David F Smith

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (137)686.65 Total impact

  • David F Smith, Aliza P Cohen, Stacey L Ishman
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    ABSTRACT: OSA is a common, often chronic, condition requiring long-term therapy. Given the prevalence of OSA, as well as its significant health-related sequelae, a range of medical and surgical treatments have been developed and used with varying success depending on individual anatomy and patient compliance. Although CPAP is the primary treatment, many patients cannot tolerate this treatment and require alternative therapies. In this clinical scenario, surgery is often warranted and useful. Surgical management is aimed at addressing obstruction in the nasal, retropalatal, and retroglossal/hypopharyngeal regions, and many patients have multiple levels of obstruction. This review presents a comprehensive overview of research findings on a wide spectrum of surgical approaches currently used by sleep clinicians when other therapeutic modalities fail to achieve positive outcomes.
    Chest 06/2015; 147(6):1681-90. DOI:10.1378/chest.14-2078 · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review discusses the challenges facing research in 'functional glycomics' and the novel technologies that are being developed to advance the field. The structural complexity of glycans and glycoconjugates makes studies of both their structures and recognition difficult. However, these intricate structures can be captured from their natural sources, isolated and fluorescently-tagged for detailed structural analysis and for presentation on glycan microarrays for functional recognition by glycan-binding proteins. These advances in glycan preparation and manipulation enable the streamlining of functional glycomics studies and will help to propel the field forward in studying natural, biologically relevant glycans.
    Glycoconjugate Journal 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10719-015-9584-8 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American Society of Anesthesia practice guidelines recommend that pediatric and adult patients who undergo ambulatory surgery be screened for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). With this in mind, our objective was to assess the frequency of screening by anesthesia providers for the signs and symptoms of OSA in children undergoing surgery in an ambulatory setting. Prospective single-blinded observational study of anesthesia providers' preoperative interview of caregivers of consecutive patients younger than age 18 who were scheduled for ambulatory surgery. One hundred one children (30 females) were identified, with a mean age of 6.9±5.0 years; 54 were classified as white, 33 as black, and 14 as other. Total OSA-18 scores ranged from 18 to 97, with a mean of 33.1±14.8. The mean score for adenotonsillectomy patients was higher than that for children who underwent procedures other than adenotonsillectomy. Thirty-one percent of children were screened for OSA, and snoring was the most common symptom recorded (28%). Patients who were screened for OSA were more likely to have snoring (p < 0.001), known OSA (p = 0.006), and a scheduled adenotonsillectomy (p = 0.02). OSA was not routinely screened for by anesthesia providers prior to ambulatory pediatric surgery. When screening did occur, "snoring" was the most commonly recorded symptom. Paradoxically, patients with undiagnosed OSA who would benefit the most from screening were the least likely to be screened. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 03/2015; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian immune system responds to eukaryotic glycan antigens during infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders, but the immunological bases for such responses are unclear. Conjugate vaccines containing bacterial polysaccharides linked to carrier proteins (neoglycoconjugates) have proven successful, but these often contain repeating epitopes and the reducing end of the glycan is less important, unlike typical glycan determinants in eukaryotes, which are shorter in length and may include the reducing end. Here we have compared the effects of two linkage methods, one that opens the ring at the reducing end of the glycan, and one that leaves the reducing end closed, on the glycan specificity of the vaccine response in rabbits and mice. We immunized rabbits and mice with bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates of synthetic open- and closed-ring forms (OR versus CR) of a simple tetrasaccharide lacto-N-neo-tetraose (LNnT, Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc), and tested reactivity to the immunogens and several related glycans in both OR and CR versions on glycan microarrays. We found that in rabbits the immune response to the CR conjugate was directed toward the glycan, whereas the OR conjugate elicited antibodies to the reducing end of the glycan and linker region but not specifically to the glycan itself. Unexpectedly, mice did not generate a glycan-specific response to the CR conjugate. Our findings indicate that the reducing end of the sugar is crucial for generation of a glycan-specific response to some eukaryotic vaccine epitopes, and that there are species-specific differences in the ability to make a glycan-specific response to some glycoconjugates. These findings warrant further investigation with regard to rational design of glycoconjugate vaccines.