L. J. Tacconi

Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Arching, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (360)1161.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed analysis of ALMA Bands 7 and 9 data of CO, HCO+, HCN and CS, augmented with Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) data of the ~ 200 pc circumnuclear disk (CND) and the ~ 1.3 kpc starburst ring (SB ring) of NGC~1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy. We aim at determining the physical characteristics of the dense gas present in the CND and whether the different line intensity ratios we find within the CND as well as between the CND and the SB ring are due to excitation effects (gas density and temperature differences) or to a different chemistry. We estimate the column densities of each species in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). We then compute large one-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer grids (using RADEX) by using first only the CO transitions, and then all the available molecules in order to constrain the densities, temperatures and column densities within the CND. We finally present a preliminary set of chemical models to determine the origin of the gas. We find that in general the gas in the CND is very dense (> 10^5 cm^-3) and hot (T> 150K), with differences especially in the temperature across the CND. The AGN position has the lowest CO/HCO+, CO/HCN and CO/CS column density ratios. RADEX analyses seem to indicate that there is chemical differentiation across the CND. We also find differences between the chemistry of the SB ring and some regions of the CND; the SB ring is also much colder and less dense than the CND. Chemical modelling does not succeed in reproducing all the molecular ratios with one model per region, suggesting the presence of multi-gas phase components. The LTE, RADEX and chemical analyses all indicate that more than one gas-phase component is necessary to uniquely fit all the available molecular ratios within the CND.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z=2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0x10^11 Msun, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90[+45-20]Msun/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317+-30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z~2 and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M*/Msun) >= 10.9) z~1-3 star-forming galaxies (Forster Schreiber et al.), by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M*/Msun) >= 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS^3D spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Ha, [NII], and [SII] lines ~ 450-5300 km/s), with large [NII]/Ha ratios, above log(M*/Msun) ~ 10.9, with 66+/-15% of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z~1 and ~2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGN), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC1068, a nearby (D=14Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We have used ALMA to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3) and CS(7-6)) and their underlying continuum emission in the central r ~ 2kpc of NGC1068 with spatial resolutions ~ 0.3"-0.5" (~ 20-35pc). Molecular line and dust continuum emissions are detected from a r ~ 200pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), from the 2.6kpc-diameter bar region, and from the r ~ 1.3kpc starburst (SB) ring. Most of the emission in HCO+, HCN and CS stems from the CND. Molecular line ratios show dramatic order-of-magnitude changes inside the CND that are correlated with the UV/X-ray illumination by the AGN, betraying ongoing feedback. The gas kinematics from r ~ 50pc out to r ~ 400pc reveal a massive (M_mol ~ 2.7 (+0.9, -1.2) x 10^7 Msun) outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN-driven. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, dM/dt ~ 63 (+21, -37) Msun yr^-1, is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii, confirming that the outflow is AGN-driven. The power of the AGN is able to account for the estimated momentum and kinetic luminosity of the outflow. The CND mass load rate of the CND outflow implies a very short gas depletion time scale of <=1 Myr.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the correlations between stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR) and [NII]/Ha flux ratio as indicator of gas-phase metallicity for a sample of 222 galaxies at 0.8 < z < 2.6 and log(M*/Msun)=9.0-11.5 observed with LUCI at the LBT, and SINFONI and KMOS at the VLT. This sample provides a unique analysis of the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) over an extended redshift range using consistent data analysis techniques and strong-line metallicity indicator. Over the redshift range probed, we find a constant slope at the low-mass end of the MZR, which is however significantly steeper than seen in the local Universe. In this range, we can fully describe the redshift evolution of the MZR through the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass where the relation begins to flatten at the asymptotic metallicity. At fixed mass and redshift, our data do not show a correlation between the [NII]/Ha ratio and SFR, which disagrees with the 0.2-0.3dex offset in [NII]/Ha predicted by the "fundamental relation" between stellar mass, SFR and metallicity discussed in recent literature. However, the MZR evolution towards lower [NII]/Ha at earlier times does agree within the uncertainties with these predictions.