/CT scans in four patients.
Of the 100 patients, 54 (PSA 0.22-511.79 ng/ml) showed positive FCH PET/CT scans. Thirty-seven patients had bone and/or abdominal lymph node uptake, while 17 showed pelvic activity. Malignant disease was confirmed in all but one. Delayed SUV(max) of bone metastases was significantly higher (p<0.0001 by paired t test) than that measured at <15 min, whereas no differences were observed between early and delayed SUVs of malignant lymph nodes or pelvic disease. Forty-six patients (PSA 0.12-14.3 ng/ml) showed negative FCH PET/CT scans. Of the negative PET/CT scans, 89% were obtained in patients with serum PSA <4 ng/ml and 87% in patients with a Gleason score <8. In none of these cases could recurrent tumour be proven clinically during a follow-up of 6 months.
FCH PET/CT is not likely to have a significant impact on the care of prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence until PSA increases to above 4 ng/ml. However, in selected patients, FCH PET/CT helps to exclude distant metastases when salvage local treatment is intended.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2007; 33(12):1387-98. DOI:10.1007/s00259-006-0150-2 · 5.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current diagnosis and staging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are significantly improved by the introduction of the chromogranin A (CgA) assay in plasma or serum as a tumor marker, and by the use of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) for tumor localization. However, the clinical role of CgA assay compared with SRS in the management of NETs has not been well elucidated.
Sixty-three consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of NET underwent plasma CgA assay and SRS for tumor staging (23 cases), evaluation of tumor response (18 cases) and evaluation of tumor recurrence on follow-up (22 cases). Twenty-one patients had well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs: 18 gastroenteropancreatic tumors and three lung NETs); 22 patients had well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (WDNECs: 17 gastroenteropancreatic carcinomas, two lung neuroendocrine carcinomas and three neuroendocrine carcinomas of unknown origin) and 20 patients had poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNECs: 14 extra-pulmonary small-cell carcinomas and six Merkel cell carcinomas). Almost all (58 of 63) NETs were non-functioning. The quantitative determination of CgA was performed in plasma using an enzyme immunoassay with a cut-off value fixed at 34 U/l. Scintigraphies with indium 111-DTPA-octreotide ((111)In-pentetreotide) included whole-body images and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of the chest and abdomen.
SRS results were compared with CgA findings and final clinical data. The overall sensitivity of SRS and CgA, based on the final clinical data, was 77% and 55%, respectively, whereas the specificity of both SRS and CgA was 94%. Concerning tumor type, SRS accuracy was 95% for WDNETs, 86% for WDNECs and 60% for PDNECs; CgA accuracy was 76% for WDNETs, 68% for WDNECs and 50% for PDNECs. With regard to disease extent, SRS sensitivity was 100% for limited disease and 72% for advanced disease; CgA sensitivity was 43% for limited disease and 57% for advanced disease.
In our NET series, SRS proved to be more sensitive than CgA, with equivalent specificity. Tumor differentiation influences the sensitivity of SRS and CgA analysis. In addition, the plasma CgA level is related to tumor secretory activity. Nevertheless both SRS and CgA should be considered useful tools in the diagnostic work-up of NET patients.
Annals of Oncology 08/2003; 14(7):1135-41. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdg279 · 7.04 Impact Factor