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 02/2015; 26(3). DOI:10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.5b00036 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 300 kDa cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) plays an essential role in lysosome biogenesis by targeting ∼60 different phosphomannosyl-containing acid hydrolases to the lysosome. This type I membrane glycoprotein has a large extracellular region comprised of 15 homologous domains. Two mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) binding sites have been mapped to domains 3 and 9, whereas domain 5 binds preferentially to the phosphodiester, M6P-GlcNAc. A structure-based sequence alignment predicts that the C-terminal domain 15 contains three out of the four conserved residues identified as essential for carbohydrate recognition by domains 3, 5 and 9 of the CI-MPR, but lacks two cysteine residues which are predicted to form a disulfide bond. To determine whether domain 15 of the CI-MPR has lectin activity and to probe its carbohydrate binding specificity, truncated forms of the CI-MPR were tested for binding to acid hydrolases with defined N-glycans in surface plasmon resonance analyses, and used to interrogate a phosphorylated glycan microarray. The results show that a construct encoding domains 14-15 binds both M6P and M6P-GlcNAc with similar affinity (Kd=13 µM and 17 µM, respectively). Site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrate the essential role of the conserved Tyr residue in domain 15 for phosphomannosyl binding. A structural model of domain 15 was generated that predicted an Arg residue to be in the binding pocket and mutagenesis studies confirmed its important role in carbohydrate binding. Together, these results show that the CI-MPR contains a fourth carbohydrate recognition site capable of binding both phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Glycobiology 01/2015; 25(6). DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwv001 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the paradigm that carbohydrates are T cell-independent antigens, isotype-switched glycan-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and polysaccharide-specific T cells are found in humans. We used a systems-level approach combined with glycan array technology to decipher the repertoire of carbohydrate-specific IgG antibodies in intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin preparations. A strikingly universal architecture of this repertoire with modular organization among different donor populations revealed an association between immunogenicity or tolerance and particular structural features of glycans. Antibodies were identified with specificity not only for microbial antigens but also for a broad spectrum of host glycans that serve as attachment sites for viral and bacterial pathogens and/or exotoxins. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens were differentially detected by IgG antibodies, whereas non-IgG2 reactivity was predominantly absent. Our study highlights the power of systems biology approaches to analyze immune responses and reveals potential glycan antigen determinants that are relevant to vaccine design, diagnostic assays, and antibody-based therapies. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science translational medicine 01/2015; 7(269):269ra1. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3010524 · 14.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycan microarrays have become a powerful platform to investigate the interactions of carbohydrates with a variety of biomolecules. However, the number and diversity of glycans available for use in such arrays represents a key bottleneck in glycan array fabrication. To address this challenge, we describe a novel glycan array platform based on surface patterning of engineered glycophages that display unique carbohydrate epitopes. Specifically, we show that glycophages are compatible with surface immobilization procedures and that phage-displayed oligosaccharides retain the ability to be recognized by different glycan-binding proteins (e.g., antibodies, lectins) after immobilization. A key advantage of glycophage arrays is that large quantities of glycophages can be produced biosynthetically from recombinant bacteria and isolated directly from bacterial supernatants without laborious purification steps. Taken together, the glycophage array technology described here should help to expand the diversity of glycan libraries and provide a complement to the existing toolkit for high-throughput analysis of glycan-protein interactions.