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all 5 CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 10^10 Msun, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit 2-dimensional models comprising a single Sersic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sersic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 10^11 Msun. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the star-forming main sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge and total mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy than the total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art semi-analytic model by Somerville et al. In the latter, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging and/or disk instabilities, and AGN-feedback shuts off star formation. Further observations will be required to pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply they must be internal to the galaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA observations of CO(3-2) emission in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1566, at a spatial resolution of 25 pc. Our aim is to investigate the morphology and dynamics of the gas inside the central kpc, and to probe nuclear fueling and feedback phenomena. NGC 1566 has a nuclear bar of 1.7 kpc radius and a conspicuous grand design spiral starting from this radius. The ALMA field of view, of diameter 0.9 kpc, lies well inside the nuclear bar and reveals a molecular trailing spiral structure of \sim 100 pc in size, which is possibly fueling the nucleus. The spiral starts with a large pitch angle from the center and then winds up in a pseudo-ring at the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) of the nuclear bar. This is the first time that a trailing spiral structure is clearly seen driving the gas inwards inside the ILR ring of the nuclear bar. This phenomenon shows that the massive central black hole has a significant dynamical influence on the gas, triggering its fueling. The gaseous spiral is well correlated with the dusty spiral seen through extinction in HST images, and also with a spiral feature emitting 0.87mm continuum. This continuum emission must come essentially from cold dust heated by the interstellar radiation field. The HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) lines were simultaneously mapped and detected in the nuclear spiral. The HCO+(4-3) line is 3 times stronger than the HCN(4-3), as expected when star formation excitation dominates over active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating. The CO(3-2)/HCO+(4-3) integrated intensity ratio is \sim 100. The molecular gas is in remarkably regular rotation, with only slight non-circular motions at the periphery of the nuclear spiral arms. These perturbations are quite small, and no outflow nor AGN feedback is detected.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Based on high-resolution, spatially resolved data of 10 z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS/zC-SINF survey and LUCI data for 12 additional galaxies, we probe the excitation properties of high-z galaxies and the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), shocks, and photoionization. We explore how these spatially resolved line ratios can inform our interpretation of integrated emission line ratios obtained at high redshift. Many of our galaxies fall in the "composite" region of the z ~ 0 [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ diagnostic (BPT) diagram, between star-forming galaxies and those with AGNs. Based on our resolved measurements, we find that some of these galaxies likely host an AGN, while others appear to be affected by the presence of shocks possibly caused by an outflow or from an enhanced ionization parameter as compared with H II regions in normal, local star-forming galaxies. We find that the Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic, which separates purely star-forming and AGN hosting local galaxies in the [O III]/Hβ versus stellar mass plane, does not properly separate z ~ 2 galaxies classified according to the BPT diagram. However, if we shift the galaxies based on the offset between the local and z ~ 2 mass-metallicity relation (i.e., to the mass they would have at z ~ 0 with the same metallicity), we find better agreement between the MEx and BPT diagnostics. Finally, we find that metallicity calibrations based on [N II]/Hα are more biased by shocks and AGNs at high-z than the [O III]/Hβ/[N II]/Hα calibration. Based on observations at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 073.B-9018, 076.A-0527, 079.A-0341, 080.A-0330, 080.A-0339, 080.A-0635, 083.A-0781,084.A-0853, 087.A-0081, 091.A.-0126) and at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on Mt. Graham in Arizona.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2014; 781(1):21-. