[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defibrillator lead malfunction is a potential long-term complication in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and causes of lead malfunction necessitating surgical revision and to evaluate 2 approaches to treat lead malfunction.
We included 1317 consecutive patients with an ICD implanted at 3 European centers between 1993 and 2004. The types and causes of lead malfunction were recorded. If the integrity of the high-voltage part of the lead could be ascertained, an additional pace/sense lead was implanted. Otherwise, the patients received a new ICD lead. Of the 1317 patients, 38 experienced lead malfunction requiring surgical revision and 315 died during a median follow-up of 6.4 years. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence was 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.6). Lead malfunction resulted in inappropriate ICD therapies in 76% of the cases. Implantation of a pace/sense lead was feasible in 63%. Both lead revision strategies were similar with regard to lead malfunction recurrence (P=0.8). However, the cumulative incidence of recurrence was high (20% at 5 years; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 37.7).
ICD lead malfunction necessitating surgical revision becomes a clinically relevant problem in 2.5% of ICD recipients within 5 years. In selected cases, simple implantation of an additional pace/sense lead is feasible. Regardless of the chosen approach, the incidence of recurrent ICD lead-related problems after lead revision is 8-fold higher in this population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of left ventricular capture in patients with cardiac resynchronization devices may account for worsening heart failure and can be difficult to diagnose without a programmer.
To determine whether distinct morphologic changes on the surface electrocardiogram indicate loss of left ventricular capture.
After analysis of the R-S spike ratio in the 12-lead electrocardiogram during right ventricular and biventricular pacing in 10 patients, an algorithm to detect loss of left ventricular capture was developed.
54 patients with a cardiac resynchronization device and underlying left bundle-branch block.
Leads V1 and I of a 12-lead electrocardiogram were assessed after biventricular pacing was confirmed and after the device was programmed to right ventricular pacing only (simulating loss of left ventricular capture).
The sensitivity of the algorithm to correctly identify loss of left ventricular capture was 94% (95% CI, 88.2% to 97.7%), and the specificity was 93% (CI, 86.3% to 95.8%). The likelihood ratio of a positive test result was 12.8 (CI, 6.443 to 23.310), and the likelihood ratio of a negative test result was 0.06 (CI, 0.024 to 0.137).
The algorithm was tested in patients in whom the right ventricular electrode was placed in the apex of the right ventricle only.
Presence of biventricular capture--the prerequisite for successful cardiac resynchronization therapy--and loss of left ventricular capture can be accurately detected by an algorithm based on analysis of the R-S ratio on leads V1 and I of the surface electrocardiogram.
Annals of internal medicine 07/2005; 142(12 Pt 1):968-73. DOI:10.1016/j.accreview.2005.09.071 · 16.10 Impact Factor