    Biotechnology Journal 01/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.1002/biot.201400354 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • International Surgical Sleep Society, Detroit, MI; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteriophage receptor binding proteins (RBPs) confer host specificity. We previously identified a putative RBP (Gp047) from the campylobacter lytic phage NCTC 12673 and demonstrated that Gp047 has a broader host range than its parent phage. While NCTC 12673 recognizes the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of a limited number of Campylobacter jejuni isolates, Gp047 binds to a majority of C. jejuni and related Campylobacter coli strains. In this study, we demonstrate that Gp047 also binds to acapsular mutants, suggesting that unlike the parent phage, CPS is not the receptor for Gp047. Affinity chromatography and far-western analyses of C. jejuni lysates using Gp047 followed by mass spectrometry indicated that Gp047 binds to the major flagellin protein, FlaA. Since C. jejuni flagellin is extensively glycosylated, we investigated this binding specificity further and demonstrate that Gp047 only recognizes flagellin decorated with acetamidino-modified pseudaminic acid. This binding activity is localized to the C-terminal quarter of the protein and both wild type and coccoid forms of C. jejuni are recognized. In addition, Gp047 treatment agglutinates vegetative cells and reduces their motility. Since Gp047 is highly conserved among all campylobacter phages sequenced to date, it is likely that this protein plays an important role in the phage lifecycle.
    Molecular Microbiology 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/mmi.12849 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is increasingly recognized as a significant factor in peri-operative and inpatient health. Because of this, hospitalized OSA patients are encouraged to utilize CPAP therapy while inpatient. We investigated the cost difference of patient-owned versus hospital-provided CPAP machine use by admitted adult patients with OSA. Study Design: Prospective cohort study at a tertiary academic center Methods: All new-patient admissions >18 years prescribed CPAP while inpatient over a 2-month period were included. Demographic information was collected, and cost analysis was performed. Results: CPAP was used for 162 (1.2%) admissions. Mean patient age was 59±13 years; the majority was white (56.8%) and male (64.2%). Average CPAP utilization was 5.3±5.5 nights. The differential cost-per-day for patients using hospital-provided CPAP was $416.10 more than for patients using home-CPAP machines. This cost included direct costs of an extended respiratory therapy (RT) initial visit, machine rental fee ($27.50), and additional RT evaluation time (mean 85-145/RVUs). The base initial visit was the same for all patients. Over the 2-month study period, the total cost difference in charges was $195,912; this extrapolates to $1,175,471 yearly. Conclusions: This is the first study to characterize the magnitude of cost savings from utilization of home versus hospital-provided CPAP machines in patients requiring inpatient CPAP machine use. The use of patient-owned CPAP machines may reflect an opportunity to provide cheaper care while maintaining high patient safety and quality care. The actual economic impact to an individual hospital would vary based on the insurance payer mix.
    The Laryngoscope 09/2014; 124(9). DOI:10.1002/lary.24604 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GlycoPattern is web-based bioinformatics resource to support the analysis of glycan array data for the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG). This resource includes algorithms and tools to discover structural motifs, a heatmap visualization to compare multiple experiments, hierarchical clustering of Glycan Binding Proteins with respect to their binding motifs, and a structural search feature on the experimental data. Availability: GlycoPattern is freely available on the web at http://glycopattern.emory.edu with all major browsers supported.