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use deep Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations in GOODSS, GOODSN and COSMOS to estimate the average dust mass (Mdust) of galaxies on a redshift-stellar mass (Mstar)-SFR grid. We study the scaling relations between Mdust, Mstar and SFR at z<=2.5. No clear evolution of Mdust is observed at fixed SFR and Mstar. We find a tight correlation between SFR and Mdust, likely a consequence of the Schmidt-Kennicutt (S-K) law. The Mstar-Mdust correlation observed by previous works flattens or sometimes disappears when fixing the SFR. Most of it likely derives from the combination of the Mdust-SFR and Mstar-SFR correlations. We then investigate the gas content as inferred by converting Mdust by assuming that the dust/gas ratio scales linearly with the gas metallicity. All galaxies in the sample follow, within uncertainties, the same SFR-Mgas relation (integrated S-K law), which broadly agrees with CO-based results for the bulk of the population, despite the completely different approaches. The majority of galaxies at z~2 form stars with an efficiency (SFE=SFR/Mgas) ~5 times higher than at z~0. It is not clear what fraction of such variation is an intrinsic redshift evolution and what fraction arises from selection effects. The gas fraction (fgas) decreases with Mstar and increases with SFR, and does not evolve with z at fixed Mstar and SFR. We explain these trends by introducing a universal relation between fgas, Mstar and SFR, non-evolving out to z~2.5. Galaxies move across this relation as their gas content evolves in time. We use the 3D fundamental fgas-Mstar-SFR relation and the redshift evolution of the Main Sequence to estimate the evolution of fgas in the average population of galaxies as a function of z and Mstar, and we find evidence a downsizing scenario.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] We study the evolution of the dust temperatures of galaxies in the SFR-M* plane up to z~2 using observations from the Herschel Space Observatory. Starting from a sample of galaxies with reliable star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses (M*) and redshift estimates, we grid the SFR-M* parameter space in several redshift ranges and estimate the mean Tdust of each SFR-M*-z bin. Dust temperatures are inferred using the stacked far-infrared flux densities of our SFR-M*-z bins. At all redshifts, Tdust increases with infrared luminosities (LIR), specific SFRs (SSFR; i.e., SFR/M*) and distances with respect to the main sequence (MS) of the SFR-M* plane (i.e., D_SSFR_MS=log[SSFR(galaxy)/SSFR_MS(M*,z)]). The Tdust-SSFR and Tdust-D_SSFR_MS correlations are statistically more significant than the Tdust-LIR one. While the slopes of these three correlations are redshift-independent, their normalizations evolve from z=0 and z~2. We convert these results into a recipe to derive Tdust from SFR, M* and z. The existence of a strong Tdust-D_SSFR_MS correlation provides us with information on the dust and gas content of galaxies. (i) The slope of the Tdust-D__SSFR_MS correlation can be explained by the increase of the star-formation efficiency (SFE; SFR/Mgas) with D_SSFR_MS as found locally by molecular gas studies. (ii) At fixed D_SSFR_MS, the constant Tdust observed in galaxies probing large ranges in SFR and M* can be explained by an increase or decrease of the number of star-forming regions with comparable SFE enclosed in them. (iii) At high redshift, the normalization towards hotter temperature of the Tdust-D_SSFR_MS correlation can be explained by the decrease of the metallicities of galaxies or by the increase of the SFE of MS galaxies. All these results support the hypothesis that the conditions prevailing in the star-forming regions of MS and far-above-MS galaxies are different.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (> 10^11 Msun) z~2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Halpha and forbidden [NII] and [SII] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ~ 1500 km/s, [NII]/Halpha ratio ~ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2 - 3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ~ 60 Msun/yr and mass loading of ~ 3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ~ 485 km/s and [NII]/Halpha ~ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles, and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial to confirm the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon, and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Massive galaxies in the distant Universe form stars at much higher rates than their local counterparts. Although direct resolution of the star forming regions of these galaxies is still a challenge, recent molecular gas observations at the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer enable us to study the star formation efficiency at sub-galactic scales around z = 1.2. We present a method to obtain the gas and star formation rate (SFR) surface densities of ensembles of clumps within galaxies at this redshift, and derive a spatially resolved Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation at a scale of about 8.5 kpc. This method is based on the identification of these structures in position-velocity diagrams corresponding to slices within the galaxies, even though the corresponding scales are not resolved. The data globally indicates an average depletion time of 1.9 Gyr, but with significant variations from point to point within the galaxies.
