[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multiligand RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) contributes to atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein (Apo)E-null mice.
To delineate the specific mechanisms by which RAGE accelerated atherosclerosis, we performed Affymetrix gene expression arrays on aortas of nondiabetic and diabetic ApoE-null mice expressing RAGE or devoid of RAGE at nine weeks of age, as this reflected a time point at which frank atherosclerotic lesions were not yet present, but that we would be able to identify the genes likely involved in diabetes- and RAGE-dependent atherogenesis.
We report that there is very little overlap of the genes that are differentially expressed both in the onset of diabetes in ApoE-null mice, and in the effect of RAGE deletion in diabetic ApoE-null mice. Pathway-Express analysis revealed that the transforming growth factor-beta pathway and focal adhesion pathways might be expected to play a significant role in both the mechanism by which diabetes facilitates the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-null mice, and the mechanism by which deletion of RAGE ameliorates this effect. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy in aortic tissue and in primary cultures of murine aortic smooth muscle cells supported these findings.
Taken together, our work suggests that RAGE-dependent acceleration of atherosclerosis in ApoE-null mice is dependent, at least in part, on the action of the ROCK1 (rho-associated protein kinase 1) branch of the transforming growth factor-beta pathway.
Circulation Research 04/2010; 106(6):1040-51. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.109.201103 · 11.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction is a key triggering event in atherosclerosis. Following the entry of lipoproteins into the vessel wall, their rapid modification results in the generation of advanced glycation endproduct epitopes and subsequent infiltration of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells release receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) ligands, specifically S100/calgranulins and high-mobility group box 1, which sustain vascular injury. Here, we demonstrate critical roles for RAGE and its ligands in vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerotic plaque development in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, apoE-/- mice. Experiments in primary aortic endothelial cells isolated from mice and in cultured human aortic endothelial cells revealed the central role of JNK signaling in transducing the impact of RAGE ligands on inflammation. These data highlight unifying mechanisms whereby endothelial RAGE and its ligands mediate vascular and inflammatory stresses that culminate in atherosclerosis in the vulnerable vessel wall.