    Bioinformatics 08/2014; DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu559 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human milk contains a rich set of soluble, reducing glycans whose functions and bioactivities are not well understood. Because human milk glycans (HMGs) have been implicated as receptors for various pathogens, we explored the functional glycome of human milk using shotgun glycomics. The free glycans from pooled milk samples of donors with mixed Lewis and Secretor phenotypes were labeled with a fluorescent tag and separated by multidimensional HPLC to generate a tagged glycan library containing 247 HMG targets that were printed to generate an HMG shotgun glycan microarray (SGM). To investigate the potential role of HMG as decoy receptors for rotavirus (RV), a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, we interrogated the HMG-SGM with recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the RV outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains, N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]), and a bovine strain, B223(G10P[11]). Glycans that were bound by RV attachment proteins were selected for detailed structural analyses using Metadata-Assisted Glycan Sequencing, which compiles data on each glycan based on its binding by antibodies and lectins before and after exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion of the SGM, coupled with independent MSn analyses. These complementary structural approaches resulted in the identification of 32 glycans based on RV VP8*-binding, many of which are novel HMGs, whose detailed structural assignments by MSn are described in the accompanying manuscript by Ashline et al. Although sialic acid has been thought to be important as a surface receptor for RVs, our studies indicated sialic acid is not required for binding of glycans to individual VP8* domains. Remarkably, each VP8* recognized specific glycan determinants within a unique subset of related glycan structures where specificity differences arise from subtle differences in glycan structures.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 07/2014; 13(11). DOI:10.1074/mcp.M114.039875 · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have shown that recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the human rotavirus outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain (B223) recognize unique glycans within the repertoire of human milk glycans (HMG). The accompanying study by Yu et al, describes a HMG shotgun glycan microarray that led to the identification of 32 specific glycans in the human milk tagged glycan library (TGL) that were recognized by these human rotaviruses. These microarray analyses also provided a variety of metadata about the recognized glycan structures compiled from anti-glycan antibody and lectin binding before and after specific glycosidase digestions, along with compositional information from mass analysis by MALDI MS. To deduce glycan sequence and utilize information predicted by analyses of metadata from each glycan, 28 of the glycan targets were retrieved from the TGL for detailed sequencing using sequential disassembly of glycans by ion-trap mass spectrometry. Our aim is to obtain a deeper structural understanding of these key glycans using an orthogonal approach for structural confirmation in a single ion trap mass spectrometer. This sequential ion disassembly strategy details the complexities of linkage and branching in multiple compositions, several of which contained isomeric mixtures including several novel structures. The application of this approach exploits both library matching with standard materials and de novo approaches. This combination together with the metadata generated from lectin and antibody-binding data before and after glycosidase digestions provide a heretofore-unavailable level of analytical detail to glycan structure analysis. The results of these studies showed that among the 28 glycan targets analyzed 27 unique structures were identified, and 23 of the HMGs recognized by human rotaviruses represent novel structures not previously described as glycans in human milk. The functional glycomics analysis of HMG provides significant insight into the repertoire of glycans comprising the human milk metaglycome.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 07/2014; 13(11). DOI:10.1074/mcp.M114.039925 · 7.25 Impact Factor
  • David F Smith, Richard D Cummings
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    ABSTRACT: While all viruses must transit the plasma membrane of mammalian cells to initiate infection, we know little about the complex processes involved in viral attachment, which commonly involve recognition of glycans by viral proteins. Glycan microarrays derived from both synthetic glycans and natural glycans isolated through shotgun glycomics approaches provide novel platforms for interrogating diverse glycans as potential viral receptors. Recent studies with influenza and rotaviruses using such glycan microarrays provide examples of their utility in exploring the challenging questions raised in efforts to define the complex mechanistic protein-glycan interactions that regulate virus attachment to host cells.