    SF2A 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the resolved stellar populations of 473 massive star-forming galaxies at 0.7 < z < 1.5, with multi-wavelength broad-band imaging from CANDELS and Halpha surface brightness profiles at the same kiloparsec resolution from 3D-HST. Together, this unique data set sheds light on how the assembled stellar mass is distributed within galaxies, and where new stars are being formed. We find the Halpha morphologies to resemble more closely those observed in the ACS I band than in the WFC3 H band, especially for the larger systems. We next derive a novel prescription for Halpha dust corrections, which accounts for extra extinction towards HII regions. The prescription leads to consistent SFR estimates and reproduces the observed relation between the Halpha/UV luminosity ratio and visual extinction, both on a pixel-by-pixel and on a galaxy-integrated level. We find the surface density of star formation to correlate with the surface density of assembled stellar mass for spatially resolved regions within galaxies, akin to the so-called 'main sequence of star formation' established on a galaxy-integrated level. Deviations from this relation towards lower equivalent widths are found in the inner regions of galaxies. Clumps and spiral features, on the other hand, are associated with enhanced Halpha equivalent widths, bluer colors, and higher specific star formation rates compared to the underlying disk. Their Halpha/UV luminosity ratio is lower than that of the underlying disk, suggesting the ACS clump selection preferentially picks up those regions of elevated star formation activity that are the least obscured by dust. Our analysis emphasizes that monochromatic studies of galaxy structure can be severely limited by mass-to-light ratio variations due to dust and spatially inhomogeneous star formation histories.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 779(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As part of the SINS/zC-SINF surveys of high-z galaxy kinematics, we derive the radial distributions of H-alpha surface brightness, stellar mass surface density, and dynamical mass at ~2 kpc resolution in 19 z~2 star-forming disks with deep SINFONI AO spectroscopy at the ESO VLT. From these data we infer the radial distribution of the Toomre Q-parameter for these main-sequence star forming galaxies (SFGs), covering almost two decades of stellar mass (10^9.6 to 10^11.5 solar masses). In more than half of our SFGs, the H-alpha distributions cannot be fit by a centrally peaked distribution, such as an exponential, but are better described by a ring, or the combination of a ring and an exponential. At the same time the kinematic data indicate the presence of a mass distribution more centrally concentrated than a single exponential distribution for 5 of the 19 galaxies. The resulting Q-distributions are centrally peaked for all, and significantly exceed unity there for three quarters of the SFGs. The occurrence of H-alpha rings and of large nuclear Q-values is strongly correlated, and is more common for the more massive SFGs. While our sample is small and there remain substantial uncertainties and caveats, our observations are consistent with a scenario in which cloud fragmentation and global star formation are secularly suppressed in gas rich high-z disks from the inside out, as the central stellar mass density of the disks grows.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 785(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) occur in galaxies in which supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are growing substantially through rapid accretion of gas. Many popular models of the co-evolutionary growth of galaxies and SMBHs predict that QSOs are also sites of substantial recent star formation, mediated by important processes, such as major mergers, which rapidly transform the nature of galaxies. A detailed study of the star-forming properties of QSOs is a critical test of such models. We present a far-infrared Herschel/PACS study of the mean star formation rate (SFR) of a sample of spectroscopically observed QSOs to z~2 from the COSMOS extragalactic survey. This is the largest sample to date of moderately luminous AGNs studied using uniform, deep far-infrared photometry. We study trends of the mean SFR with redshift, black hole mass, nuclear bolometric luminosity and specific accretion rate (Eddington ratio). To minimize systematics, we have undertaken a uniform determination of SMBH properties, as well as an analysis of important selection effects within spectroscopic QSO samples that influence the interpretation of SFR trends. We find that the mean SFRs of these QSOs are consistent with those of normal massive star-forming galaxies with a fixed scaling between SMBH and galaxy mass at all redshifts. No strong enhancement in SFR is found even among the most rapidly accreting systems, at odds with several co-evolutionary models. Finally, we consider the qualitative effects on mean SFR trends from different assumptions about the star-forming properties of QSO hosts and redshift evolution of the SMBH-galaxy relationship. While limited currently by uncertainties, valuable constraints on AGN-galaxy co-evolution can emerge from our approach.