ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) caused by mutations in PKD1 is significantly more severe than PKD2. Typically, ADPKD presents in adulthood but is rarely diagnosed in utero with enlarged, echogenic kidneys. Somatic mutations are thought crucial for cyst development, but gene dosage is also important since animal models with hypomorphic alleles develop cysts, but are viable as homozygotes. We screened for mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 in two consanguineous families and found PKD1 missense variants predicted to be pathogenic. In one family, two siblings homozygous for R3277C developed end stage renal disease at ages 75 and 62 years, while six heterozygotes had few cysts. In the other family, the father and two children with moderate to severe disease were homozygous for N3188S. In both families homozygous disease was associated with small cysts of relatively uniform size while marked cyst heterogeneity is typical of ADPKD. In another family, one patient diagnosed in childhood was found to be a compound heterozygote for the PKD1 variants R3105W and R2765C. All three families had evidence of developmental defects of the collecting system. Three additional ADPKD families with in utero onset had a truncating mutation in trans with either R3277C or R2765C. These cases suggest the presence of incompletely penetrant PKD1 alleles. The alleles alone may result in mild cystic disease; two such alleles cause typical to severe disease; and, in combination with an inactivating allele, are associated with early onset disease. Our study indicates that the dosage of functional PKD1 protein may be critical for cyst initiation.
Kidney International 02/2009; 75(8):848-55. · 6.61 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are at risk of developing intracranial aneurysms, and subarachnoid haemorrhage is a major cause of death and disability. Familial clustering of intracranial aneurysms suggests that genetic factors are important in the aetiology. We tested whether the germline mutation predisposes to this vascular phenotype.
DNA samples from patients with ADPKD and vascular complications were screened for mutations throughout the PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Comparisons were made between the PKD1 and PKD2 populations and with a control PKD1 cohort (without the vascular phenotype).
Mutations were characterised in 58 ADPKD families with vascular complications; 51 were PKD1 (88%) and seven PKD2 (12%). The median position of the PKD1 mutation was significantly further 59 in the vascular population than in the 87 control pedigrees (aminoacid position 2163 vs 2773, p=0.0034). Subsets of the vascular population with aneurysmal rupture, early rupture, or families with more than one vascular case had median mutation locations further 59 (aminoacid position 1811, p=0.0018; 1671, p=0.0052; and 1587, p=0.0003).
Patients with PKD2, as well as those with PKD1, are at risk of intracranial aneurysm. The position of the mutation in PKD1 is predictive for development of intracranial aneurysms (59 mutations are more commonly associated with vascular disease) and is therefore of prognostic importance. Since the PKD1 phenotype is associated with mutation position, the disease is not simply due to loss of all disease allele products.
The Lancet 07/2003; 361(9376):2196-201. · 38.28 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Genetic analysis is a useful diagnostic tool in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), especially when imaging results are equivocal. However, molecular diagnostics by direct mutation screening has proved difficult in this disorder due to genetic and allelic heterogeneity and complexity of the major locus, PKD1.
A protocol was developed to specifically amplify the exons of PKD1 and PKD2 from genomic DNA as 150 to 450 bp amplicons. These fragments were analyzed by the technique of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) using a Wave Fragment Analysis System (Transgenomics) to detect base-pair changes throughout both genes. DHPLC-detected changes were characterized by sequencing.
Cost effective and sensitive mutation screening of the entire coding regions of PKD1 and PKD2 by DHPLC was optimized. All base-pair mutations to these genes that we previously characterized were detected as an altered DHPLC profile. To assess this method for routine diagnostic use, samples from a cohort of 45 genetically uncharacterized ADPKD patients were analyzed. Twenty-nine definite mutations were detected, 26 PKD1, 3 PKD2 and a further five possible missense mutations were characterized leading to a maximal detection rate of 76%. A high level of polymorphism of PKD1 also was detected, with 71 different changes defined. The reproducibility of the DHPLC profile enabled the recognition of many common polymorphisms without the necessity for re-sequencing.
DHPLC has been demonstrated to be an efficient and effective means for gene-based molecular diagnosis of ADPKD. Differentiating missense mutations and polymorphisms remains a challenge, but family-based segregation analysis is helpful.
Kidney International 06/2002; 61(5):1588-99. · 6.61 Impact Factor