    Current Opinion in Virology 07/2014; 7C:79-87. DOI:10.1016/j.coviro.2014.05.005 · 6.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Reconstruction of oncologic or traumatic head and neck defects often requires complex planning of locoregional, pedicled, or interpolated flaps. In cases with a higher risk of flap failure, vascular delay with staged reconstruction can help improve tissue perfusion and increase chances of flap survival. An objective tool is needed to help guide reconstructive surgeons with the intraoperative decision to pursue vascular delay. OBJECTIVES To describe a pilot study using a novel application of a technique that quantifies and validates the benefit of the vascular delay procedure in locoregional flaps and to demonstrate a practical and broadly applicable technology that can be easily incorporated into intraoperative decision making and improve outcomes for high-risk flaps. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A pilot study using intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green imaging measurements and fluorescence videos to objectively measure the benefit of vascular delay procedures in patients with head and neck defects and wound healing risk factors requiring locoregional flap reconstruction at an academic tertiary care center. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green imaging with video documentation and quantitative measurements was used to evaluate flap perfusion before a vascular delay procedure. Measurements were repeated after a 3-week vascular delay procedure. RESULTS Two patients were identified based on comorbid conditions that resulted in a higher risk of flap failure, as well as the need for a locoregional flap for reconstruction. At the initial elevation of the flap, quantitative results from flap imaging demonstrated low perfusion numbers and minimal fluorescence, suggesting poor tissue perfusion and increased likelihood of postoperative flap compromise or failure. Following a vascular delay of 3 weeks, repeat measurements were substantially improved. No wound healing issues were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This is the first study to date to quantitatively demonstrate the benefit of the vascular delay technique in patients with potential vascular compromise in locoregional head and neck flap reconstruction. Data obtained suggest that this technology can be used to guide intraoperative decision making in complicated reconstructions and help optimize patient outcomes.
    06/2014; 16(5). DOI:10.1001/jamafacial.2014.106
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza viruses bind to host cell surface glycans containing terminal sialic acids, but as studies on influenza binding become more sophisticated, it is becoming evident that although sialic acid may be necessary, it is not sufficient for productive binding. To better define endogenous glycans that serve as viral receptors, we have explored glycan recognition in the pig lung, because influenza is broadly disseminated in swine, and swine have been postulated as an intermediary host for the emergence of pandemic strains. For these studies, we used the technology of "shotgun glycomics" to identify natural receptor glycans. The total released N- and O-glycans from pig lung glycoproteins and glycolipid-derived glycans were fluorescently tagged and separated by multidimensional HPLC, and individual glycans were covalently printed to generate pig lung shotgun glycan microarrays. All viruses tested interacted with one or more sialylated N-glycans but not O-glycans or glycolipid-derived glycans, and each virus demonstrated novel and unexpected differences in endogenous N-glycan recognition. The results illustrate the repertoire of specific, endogenous N-glycans of pig lung glycoproteins for virus recognition and offer a new direction for studying endogenous glycan functions in viral pathogenesis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2014; 111(22):E2241-E2250. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1323162111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective A standardized assay to determine the HPV status of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) specimens has not yet been established, particularly for cytologic samples. The goal of this study was to determine whether the hybrid capture-2 (HC-2) assay, already widely used for the detection of high risk HPV in cervical brushings, is applicable to cytologic specimens obtained from patients with suspected HNSCCs. Materials and methods Fine needle aspirates (FNA) of cervical lymph nodes were pre-operatively obtained from patients with suspected HNSCCs and evaluated for the presence of HPV using the HC-2 assay. HPV analysis was performed on the corresponding resected tissue specimens using p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HR-HPV in situ hybridization (ISH). A cost analysis was performed using the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Results HPV status of the cervical lymph node metastases was correctly classified using the HC-2 assay in 84% (21/25) of cases. Accuracy was improved to 100% when cytologic evaluation confirmed the presence of cancer cells in the test samples. The estimated cost savings to CMS using the HC-2 assay ranged from $113.74 to $364.63 per patient. Conclusions HC-2 is a reliable method for determining the HPV status of HNSCCs. Its application to HNSCCs may reduce costs by helping to localize the primary site during the diagnostic work-up as well as decrease the interval time of determining the HPV status which would be relevant for providing prognostic information to the patient as well as determining eligibility for clinical trials targeting this unique patient population.
    Oral Oncology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2014.02.011 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic approaches continue to provide unprecedented insight into the microbiome, yet host immune interactions with diverse microbiota can be difficult to study. We therefore generated a microbial microarray containing defined antigens isolated from a broad range of microbial flora to examine adaptive and innate immunity. Serological studies with this microarray show that immunoglobulins from multiple mammalian species have unique patterns of reactivity, whereas exposure of animals to distinct microbes induces specific serological recognition. Although adaptive immunity exhibited plasticity toward microbial antigens, immunological tolerance limits reactivity toward self. We discovered that several innate immune galectins show specific recognition of microbes that express self-like antigens, leading to direct killing of a broad range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive microbes. Thus, host protection against microbes seems to represent a balance between adaptive and innate immunity to defend against evolving antigenic determinants while protecting against molecular mimicry.