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the evolution of the star formation rate (SFR)-density relation in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) and the Great Observatories Origin Deep Survey (GOODS) fields up to z~1.6. In addition to the "traditional method", in which the environment is defined according to a statistical measurement of the local galaxy density, we use a "dynamical" approach, where galaxies are classified according to three different environment regimes: group, "filament-like", and field. Both methods show no evidence of a SFR-density reversal. Moreover, group galaxies show a mean SFR lower than other environments up to z~1, while at earlier epochs group and field galaxies exhibit consistent levels of star formation (SF) activity. We find that processes related to a massive dark matter halo must be dominant in the suppression of the SF below z~1, with respect to purely density-related processes. We confirm this finding by studying the distribution of galaxies in different environments with respect to the so-called Main Sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Galaxies in both group and "filament-like" environments preferentially lie below the MS up to z~1, with group galaxies exhibiting lower levels of star-forming activity at a given mass. At z>1, the star-forming galaxies in groups reside on the MS. Groups exhibit the highest fraction of quiescent galaxies up to z~1, after which group, "filament-like", and field environments have a similar mix of galaxy types. We conclude that groups are the most efficient locus for star-formation quenching. Thus, a fundamental difference exists between bound and unbound objects, or between dark matter haloes of different masses.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; 437(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA observations of CO(3-2) emission in the Seyfert 2 double-barred galaxy NGC1433, at the unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.5"=24 pc. Our aim is to probe AGN feeding and feedback phenomena through the morphology and dynamics of the gas inside the central kpc. The CO map, which covers the whole nuclear region (nuclear bar and ring), reveals a nuclear gaseous spiral structure, inside the nuclear ring encircling the nuclear stellar bar. This gaseous spiral is well correlated with the dusty spiral seen in Hubble Space Telescope images. The nuclear spiral winds up in a pseudo-ring at 200 pc radius, which might correspond to the inner ILR. Continuum emission is detected at 0.87 mm only at the very centre, and its origin is more likely thermal dust emission than non-thermal emission from the AGN. It might correspond to the molecular torus expected to exist in this Seyfert 2 galaxy. The HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) lines were observed simultaneously, but only upper limits are derived, with a ratio to the CO(3-2) line lower than 1/60 at 3sigma, indicating a relatively low abundance of very dense gas. The kinematics of the gas over the nuclear disk reveal rather regular rotation only slightly perturbed by streaming motions due to the spiral; the primary and secondary bars are too closely aligned with the galaxy major or minor axis to leave a signature in the projected velocities. Near the nucleus, there is an intense high-velocity CO emission feature redshifted to 200 km/s (if located in the plane), with a blue-shifted counterpart, at 2" (100 pc) from the centre. While the CO spectra are quite narrow in the centre, this wide component is interpreted as an outflow involving a molecular mass of 3.6 10^6 Mo and a flow rate 7 Mo/yr. The flow could be in part driven by the central star formation, but is mainly boosted by the AGN through its radio jets.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the nature of the long-wavelength mid-infrared (MIR) emission of a sample of 13000 local Type II (narrow-line) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) using 12 and 22 micron photometry from the WISE all-sky survey. In combination with FIRST 1.4 GHz measurements, we show that AGNs divide into two relatively distinct populations or "branches" in the plane of MIR and radio luminosity. Seyfert galaxies lie almost exclusively on a MIR-bright branch (Branch A), while low-ionization nuclear emission line galaxies (LINERs) are split evenly into Branch A and the MIR-faint Branch B. We devise various tests to constrain the processes that define the branches, including a comparison to the properties of pure star-forming (SF) inactive galaxies on the MIR-Radio plane. We demonstrate that the total MIR emission of objects on Branch A, including most Seyfert galaxies, is governed primarily by host star-formation, with about 15% of the 22 micron luminosity coming from AGN-heated dust. This implies that on-going dusty star-formation is a general property of Seyfert host galaxies. We show that the 12 micron broad-band luminosity of AGNs on Branch A is suppressed with respect to star-forming galaxies, possibly due to the destruction of PAHs or deeper 10 microns Si absorption in AGNs. We uncover a correlation between the MIR luminosity and [O III] luminosity in AGNs. This suggests a relationship between the SFR and nuclear luminosity in the AGN population, but we caution on the importance of selection effects inherent to such AGN-dominated emission-line galaxies in driving such a correlation. We highlight the MIR-radio plane as a useful tool in comparative studies of SF and nuclear activity in AGN.