    Nature Chemical Biology 05/2014; DOI:10.1038/nchembio.1525 · 13.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis caused by infection with parasitic helminthes of Schistosoma spp. is a major global health problem due to inadequate treatment and lack of a vaccine. The immune response to schistosomes includes glycan antigens, which could be valuable diagnostic markers and vaccine targets. However, no precedent exists for how to design vaccines targeting eukaryotic glycoconjugates. The di- and tri-saccharide motifs LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1,4GlcNAc; LDN) and fucosylated LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1,4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc; LDNF), are the basis for several important schistosome glycan antigens. They occur in monomeric form or as repeating units (poly-LDNF) and as part of a variety of different glycoconjugates. Because chemical synthesis and conjugation of such antigens is exceedingly difficult, we sought to develop a recombinant expression system for parasite glycans. We hypothesized that presentation of parasite glycans on the cell surface would induce glycan-specific antibodies. We generated Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Lec8 cell lines expressing poly-LDN (L8-GT) and poly-LDNF (L8-GTFT) abundantly on their membrane glycoproteins. Sera from S. mansoni-infected mice were highly cross-reactive with the cells and with cell-surface N-glycans. Immunizing mice with L8-GT and L8-GTFT cells induced glycan-specific antibodies. The L8-GTFT cells induced a sustained booster response, with antibodies that bound to S. mansoni lysates and recapitulated the exquisite specificity of the anti-parasite response for particular presentations of LDNF antigen. In summary, this recombinant expression system promotes successful generation of antibodies to the glycans of S. mansoni, and it can be adapted to study the role of glycan antigens and anti-glycan immune responses in many other infections and pathologies.
    Glycobiology 04/2014; DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwu027 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease of humans, endemic in tropical areas, for which no vaccine is available. Evidence points to glycan antigens as being important in immune responses to infection. Here we describe our studies on the comparative humoral immune responses to defined schistosome-type glycan epitopes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected humans, rhesus monkeys, and mice. Rhesus anti-glycan responses over the course of infection were screened on a defined glycan microarray comprised of semi-synthetic glycopeptides terminating with schistosome-associated or control mammalian-type glycan epitopes, as well as a defined glycan microarray of mammalian-type glycans representing over 400 glycan structures. Infected rhesus monkeys generated a high IgG antibody response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose epitope of N-glycans, which peaked at 8-11 weeks post infection, coinciding with maximal ability to kill schistosomula in vitro. By contrast, infected humans generated low antibody levels to this epitope. At 18 months following praziquantel therapy to eliminate the parasite, antibody levels were negligible. Mice chronically infected with S. mansoni generated high levels of anti-LDNF IgM antibodies, but lacked a robust response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose N-glycan antigens compared to other species studied, and their sera demonstrated an intermediate level of schistosomula killing in vitro. These differential responses to parasite glycan antigens may be related to the ability of rhesus monkeys to self-cure in contrast to the chronic infection seen in humans and mice. Our results validate defined glycan microarrays as a useful technology to evaluate diagnostic and vaccine antigens for schistosomiasis and perhaps other infections.
    Glycobiology 04/2014; DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwu029 · 3.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
686.65 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2015
    • Emory University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2012–2014
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2014
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Milwaukee, WI, United States
  • 1995–2012
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Oklahoma City, OK, United States
  • 2011
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Chemistry
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2008
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Molecular Biotechnology
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
  • 1991–1997
    • University of Georgia
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Athens, GA, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1983–1989
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
      Blacksburg, Virginia, United States