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 778(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We combine IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements to study the dust and gas contents of high-redshift star forming galaxies. We present new observations for a sample of 17 lensed galaxies at z=1.4-3.1, which allow us to directly probe the cold ISM of normal star-forming galaxies with stellar masses of ~10^10Msun, a regime otherwise not (yet) accessible by individual detections in Herschel and molecular gas studies. The lensed galaxies are combined with reference samples of sub-millimeter and normal z~1-2 star-forming galaxies with similar far-infrared photometry to study the gas and dust properties of galaxies in the SFR-M*-redshift parameter space. The mean gas depletion timescale of main sequence galaxies at z>2 is measured to be only ~450Myr, a factor of ~1.5 (~5) shorter than at z=1 (z=0), in agreement with a (1+z)^-1 scaling. The mean gas mass fraction at z=2.8 is 40+/-15% (44% after incompleteness correction), suggesting a flattening or even a reversal of the trend of increasing gas fractions with redshift recently observed up to z~2. The depletion timescale and gas fractions of the z>2 normal star-forming galaxies can be explained under the "equilibrium model" for galaxy evolution, in which the gas reservoir of galaxies is the primary driver of the redshift evolution of specific star formation rates. Due to their high star formation efficiencies and low metallicities, the z>2 lensed galaxies have warm dust despite being located on the star formation main sequence. At fixed metallicity, they also have a gas-to-dust ratio 1.7 times larger than observed locally when using the same standard techniques, suggesting that applying the local calibration of the relation between gas-to-dust ratio and metallicity to infer the molecular gas mass of high redshift galaxies may lead to systematic differences with CO-based estimates.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 778(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the differential effects of metal cooling and galactic stellar winds on the cosmological formation of individual galaxies with three sets of cosmological, hydrodynamical zoom simulations of 45 halos in the mass range 10^11<M_halo<10^13M_sun. Models including both galactic winds and metal cooling (i) suppress early star formation at z>1 and predict reasonable star formation histories, (ii) produce galaxies with high cold gas fractions (30-60 per cent) at high redshift, (iii) significantly reduce the galaxy formation efficiencies for halos (M_halo<10^12M_sun) at all redshifts in agreement with observational and abundance matching constraints, (iv) result in high-redshift galaxies with reduced circular velocities matching the observed Tully-Fisher relation at z~2, and (v) significantly increase the sizes of low-mass galaxies (M_stellar<3x10^10M_sun) at high redshift resulting in a weak size evolution - a trend in agreement with observations. However, the low redshift (z<0.5) star formation rates of massive galaxies are higher than observed (up to ten times). No tested model predicts the observed size evolution for low-mass and high-mass galaxies simultaneously. Due to the delayed onset of star formation in the wind models, the metal enrichment of gas and stars is delayed and agrees well with observational constraints. Metal cooling and stellar winds are both found to increase the ratio of in situ formed to accreted stars - the relative importance of dissipative vs. dissipationless assembly. For halo masses below ~10^12M_sun, this is mainly caused by less stellar accretion and compares well to predictions from semi-analytical models but still differs from abundance matching models. For higher masses, the fraction of in situ stars is over-predicted due to the unrealistically high star formation rates at low redshifts.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2013; 436(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,161.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2006–2013
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1996–2013
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2009
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Astronomy
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • The Ohio State University
      • Center for Cosmology and Astoparticle Physics
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997
    • Max Planck Institute of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1989
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1983–1987
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States